Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism

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Chapter 3. Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism. 3-2. The ... B vitamins and vitamin K. By-products: gas. Compacts unabsorbed substances into feces ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism


1
Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism
3-2
2
The Gastrointestinal Tract An Overview
3-9
3
Structure of the Wall of the GI Tract
  • Layers of the GI tract

3-10
4
Digestive Secretions
  • Mucus
  • Lubricates and protects cells

3-11
5
Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function
  • Enzymes
  • Protein, speed up chemical reactions
  • Example salivary amylase Nervous System
  • Hormones
  • Chemicals released by one organ to regulate body
    functions elsewhere.

3-14
6
Digestion and Absorption
  • Digestion
  • Process of breaking down food into small
    components to be absorbed
  • Absorption
  • Process of taking substances into the body

3-18
7
Trace a Meal Through Digestion and Absorption
  • Head
  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Absorbed into the body OR
  • Excreted via the large intestine
  • Transit time mouth to anus

3-19
8
  1. Head
  2. Sights, sounds, and smells of food
  3. Mouth
  4. Chewing of food
  5. Saliva Salivary amylase

3-19
9
  • Pharynx
  • Shared by the digestive and respiratory tracts.
  • Epiglottis blocks air passages during swallowing.

3-20
10
  • 4. Esophagus
  • Peristalsis movement propels food

3-21
11
  • 5. Stomach
  • Sphincters
  • Storage, mixing bowl
  • Very little absorption
  • Stomach emptying
  • Size and composition

3-22
12
6. Small Intestine (SI)
  • Main site of digestion and absorption
  • Folds ? Villi ? Microvilli ? blood ? into body

3-25
13
Absorption Mechanisms in the SI
Water, Alcohol Fructose
Glucose
14
7. Large Intestine
  • Colon
  • Intestinal microflora
  • B vitamins and vitamin K
  • By-products gas
  • Compacts unabsorbed substances into feces
  • Rectum
  • Stores feces

3-31
15
Digestive Problems and Solutions
  1. Acid Reflux
  2. Ulcer
  3. Diarrhea
  4. Constipation
  5. Gallstones

16
Acid Reflux, Heart Burn or GERD
17
Tues/Thurs
18
Stomach ulcer
19
Diarrhea
20
Constipation
21
Gallstones
22
  • Liver and gallbladder
  • Liver-produces bile
  • Gallbladder-stores bile
  • Bile helps lipases to digest fat

3-27
23
Allergies
  • Allergies inappropriate response
  • Cells of the immune system
  • Phagocytes and lymphocytes

3-17
24
Alternate Feeding Method
  • Enteral or tube-feeding
  • A liquid diet fed through a tube
  • Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
  • Nutrients directly provided into the blood

3-35
25
Hormones Control Secretions
  • Gastrin (acid)
  • Secretin (base)
  • Cholecystokinin or CCK (lipids)
  • Gastric Inhibitory Protein GIP (lipids)

3-28
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