Status%20of%20the%20Monkeypox%20(MPXV)%20Outbreak%20in%20the%20United%20States - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Status%20of%20the%20Monkeypox%20(MPXV)%20Outbreak%20in%20the%20United%20States

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Vaccination against smallpox will provide (at least partial) protection against monkeypox. ... Clinical profile similar to that of smallpox. Rash (exanthema) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Status%20of%20the%20Monkeypox%20(MPXV)%20Outbreak%20in%20the%20United%20States


1
Status of the Monkeypox (MPXV) Outbreakin the
United States
PAHO Communicable Disease Unit
2
General Information on MPXV
  • The etiological agent belongs to
  • Family Poxviridae
  • Genus Orthopoxvirus
  • It shares genetic and biological properties with
    the smallbox and vaccinia viruses.
  • Vaccination against smallpox will provide (at
    least partial) protection against monkeypox.
  • Prior to this outbreak in the USA, the virus had
    been identified only in Africa.

3
Smallpox and Its Eradication
Source Fenner, F. et al. (1988) Smallpox and Its
Eradication. Geneva World Health Organization
(WHO).
4
General Information on MPXV
  • Zoonosis A virus of rodents and monkeys.
  • Human transmission by handling or being bitten
    by an infected animal.
  • Incubation period 721 days.
  • Fatality of 1-10.
  • Person-to-person transmission relatively
    inefficient.

5
General Information on MPXV (contd)
  • Clinical profile similar to that of smallpox.
  • Rash (exanthema)
  • Stain, papule, vesicule, pustule, crust.
  • Fever
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Lymphodenopathy
  • Sweating
  • Chills
  • Headache

6
Index case in Marshfield, 26 May
2003 Disseminated lesions.
7
Distribution of MPXV Cases in the USA
(SE 25/2003)
Source MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.
8
Distribution of MPXV Cases in the USA (contd)
WI
OH
IL
IN
KS
MO
Number of cases 87 WI 38 IN 24 IL 19 OH
4 KS 1 MO 1
Source MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.
9
Wild Animals Involved in MPXV Transmission (USA,
2003)
Gambian Giant Rat (Crycetomys sp.)
Prairie Dog (Cynomis sp.)
10
Entry and Distribution Route of Crycetomys sp.
and Cynomys sp. Involved in MPXV Outbreak (USA,
2003)
WI
IA
15/4
IL
15/4
TX
Prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) enter into contact
with Gambian Giant Rats (Crycetomys sp.)
09/04
Ghana
Source MMWR 52 (23), CDC, 2003.
11
Current Status of Outbreak in USA
  • Investigation underway.
  • 87 probable cases reported in 6 states.
  • 20 laboratory-confirmed cases.
  • Clinical cases are apparently less severe than
    those described in Africa.
  • Preventive measures put into place
  • isolation, individual protection

12
Current Status of Outbreak in USA
  • Smallpox vaccination.
  • Health professionals
  • Contacts
  • Infected animals
  • Suspected clinical cases
  • Ban on importation of rodents from Africa.
  • Ban on commercial and interstate pet transport
    (rodents).

13
PAHO Action
  • Information distributed via the listservers of
    the main Regional Surveillance Networks RECACER
    (Central America), Amazon Network, Southern Cone
    Network
  • Preliminary research findings from the USA.
  • Clinical and epidemiological description to
    support surveillance activities.
  • Risk of introducing MPKV into Chile identified.

14
Risk of Introducing MPXV into Chile
  • On 9 June 2003, PAHO informed by CDC that the
    Texas animal dealer had exported three prairie
    dogs to Chile.
  • Chilean authorities immediately informed by the
    PAHO Country Representative.
  • Animals identified and put into quarantine.
  • Protective measures taken.
  • The animals are and continue to be healthy.
  • Samples sent to CDC.
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