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Title: Attention, citizen You are about to take an interactive journey to Rome in the first century' The Ro


1
Attention, citizen! You are about to take an
interactive journey to Rome in the first century.
The Roman civilization is the largest the world
has seen. It is known for its architectural and
engineering feats. Join me as we visit some of
these sites . Drag your mouse across the view of
each site to learn more about that place.
2
The Senate is the governing body of Rome. It is
composed of citizens who have distinguished
themselves. The duty of the Senate is to ensure
Rome thrives. Let me introduce you to some of the
government officials that keep the republic
thriving.
3
The Roman republic was led by two CONSULS. The
main role of consuls was to prepare and propose
new laws. 42 was the minimum age to hold this
title. They were the leaders of the government
and military commanders during their 1 year
terms. Consuls functioned as military commanders,
provincial governors and curators of public
works.
4
This is a consuls eye view of the Curia. It is
the building of the Roman Senate, where the
emperors and the senators meet to discuss
important affairs. It is the administrative
center of the empire. For most of the republic,
the Senate consisted of three hundred men, but
swelled to over a thousand in the time of Julius
Caesar. 
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The appointment to the office of PRAETOR is only
open to Senators. The Praetor is responsible to
the Senate and People to ensure that ALL Rome's
laws are obeyed. He acts as judge in disputes
involving Romans.
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The TRIBUNE is the only Plebeian allowed to sit
in on all Senate meetings as the People's
representative. Tribunes represented the
interests of the common people. The tribune is
empowered with the VETO, allowing him/her to
reject literally any Senate legislation or
function.
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The AEDILE was a government official responsible
for maintenance of public buildings and
regulation of public festivals. He sponsored and
presided over two events in Rome's name, i.e.,
battle, games, races, feast, quest, or a sacred
hunt. The office was generally held by young men
intending to continue to high political office.
11
The Roman Forum is located in a valley that is
between the Palatine hill and the Capitoline
hill. It originally was a marsh, but the Romans
drained the area and turned it into a center of
political and social activity.  The Forum is the
marketplace of Rome and also the business
district and civic center. It was expanded to
include temples, a senate house and law courts.
Come with me as we explore some of the
buildings in this impressive public land.
12
The Rostra, or orators platform, was a raised
area for public speeches. It was decorated on the
sides with rostra (rams), which were the iron
prows taken as trophies from captured enemy
ships. The five columns were erected after
Diocletian visited Rome. Many statues, honorary
columns and other dedications are clustered
around the platform.
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The Arch of Septimius Severus is one of the best
preserved monuments on the Forum Romanum. It was
built in 203 A.D. to commemorate the victories of
emperor Septimius Severus in Parthia. The arch is
23m high and 25m wide. It has three archways the
central one is 12m high and the others 7m 80cm.
The relief panels at the top depict various
stages of the war.
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There is only one place in the Roman Forum where
there are fresh flowers every day. The Temple of
Caesar was begun by Augustus in 42 BC. Augustus
did not dedicated the Ionic temple to Caesar (his
adoptive father) until after all the conspirators
in his death had been dealt with. After his
assassination, a funeral pyre was built and his
body cremated. Initially a commemorative column
was erected on the spot with a dedication to the
"father of the fatherland", but soon after
Augustus started the construction of a temple for
his adoptive father who the senate had declared a
god.
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The Temple of Saturn is the oldest sacred place
in Rome. The temples chief purpose is to store
the Roman national treasury of gold and silver.
It also houses decrees of the Senate and the
bronze tablets on which Roman law is inscribed.
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The Basilica Aemilia was built in 179 BC. The
building consisted of two floors. Next to the
forum there was a shopping-arcade. The ground was
made of marble with lots of colors. The roof was
covered by bronze tiles. Partly due to the
basilica, the Roman Forum became a meeting place
surrounded by wondrous buildings.
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The Basilica Julia was built in 54-48 BCE by
Julius Caesar as a part of his reorganization of
the Forum. The function of the Basilica Julia is
to house tribunal courts and other activities
from the Forum when weather didn't permit outdoor
meetings. The central area is divided in four by
wooden removable structures to allow the hearing
of more cases at a time. The spectators who
frequented the Basilica Julia whiled away the
time between trials by playing games on boards
inscribed in the steps and aisles. The basilica
also housed some administrative offices of the
city.
23
The universal acceptance of bathing as a central
event in daily life belongs to the Roman world.
The Roman Baths embodied the ideal Roman way of
urban life. They provided facilities for sports
and recreation. Their public nature created an
environmentmuch like a city club or community
centerfor social interaction varying from
neighborhood gossip to business discussions.
There was even a cultural and intellectual side
to the baths as libraries, lecture halls, and
colonnades were included. Lets go inside to
pamper ourselves in this midday activity!
ENTER
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This is the dressing room or Apodyterium, your
entry into the baths. You will leave your
clothing and other belongings on shelves while
you bathed. Leaving belongings behind unprotected
was a risk, of course, for one of the most common
visitors to the Roman baths apparently was
thieves. Privately owned slaves, or one hired at
the baths, would watch your belongings while you
enjoyed the pleasures of the baths. Slaves might
also wash you or give you a massage.
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Visitors first exercised in open courtyards of
the palaestra. It was done to maintain health and
to work up a light sweat which was recommended
before a bath. Men would swim, run, wrestle, box,
lift weights or fencing and play ball games such
as handball. Women would also swim and play
trochus, a game that consisted of rolling a metal
hoop with a hooked stick.
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The tepidarium was the place where cleansing
often took place. Instead of using soap, Roman
bathers would cover their bodies with oil to
loosen dirt and then
wipe off the
mixture with
various strigil devices. Another activity that
took place here was depilation, which consisted
of having your body hairs plucked out, as
hairless bodies were fashionable during much of
the Roman Empire.
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The caldarium, or hot room, can get to
temperatures of 100 degrees Fahrenheit and is
very humid thanks to a tank over the furnace as
well as the hot plunge bath. The hot water and
steamy air were designed to open your pores. The
walls and floor are hot too, which is why you
need the wooden sandals or clogs on your feet.
There is a fountain of cold water to refresh
yourself with. In this room you really work up a
sweat and then get scraped clean with a strigil
before washing off in the hot bath.
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The frigidarium is the cold bath. The cold baths
are an important part of the Roman bath, and the
were enjoyed after the steam and the hot baths.
Plunging into the frigidarium's cold waters.
closes all the skin pores that have been opened.
The dip is meant to refresh and is often the
final bath of a visitor.
34
The Circus Maximus is a track used primarily for
horse-racing, although it is used on occasion for
hunts or mock battles. It was built in a long
valley stretching between two hills, the Aventine
and the Palatine. It has 300,000 seats and is
famous throughout the ancient world. Circus
Maximus is the biggest sports stadium ever built.
If you follow me, I'll take you into the arena,
where you can get a good view of the Circus
Maximus.
ENTER
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This is the main grandstand, for the patrician
class. Rows of stone benches three and four tiers
high extend around the track. The corridors
beneath the stands are crowded with shops and
filled with milling people--restless spectators,
vendors hawking food or cushions for the hard
benches and gamblers taking bets. The stands are
divided according to social class.
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These are the towers and chariot gates of the
Tiber end of the Circus. The huge archways are
called carceres and used for processions. Between
these stretch a line of 12 arched openings
containing wide stalls. Each stall was square and
large enough to contain the chariot and the team
of horses. Sometimes there were as many as ten
horses per team. In the early days there were
four chariots. As time went on, this number
increased to eight.
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In the middle of the arena is a

long concrete row called the spina

(or backbone). This ran for about

two thirds the
length of the arena. This spina is beautifully
decorated with works of art such as water
channels, statues of deities, marble altars and
shrines, and lap counters. At the ends of the
spina are the metae, (or goalposts), which marked
the end of the course. One trip around the spina
comprised a lap. The race, or missus, is composed
of seven laps. Drivers try to round these turns
as tightly as possible without hitting them. One
has seven
dolphins on top
of it the other has seven
marble eggs. Each time
a lap is finished, one
dolphin and one egg
are taken down so
the viewers would know
how many laps were
still to be run.
41
The Colosseum is the most famous monument of
Ancient Rome. Its original name is Flavian
Amphitheater. It was started by the Emperor
Vespasian between 70 and 76 AD, and completed by
his son Titus in 80 AD. The Colosseum was
dedicated the year after Vespasian's death by
Titus. They celebrated the opening by holding 100
days worth of games there. Romans enjoyed the
amphitheater to watch bloody sports. Going to the
Colosseum was probably the most popular.
Gladiatorial combats, fights with beasts and
other fights were held in the Colosseum. The
Colosseum was big enough to hold the whole
population of a town--as many as 50,000 people
would sometimes spend the whole day there
watching sports. Join me as we enter this
venue and discover the elements that made it
special.
http//dsc.discovery.com/games/colosseum/tour.html

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Works Cited
Content The Roman Senate www.romanempire.net/
romepage/PolCht/senate.htm www.unrv.com/empire/the
-senate.php The Forum http//sights.seindal.
dk/sight/4_Forum_Romanum.html www.vroma.org/forum
/forum.html http//dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Foru
m Roman Baths www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempi
res/roman/ www.dl.ket.org/latin2/mores/baths/
history/page01.htm www.vroma.org/bmcmanus/baths.h
tml Circus Maximus www.vroma.org/bmcmanus/circu
s.html http//australis.www2.50megs.com Colosseum
www.the-colosseum.net/idx-en.htm
www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/colosseum_01.
shtml http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/ro
mans/launch_ani_colosseum.shtml
http//dsc.discovery.com/games/colosseum/tour.html
Visuals The Roman Senate
http//www.blessingscornucopia.com/Rome_Roma_Roman
_Ancient_Civilization_Synopsis_of_Important_Timeli
ne_Dates.htm The Forum www.lfelem.lfc.edu/.../ro
manforum/romanforum.htm Roman Baths
www.gridclub.com Circus Maximus http//www.tasso
ni.it/ancient-rome/romearchitecture.htm http//au
stralis.www2.50megs.com/Maximus/Max.html Colosseu
m http//dsc.discovery.com/games/colosseum/tour.h
tml http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/i
mages/launch_colosseum.jpg
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