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Rationale: FMD has massive potential to devastate the beef industry and ... performance-limiting and life-threatening malady that affects all types of horses. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comments


1
Comments suggestions after the meeting are
encouraged!
  • Gary Sherman gsherman_at_csrees.usda.gov
  • Peter Johnson pjohnson_at_csrees.usda.gov
  • Cyril Gay cgg_at_ars.usda.gov
  • Rob Heckert rah_at_ars.usda.gov

2
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3
Initiative Foot and Mouth Disease
(preparedness, threat-response, vaccine, field
strategies, containment, disposal, DHS overlap?
Interagency cooperation? anti-virals)
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale FMD has massive potential to
    devastate the beef industry and national economy
    if intentionally or unintentionally introduced
    into the US.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Vaccine Development
  • 2. Preparedness
  • 3. Anti-virals
  • 4. Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions

4
Initiative Bovine Respiratory Disease (BVD,
Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Histophilus, viral
co-infection/emergence)
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale BRD continues to be an economically
    significant disease complex. Better strategies
    are needed for prevention.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Management-Disease interactions/Prevention
    Strategies
  • 2. Rapid Diagnostics to aid in vivo diagnosis and
    treatment
  • 3. Host-pathogen-environment interactions
  • 4. Immunology/Vaccine Development

5

Initiative Enteric Disease (O157, Johne's,
Salmonella, BVD, neonatal, specific
disease-related objectives under priorities)
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale A number of pathogens are
    economically important to the beef industry and
    have public health significance as well.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Vaccines/Anti-infection strategies
  • 2. Surveillance/Rapid Diagnostics to aid in
    treatment
  • 3. Biosecurity and Biocontainment Plans
  • 4. Genomics- genetically based resistance

6
Initiative Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases
(FMD, vectorborne, TB/Brucella, FAD, syndromes,
surveillance, ticks/babesia)
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale New and existing disease control
    and eradication programs are needed to address
    public health, food safety and production
    concerns. There is need to rapidly respond to
    unexpected disease threats.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Modeling/prediction
  • 2. Innovative, rapid detection/diagnostic tests
  • 3. Understanding factors that lead to
    emergence/reemergence, including zoonotic
    transmission
  • 4. Global surveillance

7
Initiative Resistance to Therapeutics /
Antimicrobials (antibiotics, anti-parasitics,
other failures treatment choices / consequences-
disease evolution)
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Resistance to therapeutics is a
    growing concern in regard to production, food
    supply veterinary medicine and public health.
    There are critical knowledge gaps that hinder
    development of effective solutions.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Rapid detection of resistance strains
  • 2. Bioinformatics/databases
  • 3. Management practices to manage/minimize
    resistance
  • 4. Ecology of emergence- ecosystem influences

8
Initiative TSEs
  • Rank 6th
  • ? Rationale TSEs pose risk to the beef industry
    and there are large knowledge gaps with respect
    to this class of pathogens.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Pathogenesis
  • 2. Antemortem diagnosis
  • 3. Disposal
  • 4. Genomic based diagnostics/surveillance/resistan
    ce

9
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10
Initiative Mycobacterial Disease
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Economic losses due to these
    endemic diseases, Johnes and TB are growing.
    Diagnostic methods are currently inadequate to
    detect disease prior to clinical onset.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improve, develop, and validate diagnostic
    tests for early detection of infected and
    pre-clinical animals
  • 2. Vaccine development
  • 3. Management strategies (hygiene, nutrition,
    clean-up of premises)
  • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction,
    immune response or lack of response.
    Understanding genetic basis of resistance to
    Mycobacterial pathogens.

11
Initiative Periparturient and Perinatal
diseases.
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale Periparturient and perinatal
    disease comprise the bulk of diseases affecting
    economics and losses on dairy farms.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. mastitis
  • 2. immune suppression (as affected by cow
    comfort, nutrition, genetic resistance) and
    enhancement
  • 3. metabolic disease, retained placenta,
    reproductive disorders, and lameness
  • 4. Neonatal morbidity and mortality

12

Initiative Biosecurity and disease control of
Emerging and re-emerging diseases
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale There is a need to improve program
    capabilities to control and prevent diseases of
    high impact to economic health of dairy industry
    and public health. Research to improve programs
    to Control Zoonotic Diseases . Research needed
    to respond to acts of bioterrorism.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Vaccines, anti-virals, therapeutics, and
    implementation strategies development
  • 2. Development of new and Improved diagnostic
    methods and implementation
  • 3. Develop core abilities to identify "new"
    emerging diseases or research needed to respond
    to acts of bioterrorism - viral, microbial
    isolation abilities.

13
Initiative Chronic endemic diseases
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale These endemic diseases , BVDV, BLV,
    IBR, BRSV, Adenovirus, Staph mastitis, Pappillary
    Digital Dermatitis, and parasitic infections
    reduce the competitiveness of US dairies on the
    world market
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improve, develop, and validate diagnostic
    tests for early detection of infected and
    pre-clinical animals
  • 2. Vaccine development
  • 3. Management strategies (hygiene, nutrition,
    clean-up of premises)
  • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction,
    immune response or lack of response.
    Understanding genetic basis of resistance to
    these pathogens

14
Initiative Arthropod borne Disease
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Diseases borne by arthropods are
    serious emerging and endemic threats and includes
    Babesiosis, rift valley fever, blue tongue,
    anaplasmosis, Heartwater, Theileria,
    Trypanosomiasis, Vesicular stomatitis
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improve, develop, and validate DX for early
    infected and pre-clinical animals
  • 2. Vaccine and therapeutics development
  • 3. Management and vector control/avoidance
    strategies (hygiene, nutrition, clean-up of
    premises, genetic selection for disease
    resistance)
  • 4. Understanding Host/pathogen interaction,
    immune response or lack of response.
    Understanding genetic basis of resistance to
    these pathogens

15
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16
Initiative PRRS (porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome)
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale most economically important disease
    of swine ever, key contributor to other disease
    complexes. RNA virus with constantly changing
    genetics for which diagnostics are inadequate and
    vaccines are only partially protective at best.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Identify mechanisms for PRRS control and
    prevention. Improve detection methods.
  • 2. Lab-field connections genomics to biology.
    Utilize genomics of host and pathogen to
    understand host-pathogen interactions and
    increase herd resistance
  • 3. Understand protective anti-PRRS Immunity and
    develop novel vaccines and therapeutics.
  • 4. Models of immune development pathogen
    effects comparative complex host-pathogen
    interactions

17
Initiative Preventive health management
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale improve pig and human health,
    prevent disease transmission to humans
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. innate immunity, including comparative models
  • 2. alternatives to growth promotants, antibiotic
    usage
  • 3. nutritional modulation of pig health,
    nutritional modification of final pork product to
    enahnce human health.
  • 4. management practices, housing, reduction of
    stress, animal welfare

18
Initiative emerging/reemerging infectious
diseases PMWS, circoviruses influenza
infectious pathogens of unknown etiology
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale Newly emerging and reemerging
    diseases appear. Identification of the actual
    infectious agent and its pathogenicity is
    required. New diagnostics must be developed.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improve genomic characterization of emerging
    and reemerging disease agents
  • 2. improved diagnostics
  • 3. Develop strong linkage with NIH, CDC, human
    health researchers.
  • 4. Rebuild human resources

19
Initiative complex disease interactions
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale Many pig diseases result from the
    interaction of multiple infectious agents, e.g.,
    porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC),
    diarrheal syndromes. Indeed pathology may only be
    seen as a result of such interactions.
    Alternatively certain microbes can help prevent
    infection associated pathologies.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Understand host-pathogen interactions at them
    molecular and cellular level, use of genomics
  • 2. regional, including mucosal, immunity, immune
    toolkit, protective immune mechanisms,
  • 3. Understand microbial interactions
  • 4. vaccines for difficult pathogens

20
Initiative FADs
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale ARS is the only entity that can
    address FADs and prevent threats to human food
    supply
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improve diagnostic toolkit for FADs and agents
    of bioterrrorism field based rapid technologies
  • 2. Understand the epidemiology of the Feral swine
    domestic swine interface
  • 3. Emergency vaccine and therapeutic development

21
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22
Initiative Avian Infuenza/Exotic Newcastle
Disease
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Foreign animal disease having
    global implications for human health, trade
    together with catastrophic consequences.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Diagnostics - surveillance
  • 2. Effectiveness of vaccines/need for mass
    application vaccine(s) in AI and improved
    Newcastle vaccines)
  • 3. Genetic analysis of viruses (viral
    genomics-molecular epidemiology)
  • 4. Understanding ecology in waterfowl and
    associated resistance in individual species

23
Initiative Marek's disease
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale Historically, one of the more
    costly poultry diseases. Currently, using
    vaccine of last resort and more virulent strains
    are developing.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. New vaccines
  • 2. Understanding of genetic resistance in the
    host
  • 3. Mechanisms of disease and changing viral
    pathogenesis, host immunity
  • 4. Diagnostics

24
Initiative Mycoplasma gallisepticum/Mycoplasma
synoviae
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale Continues to be a problem that
    current vaccines have not dealt with and is a
    co-factor with opportunistic organisms and are
    highly prevalent.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Better vaccine (Mg) and a live Ms vaccine
  • 2. Improved diagnostics
  • 3. Understanding the immunological response of
    the host
  • 4. Role in severity of bronchitis and E. coli

25
Initiative Avian Leukosis Virus
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale Virus mutates from less viurlent to
    more virulent - emergence of new subgroups
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Diagnostics
  • 2. Understanding the development of the
    recombinant viruses - ie, circumstances that
    allow for new viruses.
  • 3. Genetic resistance

26
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27
Initiative Alternative methods of production to
deal with regulatory changes that are limiting
our production tools
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale The current regulatory environment
    is limiting the tools necessary to raise poultry
    (loss of antibiotics and probiotics) and this has
    resulted or may result in increase of diseases
    like necrotic enteritis.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Necrotic enteritis (clostridial diseases)
  • 2. Necrotic dermatitis (clostridial diseases)
  • 3. Understanding microbial ecology of the
    intestines
  • 4. Mucosal immunity

28
Initiative Poultry FADs
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale The U.S. poultry industry has
    eliminated or prevented the introduction of many
    important poultry diseases, but these diseases
    remain a threat to our poultry industry.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Avian influenza and END
  • 2. Emerging diseases or other FADs (vIBD, etc)
  • 3. Biosecurity and biocontainment
  • 4. Therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics

29
Initiative Respiratory diseases
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale Respiratory disease remain an
    important cause of disease and decreased
    performance for the broiler industry.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Infectious bronchitis
  • 2. Infectious laryngotracheitis
  • 3. Colibacillosis
  • 4. Mucosal immunology

30
Initiative Enteric diseases
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale Enteric diseases remain a threat
    to the poultry industry and better control are
    needed, particularly since current tools may not
    be available in the future.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Runting and stunting disease
  • 2. Coccidia
  • 3. Therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines
  • 4. Necrotic enteritis

31
Initiative Immunosuppression
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Several viral diseases and
    environmental factors are known to cause
    immunosuppression that impacts overall animal
    health.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Infectious bursal disease
  • 2. Chicken anemia virus
  • 3. Stress and developing tools for quantitatively
    measuring stress and its affects on immunity
  • 4. Nutrition and its affects on immunity

32
Initiative Tumour viruses
  • Rank 6th
  • ? Rationale Although currently these diseases
    are under control, history suggests that these
    viruses will reemerge as disease issues for the
    broiler industry.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Marek's disease
  • 2. Avian leukosis

33
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34
Initiative Improved diagnostics for detection
of infectious agents of turkeys.
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Need improved diagnostics that
    result in rapid detection with improved
    sensitivity and specificity.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Differentiate infected versus vaccinated for
    Avian influenza
  • 2. Avian pneumovirus-vaccinated versus infected
  • 3. PEMS-astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, etc
  • 4. Salmonella
  • 5. Campylobacter 7.Fowl cholera
  • 6. ORT 8.Colibacillosis

35
Initiative Develop improved vaccines for
protection against infectious agents.
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale In the face of declining antibiotic
    usage, vaccines are a feasible alternative means
    for disease control. Developing new vaccines and
    vaccine strategies will aid in animal health and
    reduce disease transmission.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Avian influenza
  • 2. Avian pneumovirus
  • 3. PEMS
  • 4. Fowl cholera
  • 5. mycoplasma
  • 6. Coccidiosis

36
Initiative Epidemiology and surveillance of
infectious agents associated with turkey diseases.
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale In real-world situations multiple
    species (e.g. turkeys, pigs, humans, water fowl)
    are in close approximation to one another. Use of
    epidemiology and survelliance will assist in
    disease control and increased animal and public
    health.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Risk factors associated with multi-species
    diseases.
  • 2. Mode of transmission
  • 3. Avian influenza
  • 4. Avian pneumovirus

37
Initiative Improved understanding of innate and
adaptive immune response of turkeys.
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale Basic knowledge of the immune
    response of turkeys will help implement
    mitigation strategies for disease control.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Improved knowledge of turkey mucosal
    immunology as it relates to the gut and
    respiratory tracts.
  • 2. Understanding role of probiotic/additives in
    promoting turkey health

38
Initiative Develop genomic database of turkey
species
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Use of genomic markers will lead to
    improved selection of breeding stocks.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Identify genes and gene products associated
    with increased feed efficiency.
  • 2. Identify genes and gene products associated
    with enhanced disease resistance.

39
Initiative Other important issues related to
turkey industry
  • Rank 6th
  • ? Rationale In discussions with turkey industry
    representatives these priorities were identified
    as being important to animal health
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Food safety
  • 2. Development of preharvest intervention
    strategies to meet processing standards
  • 3. Enviroment/regulatory requirements
  • 4. Animal welfare
  • 5. Nutrition/alternative feed sources

40
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41
Initiative Scrapie (sheep and goats)
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Augment eradication trade issues
    cost of disposal and loss of by product value
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Transmission/Pathogenesis
  • 2. Diagnostics
  • 3. Immunogenetics/Host genetic resistance
  • 4. Environmental persistence/decontamination

42
Initiative Internal Parasites (sheep and goats)
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale Multidrug resistance threatens
    sustainability
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Host resistance
  • 2. Biological controls (such as nematophagous
    fungi)
  • 3. Immunogenetics

43
Initiative OPP/CAE
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale A significant economic loss for the
    industries
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Immunogenetics

44
Initiative Ovine/Caprine Johne's disease
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale Production losses lack of tools
    for effective control and prevention
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Diagnostics
  • 2. Vaccine development/immunogenetics

45
Initiative Malignant Catarrhal Fever (sheep and
goats)
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Maximize resource utilization and
    prevent interspecies transmission
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Vaccine/immunogenetics

46
Initiative Bighorn Sheep Pneumonia - Etiology
(Sheep) Caseous Lymphadenitis (goats)
  • Rank 6th
  • ? Rationale CL - production loss and
    condemnation of product BSP - loss of grazing
    opportunities
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Epidemiology (BSP)
  • 2. Vaccine/immunogenetics (CL)

47
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48
Initiative Regulatory Concerns
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Diseases that impact national and
    international movement of horses that is central
    to all aspects of the equine industry.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. piroplasmosis
  • 2. Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
  • 3. VSV

49
Initiative Enabling Technologies
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale Development of tools that will
    enable and enhance all aspects of discovery
    research. Also facilitates access to other
    funding avenues.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Genomics
  • 2. immunologic reagents
  • 3. proteomics
  • 4. transcriptional profiling

50
Initiative epidemiology, disease surveillance
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale Data regarding incidence and
    prevalence of disease are fundamental to
    determining future research priorities and
    disease control strategies.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. track by incidence and economic impact
  • 2. biosecurity, biocontainment

51
Initiative Laminitis
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale A performance-limiting and
    life-threatening malady that affects all types of
    horses.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. population studies - prevalence, prognosis,
    risk factors, incidence
  • 2. pathogenisis
  • 3. treatment
  • 4. prevention

52
Initiative Respiratory Disease
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Respiratory disease limits the
    utilization and well-being of all types of
    horses. These conditions are highly prevalent.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO)
  • 2. S. equi
  • 3. foal pneumonia
  • 4. herpes viruses

53
Initiative Colic
  • Rank 6th
  • ? Rationale Colic is the number one cause of
    mortality in horses based on insurance data and
    is reported as the number one concern of horse
    owners.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. etiology, pathophysiology of colic
  • 2. population studies
  • 3. Treatment
  • 4. Prevention

54
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55
Initiative Basic discovery of the biology,
genomics of susceptibility and resistance, and
mechanisms of diseases where little is known
(TSE/CWD, Avian Flu)
  • Rank 1st
  • ? Rationale Research in this area is essential
    for the following reasons 1) the magnitude of
    impact of these diseases on rural economies and
    US international trade positions, 2) increase our
    base of scientific knowledge, 3) the potential
    zoonotic effects on animal and human health, and
    4) the benefit to society in the control of these
    diseases.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. CWD
  • 2. Genomics of TB
  • 3. Avian Influenza
  • 4. Phenotypic disease susceptibility/resistance

56
Initiative Development of diagnostics tools a)
that are tailored to the wildlife
species/infectious agent of interest, b) for use
in surveillance systems of extensive wildlife
systems, and c) which utilize genomics and new
technologies for identifying animals with a
potential to spread targeted/zoonotic diseases
  • Rank 2nd
  • ? Rationale Recent disease events demonstrate
    the important role of wildlife in the emergence
    diseases with a zoonotic potential as well as a
    significant economic impact on the domestic
    animal industry. Existing diagnostic assays
    which are designed for domestic species are not
    adequate for many wildlife species. The
    availability of new technology and knowledge,
    like genomics and micro-arrays, offers the
    opportunity to develop assays tailored to
    specific wildlife species and infectious agents.
    Key to controlling spread of disease among and
    between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is
    the ability to identify infection in wildlife.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. TB 4. Avian Influenza
  • 2. Brucella 5. Foreign animal disease
  • 3. TSE 6. Unknown/emerging
    infectious agents

57
Initiative Immunology, improved vaccines, and
delivery systems
  • Rank 3rd
  • ? Rationale Wildlife has intrinsic value to the
    public but we need effective intervention
    strategies to protect this intrinsic value.
    There is a lack of basic information on
    immulogical responses, efficacious vaccines, and
    effective delivery systems.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Avian Influenza
  • 2. Evaluational of delivery of available exotic
    disease vaccines to wildlife (foot mouth
    disease)
  • 3. Brucella and TB
  • 4. Development of immunilogical reagents
  • 5. Basic immunoglical studies in species of
    interest

58
Initiative Integration and meta-analysis of
existing knowledge of wildlife and
disease/infection and ecology
  • Rank 4th
  • ? Rationale There is an extensive amount of
    knowledge in the wildlife management community
    about the ecology and behavior of wildlife. The
    veterinary community brings disease intervention
    strategies to the table. Therefore integrating
    these information resources will improve disease
    control strategies by incorporating wildlife
    ecology into the control paradigms.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Identify pathophysiologies of Brucellosis in
    elk and bison while utilizing wildlife's normal
    ecology and behavior to control and eliminate
    brucellosis.
  • 2. Same for T.B.
  • 3. Same for psuedorabies
  • 4. Where applicable use for avian influenza and
    other wildlife/domestic animal disease interfaces

59
Initiative Epidemiological and risk assessment
of the potential new origins of zoonotic
diseases/infections and the likely pathways of
contagion
  • Rank 5th
  • ? Rationale Many new diseases in domesticated
    animals and humans originate from wildlife.
    Assessing the risks of new infections and their
    sources is critical to predicting the scope and
    impact of potential new outbreaks.
  • ? Priorities within Initiative
  • 1. Development of effective and affordable
    surveillance technologies
  • 2.Develop information sharing networks, GIS
    mapping of disease/infection distribution
    including integrated database development
  • 3. Develop response contingencies to the
    intentional introduction of foreign animal
    diseases including cost-benefit analyses
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