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Grant Writing for Instructional Technology and Distance Education R


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Title: Grant Writing for Instructional Technology and Distance Education R

Grant Writing for Instructional
Technology and Distance Education R E II
  • Written by Dr. Mike Simonson
  • NOVA Southeastern university

  • Definition of Terms
  • Type of grants
  • Elements, Basic, Benefits of the Well-Written
  • Developing and Designing the Component Parts of
    the Grant Proposal from Ideas to Fundable Project
  • Building Support and Involvement
  • Putting It all Together Formatting and Packaging

1. Terms
Sponsored Project Grant award made by an external
funding source to conduct research, training, or
community service project/ program which
specifies conditions and carries terms on use
of funds, objectives to be achieved by use of
funds, individuals responsible for completion of
the project, period of performance, reporting
requirements ( both financial and technical), and
adherence to federal and/or agency-specific
regulations/guidelines. Gift A donation which
is philanthropic and charitable in intent and
accompanied by few or no restrictions. A period
of performance is not specified, formal
financial accounting is not required, and
unexpended funds need not be returned.
Request for Proposal(RFP) When a funding agency
has funds available for a new contract or grant
program, it sends out an RFP, which lists
project specifications and application
procedures. Request for application (RFA)
Used mostly by the federal government when
requesting outside assistance for projects
under taken internally at the agency. These
usually result in a Cooperative Agreement
although a Grant or Contract may be
awarded. Proposal A written application with
supporting documentation submitted to a funding
source to request financial assistance for a
particular research, training, or community
service program or project. Grant An award
made by the funder to provide funds for a
particular purpose, usually for the benefit of
the public.
Invitation for Bid (IFB) Used by a funding
source usually government agencies-when
requesting goods, services, for certain research
from specific organizations-typically results in
a contract award. Contract A term used to
describe a binding compensation agreement where
a product, instrument, device, or technical
report (i.e., a deliverable) is the result, or
a service is provided ( i.e., training).
Contract requirements are more specific and less
flexible than grants (inclusion of
indemnification and termination clauses) agency
personnel tend to maintain strict oversight.
Major components of contract are terms and
conditions, statement of work, and
budget. Statement of Work (SOW) the technical
part of the contract agreement which details the
specific plan, methodology, activities, and
timeline used to meet work specifications and
achieve results.
Cost Reimbursement Contract Payment made based
upon performance of work and actual
expenditures incurred while implementing and
carryout the project/research to completion.
Invoicing of sponsor to be completed per
schedule specified. Fixed Price Contract
Payment(s) made in fixed amount(s), typically
lump sum up front, monthly, or quarterly.
Unexpended funds are kept by the awardees unless
return of unexpended funds is specified in the
terms and conditions of the contract. Cooperative
Agreement A financial assistance mechanism used
when substantial federal programmatic involvement
with the recipient during performance of the
project is anticipated. Ex recipient must meet
specific procedural requirements prior to the
beginning of subsequent stages of the project,
program officer participates in selection of key
personnel, etc.
Solicited Grant/Contract A funding agencys
request for outside assistance to conduct
research, training, or community service through
issuance of an RFP, IFB, Notice of Funding
Availability (NOFA), or other program
solicitation and where reviews are conducted and
awards made through a competitive selection
process. Unsolicited Grant/Contract Submission
of a proposal based on knowledge of funding
agencys priorities,m interests, or granting
guidelines, etc. and where a funding agency has
not formally requested outside assistance
through the issuance of an RFP, RFA, IFB, NOFA,
or other program solicitation. Principal
Investigator (PI)/Project Director (PD) An
individual responsible for directing the
project/program being supported by the funding
agency through a grant or contract.
Grant/Contract Administrator A staff member at
the funding source who is authorized to act as
the official in all matters pertaining to award
administration. This individual has the authority
to bind the funding agency to all
performance/programmatic matters concerning the
research/project. Program Officer A staff member
representing the funding agency who reviews
proposals and makes funding recommendations. Assis
ts award recipient with programmatic management
of grant (scope of research/project plan, goals,
objectives, etc.). Direct Costs Costs that can
be attributed directly to a specific project or
program. Indirect Costs Costs that are
incurred by the organization to achieve common or
joint objectives and which therefore cannot be
identified specifically with a particular project
or program . Commonly referred to as overhead.
Cost Sharing The sharing of costs on a grant,
by an organization, which is more than a token
amount (i.e., more than 1) and not paid by the
awarding agency. Matching The value of cash
contributions made to a project by non-federal
third parties. Third Party In-Kind
Contributions The value of non-cash
contributions made by non-federal third parties.
May include volunteer services, supplies,
equipment, buildings, land, and property
  • 2. Types of Grants
  • Solicited
  • Unsolicited
  • Discretionary
  • Formula
  • Earmarks

  • One that originates from the funder a
  • funding agencys formal documented
  • request for outside assistance to conduct
  • research, training, or community service
  • Agencys do through
  • --Request for proposals (RFP), RFAs NOFAs PAs,
  • and IFBs
  • Federal and state agencies typically use these
  • competitive mechanisms due to the increased
  • demand for sponsored project funds. Funders must
  • now be more specific about what they want
  • accomplished for the number of dollars
  • available/allocated.

  • Unsolicited
  • Proposer conceptualizes program idea/research
  • based on an identified need or lack of
  • A proposal is developed based on plan to
  • research, training, or provide community
  • An Appropriate funding source is then
  • based on that organizations identified
  • published priorities, and /or granting

Discretionary Pot of funding available through
government agencies for grant awards based on
appropriations made. --Funds awarded by the
federal or state government on a competitive
basis-typically for demonstration, special
research activities, and service projects. Awards
made by judgment, not mandate.
  • Formula
  • Grants awarded to states on a non competitive
  • basis according to a formula determined by
  • authorizing law.
  • --Formula usually based on relative population
  • and demographic factors relevant to the
  • purpose of the grant program.
  • Formula grant program often require
  • or state agencies to re-grant, subgrant,
  • pass through funds to other entities,
  • organizations, and providers within the

  • Earmarks
  • At the state level, funding set-asides for
  • specific organizations written into the
  • congressional record based on legislative
  • priorities and awardees ability to utilize
  • funding for a specific purpose.

3. Elements, Basics, and Benefits of a
Well-Written Proposal
Elements of the Proposal
  • Transmittal Letter from
  • submitting Organization
  • Cover Sheet
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract
  • Introduction, Description and Capabilities of
  • Problem Statement/Needs
  • Assessment
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Plan of Operation-(Methodology)
  • Key Personnel (biographical
  • sketches)
  • Expected Outcomes
  • Formative and Summative
  • Evaluation Plan
  • Dissemination Plan
  • Budget and Justification
  • Institutional/Organizational
  • Commitment
  • Resources and Facilities
  • Plans for Project
  • Continuation/Self Sufficiency
  • Appendices

The essence of each and every grant request is
the same, whether it is a two-page letter
proposal to a small foundation or a 125 page
response to an RFP issued by the federal
  • All Proposals must include
  • A statement that a need exists
  • a presentation of evidence to back up the
  • a recommended course of action, means and manner
    of addressing that need and
  • a request for funds to implement the recommended

  • Grant development is hard work, but very
  • Benefits include
  • Personal Accomplishment to the writer
  • Fiscal reward to awardee
  • Implementation of programs and projects of
    importance with
  • external funding support
  • Successful grant writers use the basic rules of
    good writing and grammar while mastering the art
    of persuasion. Through clear and concise
    communication, the intended message is well
    received by the reviewer and funding is awarded.

4. Developing and Preparing Winning Grant
  • Identifying Funding
  • Opportunities
  • Reading and Interpreting
  • RFPs and Agency
  • Guidelines
  • Developing Your Idea
  • Developing the Problem
  • Statement, Objectives, and
  • Methods
  • Preparing the Budget
  • Writing the Evaluation Plan

4a. Identifying Funding Opportunities
Where to look when identifying funding
  • Libraries
  • Internet and World Wide Web Sites
  • Local College/University Offices of
  • Grants and Contracts or Sponsored Research
  • Funding Agencies
  • Newspapers, Newsletters, and
  • Professional Association Publications

Resources to assist you in identifying funding
  • Federal Grants directories, guides, and
  • Examples Federal Register (FR) Catalog of
  • Domestic Assistance (CFDA) National Institute
  • Health Guide to Grants and Contracts (NIH
  • Guide to Federal Funding for Education
  • State Grants Directories, guides and catalogues
  • Examples A Guide to Florida State Programs
  • The Complete Guide to Florida Foundations
  • Periodicals
  • Examples The Chronicle of Higher Education
  • Children and Youth Funding Report Community
  • Health Funding Report Federal Grants and
  • weekly Health Grants and Contracts Weekly

Specialized Directories
Examples Directory of Building and Equipment
Grants Directory of Operating Grants Directory
of Grants for Organizations Serving Individuals
with Disabilities Directory of Biomedical and
Health Care Grants Directory of Research
Grants Directory of Financial Aids for Women
Directory of Financial Aids for Minorities.
  • Books and Other Publications
  • Examples The How to Grants Manual
  • Grantseeking Techniques for Obtaining
    Public and
  • Private Grants From Idea to Funded Project
  • Proposal that Work The Grantseekers Guide
    to Project
  • Evaluation A Complete Guide to Proposal
    Writing The Complete Book of Model
    Fund-Raising Letters Administering Grants,
    Contracts, and Funds Evaluating and Improving
    Your Grants System

4b. RFPs and Agency Guidelines
Common to all RFPs/Guidelines
  • Program purpose/priorities
  • Definitions of terms used throughout RFP
  • Eligibility of funds available
  • Estimated size of each award
  • Estimated number of awards to be made
  • Deadline for submission of proposal-postmarked or
  • Number of copies required
  • Funding preferences (HBCU)
  • Cost share, matching requirements
  • Allowable and unallowable costs
  • Indirect cost limitations, if any
  • Certifications/assurances required
  • Review/evaluation criteria and process

Reading and Interpreting RFPs and Agency
  • First things first! Focus on eligibility
  • Be sure that your organization/agency is
    eligible to
  • apply directly and receive an award from the
  • funding source for the project.
  • Check for limitations by geographic area
    organization type
  • (501( c ) (3), state, country) designation
    (EZ, EC community),
  • service area, size, etc.
  • Read instructions thoroughly.
  • Note all requirements and specifications for
    submitting a proposal,
  • down to page and font size, line spacing.
    Some agencies have
  • fatal flaw checklist verify that proposal
    meets basic requirements
  • prior to sending on for full review.

Next, be sure to obtain application materials
for the competition to which you are applying.
Federal agencies have numerous programs in
each division/directorate under which grants are
available and numerous awarding mechanisms
with modified application packets for each.
  • Examples PHS 398, pHS 2590, PHS 4013-1, NSF
  • etc.

Read instructions thoroughly.
  • note all requirements and specifications for
    submitting a proposal, down to page and font
    size, line spacing. Some agencies have fatal
    flaw checklist verify that proposal meets basic
    requirements prior to sending on for full review.

  • Look for announcements of technical
  • assistance workshops.
  • Someone directly involved with program/project
  • and proposal preparation should attend.
  • This may be applicants only chance to ask
    questions regarding
  • guidelines or process. Gain insight to
    funders priorities,
  • instructions not clear in application packet,
    range of awards etc.
  • Provides opportunity to network, assess
    competition, and
  • develop collaborative relationships.

4c. Developing your Idea
  • Consider surrounding community, local
    conditions, unmet
  • needs, and issues unresolved.
  • Identify individuals to reach /those targeted for
  • and find out if they are currently utilizing
  • in a program similar to the one you want to
  • Research your idea! If similar program is already
    in place, find out
  • whether or not being served by that program
    and propose to fill
  • the niche or close a gap in service provision
    so that all client needs
  • may be met.

Prove existence of the need by gathering
strong base of knowledge
  • Review the literature and relevant publications,
    collect data to support the program being
    proposed. Use up-to-date resources with hit home
    statements and statistics.
  • Example If you are proposing a program to assist
    individual infected with HIV/AIDS in Broward
    County, call the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Unit
    through the local Department of Children and
    Families (formerly HRS) and obtain current
    statistics/ breakdowns on number of individuals
    infected by gender, race, age, etc.

  • Talk to people you are planning to serve.
  • Find out what the needs are exactly, how
  • the proposed program plan to meet them, and
  • include quotes and/or a letter from a
  • program participant in your proposal.

  • Consider relevant research already published by
    experts in the field.
  • Analyze effects of conducting study on research
    team, organization, study participants, etc. Do
    the ends justify the means?
  • Develop clear scientific protocol/research
  • plan

  • In order to be competitive, you must prove the
    organizations credibility, come up with
    innovative solutions, and ensure funding source t
    hat the dollars requested will be used to provide
    direct service and support related to the
    goals/priorities of the funder. Goal is to meet
    the needs of the individuals you have identified
    as those in need of services or that research
    conducted will prove valuable, whether results of
    study are positive or negative

  • Typically, the organization must commit some
  • of its own resources. Commitment takes many
  • forms and can include
  • proposal development costs (brainstorming
  • sessions, grant-writing time and effort).
  • Cost share, matching, in-kind that may be
  • required by funder

  • The organizations ability and commitment to
    continue the program after external funding
    support ends (i.e.., the funder will continue to
    be met after external funds run out and whether
    the program will institutionalized
  • follow-up research will be conducted.

  • If funded, your organization will be obligated
  • to provide services to those you identified as
  • beneficiaries with the amount of funding awarded
  • and meet deliverable requirement (publications,
  • reports, research results, products, etc.)
  • individuals served and other community
  • organizations will evaluate what your are
  • to see that expectations are being met.

4d. Problem Statement, Objectives, and Methods
Documenting the Problem Statement/Needs
Assessment A key Element of the Successful
  • Present in a clear, concise, well-supported
    statement the specific problem/issue to be
    addressed by the project or program.
  • Describe problem or need in terms of
    beneficiaries, not your organization.
  • Show a match between the sponsors interests and
    priorities with the applicants experience and
    skills base.
  • Utilize quantitative and qualitative data
    whenever possible, cite limitations of existing
    programs and document evidence of demand.

Areas to Document
  • History, nature, and scope of the problem from
    macro to micro from national, state and local
  • the organization's purpose for developing the
  • How organization realized the problem exists
  • The beneficiaries or target population-who they
    are and how they will benefit

  • The social and economic costs affected
  • What is currently being done about the
    problem/to address the need and by whom
  • Negative effects realized without external
    funding support to address the problem or meet
    the need and positive outcomes achieved with

How to Conduct Formal/Informal Needs Assessment
  • Literature review of current publications,
    articles, statistical abstracts related to
    subject matter
  • Survey of or interviews with potential clients,
    beneficiaries, and local providers dealing with
    similar issues or areas of research
  • Documentation of service requests/waiting lists

Articulating Goals and Objectives
Objectives establish benefits of the project in
measurable terms. They should be
  • Specific and directly related to goal(s)
  • Attainable
  • Time-Limited
  • Use action words, quantifiable outcomes and
    verifiable figures. Examples to increase the
    number of participants enrolled from 15 to 20
    by the end of year one, or to improve the online
    internet skills of 10 of classroom teachers.

Selecting and Developing the Methodology
Methods and Procedures describe activities
planned to achieve results-the projects
implementation strategy.
  • Flows from objectives clarify and justify
    provide rationale for choices.
  • Specify activities to occur during each phase or
    year of the project or program.
  • Develop a flow-chart or propose a timeline.
  • Design table of organization for project and
    define it within the larger organization.

  • Identify personnel assigned to the project
  • and describe their respective roles and time
  • and effort to be contributed. Describe
  • responsibilities and qualifications of each.
  • Attach vitae(s)/resume(s) as appendix item.
  • Describe project participants and/or clients
  • (target population) to benefit from the
  • proposed program (numbers of, eligibility
  • criteria, characteristics, etc).

4e. Preparing the Budget
Common Budget Categories
  • Salaries and Wages
  • Fringe Benefits
  • Consultant costs
  • Equipment
  • Supplies and materials
  • Food
  • Other Expenses
  • Travel
  • Participant Costs
  • Patient Care Costs
  • Subcontracts
  • Indirect Costs

Salaries and Wages
  • Define percent of effort/amount of time to be
    committed to project. Release time from other
    duties and responsibilities must be given in
    order to be assigned to a grant or contract
  • Staff time not to exceed 100 full time
    equivalency (FTE). Overtime is an unallowable
    expense for key personnel on a federal grant or

Fringe Benefits
  • Fringe Benefit rate is applied to all salaries
    requested for personnel in the proposed budget
    (in direct proportion to the percentage of effort
    assigned to the proposed project)
  • Example PI/PD earns 70,000 annual salary and
    works on the grant 505 FTE. Fringe benefit rate
    for the organization is 24. Fringe benefits
    charged to the grant budget for the PIs tune
    equals 8,400.

  • Fringe benefit rate typically includes
  • Social Security (FICA)
  • Retirement
  • Unemployment
  • Workers Compensation
  • Health/Life/Disability Insurance
  • Social Security rate (7.65) only applied to
  • and student employees

  • Local Automobile mileage reimbursement is at
    cents per mile, covers gas and wear and tear.
    State of Florida contracts and grants limit
    mileage reimbursement to .29, NSUs rate is
  • Domestic Hotel per diem is 100 per night,
    reimbursement at 40/day for meals and
    incidentals at NSU each agency should come up
    with reasonable rates depending on location

Supplies and Materials
  • Office supplies pens, paper, pencil notepads
  • Training/curricula/workbook materials
  • Books and research resources
  • Software

  • Acquisition cost of 5,000 or more per unit
  • useful life of more than one year
  • Computing hardware, machines, furniture
  • Grantee usually retains title after project is
    over, unless agency disallows
  • Rental only allowed under conference grants

Supplies and Materials
  • Office supplies pens, paper, pencil notepads
  • Training/curricula/workbook materials
  • Books and research resources
  • Software

Food Expense
  • Meals (breakfast,lunch, dinner, snacks, or
    beverages) for project participants, trainees,
    conference or meeting attendees
  • Unallowable on most federal grants unless award
    is for a conference or training grant
  • Entertainment expenditures always unallowable
    (alcohol, tickets to shows, etc.)

Other Expenses
  • Telephone charges (local and long-distance)
  • Reproduction/photocopying expenses
  • Postage costs
  • Publication costs
  • Rent expense--if off-site facility is to serve as
    project site

  • International Buy America Act--U.S. air
  • must be used if at all possible.
  • Exception
  • Fly America Act-Code Sharing ruling allows
  • use of foreign carriers if a code sharing
  • agreement with a U.S. carriers flight coding

Participant Costs/Patient Care Costs
  • If inpatient and outpatient costs are requested,
    separated and provide detail for both
  • Include
  • Number of participants/patients
  • Estimated cost per day/per participant/patient
  • Expected number of visits/tests/trials
  • Estimated cost per visit/test/treatment

  • Identify organization/individual to perform work
  • Develop a Statement of Work (SOW) who, what,
    where, when, how
  • Determine amount of subcontract for services
    provided, including direct and indirect costs
  • State deliverables in tangible terms

Indirect Costs
  • Costs that cannot readily be identified with a
    specific project/program (commonly called
    overhead or administrative costs). Indirect costs
    cover the use of buildings, offices, libraries,
    and laboratories along with the maintenance and
    management of these facilities and functions
    performed by the organization such as processing
    payroll performance of accounting and finance
    tasks, etc.

Negotiated rates with Dept. of Health and
Human Services
  • Rates based on short form or long form overhead
    rate a percentage of either salary and wages
    only,total direct costs, or modified total direct
    costs ( total direct costs less equipment,
    student support)
  • Training grants limited to 8 TDC
  • Different rates can be negotiated and used based
    on where project is conducted
  • On-site rate
  • Off-site rate

Make Your Financial Plan More Competitive
  • Cost Sharing Commitment
  • Cash Matching
  • Third Party In-Kind Contributions
  • Institutional/Organizational In-Kind Contributions

  • Value of cash contributions made to project
  • by non-federal third parties
  • Document commitment of financial resources by
  • letter of support stipulating amount and any

Third-party in-kind contributions
  • Value of non-cash contributions made to project
  • non-federal third parties
  • Document by letter of support
  • Examples Volunteer services, donated computers,
  • equipment, use of space, land or property

Institutional/Organizational in- kind
  • Value of non-cash contributions made by
  • organization
  • Document by memorandum
  • Examples Unrecovered indirect costs,
  • volunteer services

Budget Justification
  • Break down and write budget narrative for
    project cost categories
  • in same sequence as they appear on budget
    spreadsheet or agency
  • forms.
  • Specify line items for each year and time frame
  • which they will be expended.
  • Quantify total costs of each line item and
    document cost
  • calculation.
  • Elaborate on line items and in narrative form,
  • and justify how used for successful project

4f. Preparing the Evaluation
  • An systematic process which is designed to reduce
    uncertainty about the effectiveness of a
    particular project and its results. (Hall, 1988)

Cost Sharing
  • Organizations commitment to bear costs not paid
    by awarding agency
  • Costs usually absorbed by operating budgets
  • Examples Percentage of time and effort--portion
    of salary with corresponding fringe benefits and
    indirect for personnel participating on sponsored
    project supplies or equipment purchased
    specifically for project

Why include evaluation component in proposal?
  • Required by funding agency
  • Provides objective data upon which to decide
    whether project
  • should continue, if its results should be
    disseminated, and if
  • methods are valid
  • Can produce information to assess needs for
    another grant
  • project/program

Basic evaluation questions that will be
answered with thorough program planning
  • What is it that you are tying to accomplish
    with this program/
  • project?
  • What will happen during the course of the
    project that will tell
  • you whether or not you have succeeded?
  • How will you know if it happens or not?

  • Monitors the projects activities and progress
    as it
  • moves along
  • Assesses whether processes and procedures are
  • whether clients and/or participants are
    satisfied with
  • services
  • Produces information used to improve the
    project during
  • its operation

  • Looks at data collected and analyzed to assess
    the projects ultimate effectiveness and impact
  • Major purpose is to document the extend to which
    the project achieved its immediate and long term

  • Content
  • Collection
  • Compilation
  • Analysis
  • Reporting

  • Identify what is going to be evaluated
  • List questions that will be answered clarify
  • Indicate what the purpose and focus of the
    evaluation will be (formative and /or summative).
  • Restate time-limited, measurable objectives on
    which the evaluation will focus.
  • Determine process as well as product/performance

  • Dont try to evaluate everything, and allow
    for change in plans
  • be flexible. (The unexpected results and
    evaluation data may
  • prove to be the most important outcome of the
  • Describe what information will be needed.
  • Select the indicators for the
    evaluation--specify the type of
  • evidence that will be accepted as proof that
    an objective has been
  • met or a question answered.

  • Describe from where the information will be
    obtained and over what period of time. (During
    project period, longitudinal studies after end of
    project, follow-ups to be completed?)
  • Project participants/clients
  • Historical information
  • Data banks
  • Statistical reports

  • Consider that methods used should
  • be agreeable to clients and individuals
  • conducting evaluation
  • be technically sound data collected will
  • be reliable, valid and targeted to the
  • questions
  • provide the best data your budget can afford
  • and
  • allow enough time to gather and analyze data

  • Discuss instruments/methods that will be used to
    get the information.
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • Existing
  • Developed

  • Describe the intended analysis and techniques to
    be used.
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Theoretical Analysis
  • Complete the Evaluation Design
  • Time line
  • Standards to be used in judging results (how much
    deviation from intended outcomes will be allowed
    before modification of project is undertaken)
  • Identify individuals charged with carrying out

  • Describe the intended reporting and utilization.
  • Report techniques and results so they are
    meaningful to both the layperson and the
    professional. (Summarize technical data)
  • Answer the evaluation questions and explain how
    arrived at each answer include unintended

Separate audiences that evaluation serves
(project staff vs. funding source).
  • Example Primary audience for formative
    evaluation will be project staff weekly
    briefings can be held, monthly status reports may
    be written so that recommendations may be about
  • Primary audience for summative evaluation will be
    funding source funders will be given annual
    reports and a final report. Annual report assists
    funders to make decisions regarding refunding
    final report reflects overall effectiveness and
    impact of the program

  • Discuss reporting design quarterly, interim,
  • annual, final.
  • Describe reporting format and methods
  • oral, written, brochures, etc.
  • Putting the evaluation together.
  • Table format
  • Narrative format
  • Detail costs and benefits

  • Evaluation plan should have a balance of
    subjective indicator and objective
    indicators/statistical measurements and
    non-quantitative tools. Examples include
  • Questionnaires
  • Surveys
  • observations

  • Face to Face Interviews
  • Telephone Interviews
  • Rating Scales
  • Ranking Scales
  • Performance Tests (Pre-and Post-Tests)
  • Record Review

Internal Evaluators
  • Program staff
  • Colleagues
  • Project participants
  • May know more about real issues related to
  • Answers from individuals directly affected by
    program may be most trustworthy and useful.
  • May be biased
  • Consider cost, competencies related to
    evaluation, and availability of time and effort

External Evaluators
  • Consultants or experts in field of service
    provision or research
  • Evaluation experts
  • Outside firm
  • Can improve the planning and evaluation of
    program due to their objectivity because no
    vested interest exists
  • Can add credibility
  • Consider cost, willingness to conduct evaluation
    even if project is not funded, level of
    participation in program design, reputation,
    ability to remain objective

Dissemination Plan Project results can be made
public via the following
  • Project releases
  • Pamphlets/Videotapes
  • On-going project/program newsletters
  • Presentations at professional conferences or at
    community events
  • Publications in professional journals or
    community newspapers
  • Project replication manuals
  • WWW page(s)

Internal Support
  • Key staff members
  • Will be implementing the program and provide
    valuable feedback, ideas, and assist with the
    definition of measurable goals and objectives
  • Peers and co-workers
  • Can serve as mock reviewers
  • Executive Director or President of organization
  • Provides commitment of resources (release time
    for key personnel, cost share, cash match, space,

  • Grant Writers/Contract Administrators
  • Can serve as your link to others with similar
  • interests, establish contacts and serve as
  • with agencies and pitch your idea, coordinate
  • collaborative efforts, recommend alternate
  • of funding support, etc.
  • Volunteers (Internal or External)
  • Enhance credibility by showing that volunteers
  • commit time to work on project of importance
  • without personal renumeration.
  • Can serve as advocates in the community, market
  • your program, and lobby other organizations for
  • additional support.

External Support
  • Agencies/Organizations that might be affected by
  • your program or those providing complimentary
  • services
  • Population to be served can provide names of
  • organizations
  • State and local government through
  • mental Review
  • Program/Contract officers at the funding agency
  • provide insight regarding priorities, provide
  • of current/prior awardees, and give direction as
    to how
  • to submit the strongest proposal.

  • Why Collaborate?
  • Pressure from funders-more bang for the buck is
    expected as competition for scarce resources
    continues rise
  • Mandate or government initiatives to give
    priority to those that do propose collaborative
  • Going it alone now being frowned upon when
    providing human services
  • cost6 efficiencies made by addressing common
    issues/delivering similar services together
    duplication of effort avoided

  • Strengths and weaknesses of participants in
    relations to different components of program can
    be addressed and resource of all involved can be
    used to strengthen areas.
  • Reduces the expense of planning
  • activities/administrative overhead expenses
  • Priority is to make services more accessible and
    effective for clients
    collaboration lends itself to providing a
  • array of services/additional support based on
    total needs of the client

  • Who to collaborate with?
  • Peers/others within your organization
  • Departments/divisions within organization for
  • expansion of project scope
  • Local agencies/organizations providing similar
    services, those
  • with common missions, orgs who can provide
    service and
  • support your org. does not, or those
    performing research in a
  • related area
  • State-wide experts/analysts
  • Nationally renewed experts (i.e. through

  • 6. Packaging and Submitting the
  • Final Document

  • Follow instructions on font and pitch size,
    margin specifications,
  • line spacing, page size and limitations.
  • Be consistent throughout document in terms of
    font choice,
  • terminology, and layout.
  • Use evaluative criteria specified in RFP to
    order and divide proposal
  • into sections ensures that all information is

  • Use headers and subheads throughout your
  • makes it aesthetically pleasing to the eye and
  • for reviewers to read and find what they are
  • for quickly
  • Include charts, graphs, timelines, and other
  • aids where possible to break up narrative.

Packaging the Proposal
  • Make specified number of copies of entire
  • including appendices.
  • Secure each proposal with binder clips. Use
    staples or
  • notebooks only when specified.

  • Note deadline date must it be received by
    agency on
  • specified due data or mailed on that date?
  • If hand-delivering proposal package, be sure to
  • a signed verification of proposal acceptance.
  • If mailing proposal, send certified, return
    receipt or
  • express delivery.

Future of Grant Proposal Development
  • Electronic Research Administration (ERA)
  • Federal government in partnership with major
  • research institutions
  • Some transaction data sets and systems already
  • and beta tested (NSF FastLane, ESISON)
  • Goal By 2000, all phases and parts of proposal
  • submission, awarding documentation, and
    reporting to
  • be handled via on-line, electronic

Mike Simonson Program Professor
  • This program is part of the Nova Southeastern
    University ITDE Program
  • Information about the program can be gotten
  • Nova Southeastern University
  • 1750 NE 167th street
  • North Miami Beach, Fl