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Development inevitably entails an increase in urbanization- why? ... Urbanization- process which leads to a higher proportion of the total population ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urbanization%20in%20the%20Developing%20World

Urbanization in the Developing World
  • Concepts, Processes and Comparisons

Nature of Urbanization in Development Process
  • Development inevitably entails an increase in
    urbanization- why?
  • Because by and large impetus for economic growth
    lies in the cities
  • Urban populations are capital accumulating
    whereas rural populations are capital consuming
  • Search for regularities in urban systems has
    revealed several important distinctions

Concepts in Urbanization
  • Urbanization- process which leads to a higher
    proportion of the total population of an area to
    live in cities and towns
  • Urban growth- absolute or simple growth in the
    number of urban dwellers
  • Urbanism-characteristic way of life of urban
  • Exceptional is not so much the increased
    proportion of urban growth, but the absolute
    growth of urban population
  • Rapid growth of cities in the developing world
    has produced several distinctive forms and

World Urban Population
Urbanization Distinctions Between DCs and LDCs
  • Urbanization began earlier in the DCs and by 1900
    a reduction in mortality occurred as well as a
    reduction in birth rates
  • In the LDCs urbanization began later
  • Urban mortality lower than in rural areas then
    declining urban mortality but high birth rates
  • Stronger surge of in-migration compared to DCs
    industrialization lags behind urban growth

Urbanization Curves for DC versus LDC
Density Gradient Distinctions
Patterns of Urbanization
  • Distinction between DC and LDC is 75 percent
    versus 40 percent urban
  • However striking variations exist across the LDCs
    in proportion of urban population
  • Sub-Saharan Africa 30 Latin America Caribbean
    75 Asia (excl China) 30
  • Yet South Africa 50, North Africa 45 and East
    Africa 20
  • Central America 68 and South America 79
  • West Asia 62 and Southeast Asia 37
  • Why these variations in levels of urbanization?

Region 2004 Population (mil) Urban Percent
Northern Africa 188 45
Western Africa 256 35
Eastern Africa 263 20
Middle Africa 104 33
Southern Africa 50 50
Central America 144 68
Caribbean 38 62
South America 358 79
Western Asia 204 62
South Asia 1,563 30
Southeast Asia 544 37
Some Answers to Varying Rates of Urbanization
  • Is population size related to level of
  • Some variation in levels of urbanization simply
    produced by varying levels of industrialization
  • Most important is the stronger tradition of
    urbanization in some areas
  • Especially true of Middle East (the birthplace of
    cities) and Latin America where Spanish
    colonialism produced a deeper urban pattern
  • Other areas the weakness of the rural
    agricultural base and hostile environment means
    urban places are more dominant

Features of Urbanization in Developing World
  • Rapid urbanization has been accompanied by
    explosive growth of very large cities
  • Primate city is used to identify cities that
    dominate the urban pattern of their respective
  • Such cities are much larger than next largest
    city and account for much of the political and
    economic activity as well as services Examples
    Bangkok, Mexico City
  • The growth of such large cities has produced
    mega-cities which exceed 10 million Examples
    Bombay, Calcutta, Jakarta (Jabotabek), Mexico
    City, Sao Paulo

Growth of Million Cities
Largest Cities in The World
Cities Over 5 Million
Growth of Cities Real or False Urbanization
  • The rapid growth of cities has been fueled by
    rapid in-migration in addition to natural
  • Natural increase and internal migration each
    account for 50 percent of urban growth in the
  • Must distinguish however between true
    urbanization where there is a concurrent
    expansion of non-agricultural activities and
    false urbanization where people live in cities
    but do not really have fulfilling jobs
  • The latter produces an urban involution whereby
    city feeds on itself

Urban Involution
  • Rapid urbanization brings chronic un- and
    underemployment, over crowding and inadequate
    housingwhy not revolutionary movement?
  • Contention is that the persistence of intensive
    traditional and often rural originated activities
    provide a sense of employment
  • These labor intensive activities such as food
    vendors and self employed repair occupations
    provide minimum income
  • Thus the service or tertiary sector of city
    swells to accommodate more and more jobless
    people by involution

Economic Structure of the City
  • Involution is capacity of service sector to
    absorb more and more labor in a finely expressed
    division of jobs
  • Two parts Firm centered or formal and bazaar or
    informal economy
  • Firm centered consists of impersonal social
    institutions, specialized occupations for
    productive ends and is capital intensive
  • Bazaar economy consists of independent activities
    of highly competitive traders who relate to one
    another through complex ad hoc means-very

Informal or Bazaar economy
  • Informal-Bazaar economy is the most absorptive
  • Consist of carefully managed credit
    relationships, splitting of risks and sliding
  • Effect is to split trading activities to allow
    more to enter the system
  • Process of involution and absorption is
    characterized by tenacity of basic patterns,
    internal ornateness and unending
    virtuosity-special skills

Formal versus Informal Sector Activities
  • Informal- characterized by small scale, easy
    entry, adapted technology, flexible hours, no set
    wages and family or local organization
  • Formal- large scale, more difficult entry
    requirements, often imported technology, fixed
    hours of operation, daily/weekly or monthly wage,
    distant ownership or management

Urban Structures
  • Core areas of cities, known as Central Business
    Districts, were usually of colonial origin
  • Once heart of city activity now often peripheral
  • Subsidiary cores have cropped up and are
    associated with new residential areas
  • Port areas-often the initial site-have now
    declined in importance
  • Squatter settlements often on the fringe
  • Industrial areas have high access arteries

Typical Southeast Asian City Structure
Latin American City Typical Structure
Contemporary Urbanization Process
  • Desa Kota-- regions of an intense mixture of
    agricultural and nonagricultural activities that
    often stretch along corridors between large city
    cores. Literally in Indonesian desa (village) and
    kota (city). These regions were previously
    characterized by dense population settlement
    engaged in agriculture, generally but not
    exclusively dominated by wet rice.
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