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Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool

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Title: Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool


1
Physical EducationCurriculum Analysis Tool
Aaron Beighle, Ph.D. University of
Kentucky beighle_at_uky.edu
2
CDCs Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool
(PECAT)1
1 Centers for Disease Control Prevention.
Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool. 2006
3
Overview
  • Introduction to the PECAT
  • Rationale and development of the PECAT
  • Organization and use of the PECAT

4
Objectives (Part 1)
  • The participants will
  • Identify physical education as a component of the
    Coordinated School Health Program
  • Define elements of a quality physical education
    program
  • Relate the PECAT as a key ingredient to effective
    physical education
  • Describe the approach and organization of the
    PECAT
  • Distinguish the relationship of PECAT to
    research and national standards for physical
    education
  • Discuss the next steps to use the PECAT

5
Physical Education Integral to the Coordinated
School Health Program (CSHP)2
2 Burgeson C, Wechsler H, Brener ND, Young JC,
Spain CG. Physical education and activity
results from the School Health Policies and
Programs Study 2000. J Sch Health 200171(7)
279-293.
6
School Health Education
  • Is a planned, sequential K -12 curriculum,
    designed to help students develop knowledge,
    attitudes and skills needed to maintain and
    improve health, prevent disease, and avoid or
    modify health risk behaviors

7
School Physical Education
  • Is a planned, sequential K-12 curriculum,
    designed to provide students with the knowledge,
    attitudes, skills, behaviors, and confidence to
    adopt and maintain life-long physical activity

8
Quality Physical Education
  • Standards based
  • Physical activity based
  • Inclusive
  • Student centered
  • Teach social and personal responsibility
  • Promote lifelong physical activity

9
School Health Services
  • Provide health screenings, ensure access and/or
    referral to health care services, prevent and
    control communicable diseases and other health
    problems, and provide emergency care for illness
    or injury

10
School Nutrition Services
  • Provide students with access to a variety of
    nutritious meals and snacks, and accommodate the
    health and nutrition needs of all students that
    meet U.S. dietary guidelines

11
Health Promotion for School Staff
  • Programs that encourage and support school staff
    to improve their health status and morale,
    thereby developing greater personal commitment to
    the schools coordinated health program

12
School Mental Healthand Social Services
  • Are the individual and group assessments,
    interventions and referrals intended to improve
    students mental, emotional, and social health

13
Healthy School Environment
  • Is the physical and aesthetic surroundings,
    psychosocial climate, and policies that support
    learning, and ensure students and staff are
    physically safe

14
Family/Community Involvement
  • Is an integrated parent/guardian, community, and
    school approach to respond to students
    health-related needs and enhance students health
    and well-being. Parent involvement in health
    education increases both student achievement and
    self-esteem

15
Coordinated School Health Program
16
What is the PECAT?
17
The Purpose of the PECAT
  • To help schools conduct a clear, complete, and
    consistent analysis of written physical education
    curricula

18
The PECAT Encompasses
  • An overview of high-quality physical education
  • Information about physical education curricula
  • Tools to assess a curriculum, and
  • Resources for developing a curriculum
    improvement plan

19
The PECAT
  • Can be used to assess locally and
    commercially developed physical education
    curricula
  • Can help schools identify strengths and
    weaknesses of written curriculum
  • May help in the development of a written
  • curriculum

20
The PECAT
  • Helps users create an improvement plan based
    upon the results
  • Is user-friendly

21
What is a High-Quality Physical Education
Program?
22
Components of a high-quality physical education
program3
  • Written curriculum
  • Policies and environment
  • Instruction
  • Student assessment

3 National Association for Sport and Physical
Education. Moving into the future National
standards for physicaleducation. 2nd ed. Reston,
VA National Association for Sport and Physical
Education, 2004.
23
Written Curriculum
  • The map
  • Standards based
  • Systematically developed
  • Based on a guiding philosophy
  • A living document

24
Policies and Environment
  • Adequate instructional time
  • Classes taught by qualified physical education
    specialists
  • Reasonable class sizes
  • Proper equipment and facilities.

25
Instruction
  • Inclusion of all students
  • Opportunities to be physically active the
    majority of class time
  • Out-of-school assignments that support learning
  • Not using physical activity as punishment
  • Efficient lessons

26
Assessment
  • Appropriate use of physical activity and fitness
    assessment tools

27
Fitness, Exercise, or Activity?
  • Fitness A set of attributes that people have or
    achieve relating to their ability to perform
    physical activity (USDHHS, 1996)
  • Exercise Leisure time physical activity
    conducted with the intention of developing
    physical fitness.
  • Physical Activity Bodily movement that is
    produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle
    and that substantially increases energy
    expenditure (USDHHS, 1996)

28
Physical Activity
Dance
Recreation
Exercise
Leisure Activities
Others
Sports
29
Traditional Fitness Assessment
  • Genetics dictate up to 80 of a childs
    performance on a fitness test (Bouchard, 1993)
  • Elementary school youth show little physiological
    response to training (Payne Morrow, 1993)
  • Fitness assessment batteries are not accurate for
    youth and will fail a majority of students
  • Focusing on fitness testing has NOT worked and
    marginalizes moderate to low intensity activity

30
Assessment
  • Appropriate use of physical activity and fitness
    assessment tools,
  • Ongoing opportunities for students to conduct
    self-assessments and practice self-monitoring of
    physical activity

31
Fitness Self-Assessment
  • An appropriate use of fitness testing
  • Makes fitness testing educational
  • Is confidential
  • Allows students to demonstrate their knowledge
    about fitness content
  • Is more efficient than traditional testing

32
Physical Activity Self-Assessment
  • Pedometers
  • Questionnaires
  • Self-management is key to lifelong physical
    activity
  • Emphasizes the product

33
Skill Assessment
  • Is it really the issue?
  • Peer assessment
  • Product v Process

34
Assessment
  • Appropriate use of physical activity and fitness
    assessment tools
  • Ongoing opportunities for students to conduct
    self-assessments and practice self-monitoring of
    physical activity
  • Communication with students and parents about
    assessment results
  • Clarity concerning the elements used for
    determining a grading or student proficiency
    system
  • Provides data for meaningful change to the
    curriculum

35
What is the frameworkfor the PECAT?
36
Framework for the PECAT
  • Based upon the National Standards for Physical
    Education
  • Uses the student expectations and components of
    each standard

37
Relevance and Use of National Physical Education
Standards
  • The National Standards are
  • consistent,
  • widely accepted, and
  • directly related

38
Who are the intendedusers of the PECAT?
39
The PECAT can be used by
  • State education agency staff
  • Curriculum committees or physical educators at
    school districts, schools, or community
    organizations
  • Other curricula developers
  • Colleges and other pre-service teacher training
    programs

40
What is the rationale to support the PECAT?
41
Rationale
  • Students need to be more physically active
  • A. Can PE promote physical activity?

42
Daily and PE Step Counts by Activity Group
Disparity
27
35
Parity (Inclusive, Equitable)
12
4
43
PEs Contribution to Daily Physical Activity
44
Rationale
  • 2. Schools must play a role in improving physical
    activity habits and health of students.
  • a. Physical education must be the foundation
  • 3. The physical education curriculum is the
    primary means by which schools deliver
    physicaleducation

45
Rationale
  • 4. Federal documents support the importance of
    providing high quality, daily physical education
    for all students
  • 5. No tool was available to analyze written
    physical education curricula

46
How was the PECAT developed?
47
PECAT Development
  • National Standards framework
  • Drafts based on research and other guidance

48
How is the PECAT organized?
49
PECAT Organization
  • Front Material Introduction and Instructions
  • Part One Curriculum Description and Preliminary
    Curriculum Considerations
  • Accuracy Analysis
  • Acceptability Analysis
  • Feasibility Analysis, and
  • Affordability Analysis
  • Part Two Content and Student Assessment Analyses
  • Part Three Curriculum Improvement Plan
  • Appendices

50
The PECAT
  • Helps users analyze written physical education
    curriculum
  • Content and Student Assessment
  • Accuracy
  • Acceptability
  • Affordability
  • Feasibility

51
Content and Student Assessment
52
Accuracy
53
Acceptability
54
Affordability
55
Feasibility
56
Steps to PECAT completion
57
Next Steps
  • Step 1. Select a PECAT coordinator, then
  • form a PECAT committee
  • identify roles of each member
  • Step 2. Review materials, the PECAT, and any
    additional state or local standards

58
Next Steps
  • Step 3 Complete the Accuracy, Acceptability,
    Feasibility, and Affordability Analyses
  • Step 4 Score the PECAT
  • Step 5 Create a plan for improvement

59
What are YOUR next steps?
BREAK TIME
60
Who do you know?
61
Objectives (Part deux)
  • The participants will be able to
  • Describe how the PECAT can be used to improve
    physical education and thereby influence
    students motor skills and physical activity
    behaviors.
  • Practice using the components of the PECAT.
  • Discuss how to incorporate the PECAT into your
    professional practice.

62
Purpose of PECATSchoolsConduct analysis of
written PE curriculumUse results to enhance,
develop, or select curriculumDeliver quality
PEImprove students motor skills and physical
activity behaviors
63
Now, its YOUR turn to look at the PECAT!
64
Develop an Understanding of
  • Accuracy Analysis
  • Acceptability Analysis
  • Feasibility Analysis
  • Affordability Analysis
  • Content Analysis
  • Student Assessment Analysis

Share your understanding with others!
65
Next Steps for Group Activity
  • Form groups
  • Choose one each Accuracy, Acceptability,
    Feasibility, Affordability, Content, Student
    Assessment
  • Read component/section

66
Next Steps for Group Activity
  • Answer guiding questions about each of the
    components/section
  • What is the purpose? What does it provide?
  • Who completes it?
  • What examples need to be considered? (For
    accuracy and acceptability only)
  • What forms are included?
  • How helpful is this to you?
  • Is it applicable to your local situation?

67
Next Steps for Group Activity
  • Share your answers to the guiding questions
    with your group
  • You have 20 minutes to complete!

68
Review and Clarification
  • Lets review and clarify the sections/components
    together!

69
Accuracy Analysis
70
Accuracy Analysis
  • Assess accuracy of health, medical, and
    scientific information in the written PE
    curriculum.
  • Identify inaccurate, unsound, exaggerated,
    distorted, outdated information and degree of
    difficulty.
  • Determine what needs to be done to correct the
    problems.

71
Acceptability Analysis
72
Acceptability Analysis
  • Determine if anything in curriculum is
  • Incompatible with school norms
  • Promotes biased or stereotypical perceptions or
  • Is inconsistent with state or school district
    policies or codes.

73
Feasibility Analysis
74
Feasibility Analysis
  • Can the curriculum be implemented
  • By physical education teachers?
  • Within available instructional time?
  • With existing PE facilities and equipment?

75
Affordability Analysis
  • Identify needed changes and costs, to purchase
    or revise curriculum, in
  • Staffing
  • Facilities
  • Schedule

76
Content Analysis
  • How well does the curriculum
  • Cover what students should know?
  • Cover what students should be able to do?
  • Align with the National Physical Education
    Standards?

77
Student Assessment Analysis
  • How well does the curriculum
  • Integrate standards-based assessment protocols?
  • Provide age-appropriate student assessment
    protocols for each standard?

78
Steps to Completing the PECAT
  • Step 1 Identify the roles and responsibilities
    of each committee member.

79
Steps to Completing the PECAT
  • Step 2 Review curriculum materials, the PECAT,
    and any additional state or local standards.
  • Complete the Curriculum Description Form
    together and,
  • Determine organization of the committee for
    completion of other forms.

80
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81
Steps to Completing the PECAT
  • Step 3 Complete the Accuracy, Acceptability,
    Feasibility, and Affordability Analyses.
  • Assess curriculums accuracy, alignment with
    school and community norms (acceptability),
    feasibility, and affordability.
  • Complete before proceeding to the Content and
    Student Assessment Analyses.
  • Make choices early.

82
Steps to Completing the PECAT
  • Step 4 Scoring the PECAT
  • Each of the Preliminary Curriculum Consideration
    Analyses should have been scored during the
    process of completing each one. These scores do
    not contribute to the Overall PECAT Scorecard.
  • Content and Student Assessment Analyses
  • Importance of sequential written curriculum
  • What content, skills, and activities should be
    covered yearly, and throughout K-12?
  • Premise students need to be taught increasingly
    advanced skills and concepts.

83
Scoring Criteria for Content Analysis
  • 2 fully/sufficiently addresses each element
    of the question
  • 1 partially addresses the question
  • 0 does not address the question

84
Scoring for StudentAssessment Analysis
  • 2 Fully one or more specific protocols,
    plus multiple levels of student
    competency
  • 1 Partially one or more protocols but not
    multiple levels of student competency
  • 0 No does not include any protocol

85
Calculating the Scores
  • Add all of the 2s together
  • Add all of the 1s together
  • Add two sums together
  • Place total number in the large box

86
Scoring Content and Student Assessment Analyses
  • KEY POINT
  • Examples are only examples!!!

87
Additional State or Local Standards
  • What to do?
  • Use template for Content Analysis and Student
    Assessment Analysis
  • Write out the standard
  • Identify the 4 essential components
  • Score as usual

88
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89
Content and Student Assessment AnalysesWhats
Next?
  • Transfer score for each standard to the
    corresponding grade-level scorecard.

90
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91
Content and Student Assessment AnalysesWhats
Next?
  • Transfer the scores for each grade-level and each
    standard to the Overall PECAT Scorecard

92
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93
Sequence Considerations
  • Standards are built on previous grade level.
  • Content Analysis examines sequence one grade
    level to the next.
  • Student Assessment Analysis determines if
    age-appropriate assessment protocols exist across
    the grade levels.

94
Other considerations
  • For each standard
  • Identify answers with 2 points strengths
  • Highlight answers with 1 or 0 points potential
    weaknesses or gaps
  • Address weaknesses in the Curriculum Improvement
    Plan

95
Other considerations
  • For each standard
  • Review scores on scorecards per grade level
    analyzed.
  • Highlight discrepancies existing across two areas
    analyzed.
  • Helps determine where improvement is needed most.

96
For Multiple Curricula Analyses
  • Transfer all scores to PECAT Multiple Curricula
    Comparison Scorecard.
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses of each
    curriculum.
  • Select the strongest that meets local needs.

97
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98
Locally Developed CurriculumCurriculum
Improvement Plan
99
Curriculum Improvement Plan
  • The Curriculum Improvement Plan guides users
    through a process of
  • Interpreting scores.
  • Completing worksheet.
  • Implementing the plan.
  • Reassessing for improvement.

100
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101
Curriculum Improvement Plan
  • Follow through on Curriculum Improvement Plan
  • Organize quarterly meetings
  • Discuss progress
  • Share progress with school officials

102
Whats Next?
  • Now, lets look at a curriculum!

103
What else?
  • Preparing for your PECAT committee meetings

104
Assemble the Following Items
  • Curriculum(s) to be reviewed
  • Copies of the PECAT
  • Copies of state or local PE standards
  • Contact information of school or district-level
    physical education curriculum administrator or
    supervisor

105
Assemble the Following
  • For Accuracy Analysis, assemble individuals with
    expertise and experience in
  • Science of physical education and/or kinesiology
  • Science of youth physical activity

106
Assemble the Following
  • For Acceptability Analysis, assemble individuals
    with expertise and experience in
  • School policy
  • State guidelines and mandates for physical
    education
  • State and local PE standards

107
Assemble the Following
  • For Feasibility Analysis, assemble individuals
    with expertise and experience in
  • School and/or district-level PE Coordination
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • School Administration
  • Teaching of physical education

108
Assemble the Following
  • For Affordability Analysis, assemble individuals
    with expertise and experience in
  • School finances
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • School Administration
  • Teaching of physical education

109
Assemble the Following
  • For Content Analysis and Student Assessment
    Analysis, assemble individuals with expertise and
    experience in
  • Science of physical education and/or kinesiology
  • Science of youth physical activity
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • Teaching of physical education
  • Protocols for assessment physical
    education(e.g., state/district requirements,
    fitness testing, etc.)

110
Conclusions
  • Use of the PECAT can provide valuable insight as
    to how well your curriculum aligns with national
    and/or state physical education standards.
  • The Curriculum Improvement Plan should be
    utilized to guide your PECAT Committee through
    planning for revisions and enhancement to your
    curriculum.
  • Identifying resources to assist with implementing
    the Curriculum Improvement Plan is an essential
    step.

111
Thank You and Best Wishes!
112
Questions and Answers
  • Website address www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/PECAT
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