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AGING

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Usual (secondary) aging: Pathological changes occurring in ... influence successful aging ... the most widespread sensory deficits associated with aging ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AGING


1
AGING
2
Simple facts about aging
  • Aging commences in utero
  • Represents passage of time, not pathology
  • No two persons age identically
  • Chronological age is not always similar to
    physiological age
  • No matter what age we are we need to consider the
    patients individuality

3
Life expectancy/ mortality
  • Males born in 1990 expect to reach 72.1 years
  • Females born the same year can expect to live
    79.1 years
  • Leading causes of death are CHD (31), Cancer
    (20), Stroke (gt for Males than Females?

4
Finances
  • SSI is 90 or more of the income for 20 of all
    elders

5
Gerontology
  • Def study of aging as it applies to
    psychological, social, and biological factors

6
Aging Concepts
  • Normal aging biological events occurring to the
    human body as a result of the passage of time.
    AKA Primary aging. Ex Cataracts
  • Usual (secondary) aging Pathological changes
    occurring in the organism. Events that may be
    preventable. DMII, CHF, COPD

7
Aging concepts cont
  • Successful aging In this case usual aging
    problems are compressed in to the last several
    months of life. Good health habits influence
    successful aging
  • Frailty lack of physiological, psychological or
    functional reserve. Increased susceptibility
    toward experiencing functional limitations.

8
Co morbidities
  • More than any other group,elders are
    heterogeneous. Most times upon examination a pt.
    with a CVA will have other significant problems

9
Psychosocial factors
  • Factors that are good predictors of function
    include being white, higher family income,
    absence of HTN, absence of arthritis, absence of
    back pain, nonsmokers, normal body weight and
    moderate alcohol consumption

10
Communicating with elders
  • Hearing loss secondary to age related changes of
    the inner ear is called Presbycusis. This is one
    of the most widespread sensory deficits
    associated with aging

11
Physiologic changes related to hearing
  • Loss of high frequency sounds
  • Loss of sound localization
  • Impaired speech discrimination esp.gt s, sh ch,
    f, g, t, z.
  • Distorted messages are received

12
Vision
  • Presbyopia, Glaucoma, Macula degeneration.
  • Affects of aging on vision
  • Ability to see in low light
  • Adapt to darkness or changes in light
  • Judging distances
  • Peripheral fields or objects that are too close
  • Blue/green colors are poorly differentiated
  • Highly reflective surfaces are difficult

13
Speech
  • Lower pitched voice, lower volume
  • Breathiness, hoarseness, or vocal tremor

14
Strategies for Effective Communication
  • Visually impaired
  • Hearing impaired
  • communication

15
Facilitating communication and Socialization
  • Touch
  • Reminiscence
  • Humor
  • Pets

16
Maslows,Hierarchy of Human Needs
  • Physiologic survival needs
  • Safety
  • Love, belonging, affection
  • Self actualization

17
Theories of Aging
  • Genetic
  • Non Genetic

18
Three types of Somatic Cells
  • Continuously proliferating
  • Reverting post mitotic cells
  • Fixed post mitotic cells

19
Genetic theories
  • Hayflict Limit Theory
  • Error Theory
  • Redundant RNA

20
Non Genetic Theories
  • Cross linkage theory
  • Hormonal theory
  • Energy-Restriction theory

21
Changes associated with aging
  • Overall
  • Decreased height
  • Decreased weight
  • Decreased total body water
  • Increased fat- to- lean body mass ratio
  • Increased wrinkling

22
Skin changes
  • Atrophy of sweat glands

23
Cardiovascular system
  • Elongation and tortuosity of arteries, inc aorta
  • Increased intimal thickening of arteries
  • Increased fibrosis of media of arteries
  • Sclerosis of heart valves

24
Kidney
  • Increased number of abnormal glomeruli

25
Lung
  • Decreased elasticity
  • Decreased activity of cilia

26
GI tract
  • Decreased hydrochloric acid
  • Fewer taste buds

27
Skeleton
  • OA
  • Loss of bone substance

28
Eyes
  • Arcus senilis
  • Decreased pupil size
  • Growth of lens

29
Hearing
  • Degenerative changes to the ossicles
  • Increased obstruction of eustachian tube
  • Atrophy of the external auditory meatus
  • Atrophy of cochlear hair cells loss of auditory
    neurons

30
Nervous system
  • Decreased brain weight
  • Decreased cortical cell count

31
Endocrine
  • Decreased T3
  • Decreased free testosterone
  • Increased insulin
  • Increased norepi
  • Increased parathoromone
  • Increased vasopressin

32
Lab assessment Parameters unchanged with elders
  • HH
  • WBC
  • Platelets
  • Electrolytes (sodium, K, CL, Bicarbonate)
  • BUN
  • Liver function tests
  • Free thyroxine index
  • TSH
  • CA
  • Phosphorus

33
Common abnormal lab parameters
  • Sed rate
  • Glucose
  • Creatinine
  • Albumin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Serum iron, iron-binding cap., ferritin
  • PSA

34
Common abnormal labs cont
  • UA
  • Chest x-ray
  • ECG

35
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