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The Evolution of Social Welfare

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Title: The Evolution of Social Welfare


1
The Evolution of Social Welfare Social Work
  • Kimberly Hinds
  • kimberly.hinds_at_uwimona.edu.jm
  • Department of Sociology, Psychology
  • Social Work
  • UWI Mona---September 19, 2005

2
You can either light a candle or curse the
darkness ---Chinese Proverb
3
INTRODUCTION
  • A/c to Johnson, the profession we know as social
    work had its genesis in response to the
    prevailing social conditions of the early 20th
    century. It was a time when new immigrants, with
    their new lifestyles were displaced, poor and
    seeking employment. This became a grave concern
    to the larger society. The early belief about
    social work practice was indicative of efforts to
    work with the new immigrants in a manner that
    would enable them to live moral lives and thus
    avoid poverty.

4
INTRODUCTION CTD.
  • A/c to Zastrow most social welfare agencies
    which appeared in the 1800s were
  • (1) Private
  • (2) Developed at the initiation of the clergy
    and other religious groups.

5
Similarities between Social Welfare Agencies in
1800s
  • Came out of religious convictions (clothe the
    needy, heal the sick, feed the hungry etc).
  • These services were provided by the clergy and
    affluent do-gooders
  • Many of these do-gooders had no formal training
    and very little understanding of human behaviour
    and how to begin to help.
  • Many social welfare agencies focused on meeting
    the basic physical needs of individuals (food,
    shelter).

6
Similarities Ctd.
  • Attempted to cure emotional and personal
    challenges with religious warnings/reprimands.
  • The first record of an established social
    welfare agency is the Society for the Prevention
    of Pauperism est. by John Griscon in 1820. It
    was similar to the COS in that it sought to
    investigate the habits and circumstances of the
    poor and make suggestions by which they could and
    should help themselves.
  • The Society for the Prevention of Pauperism like
    the COS encouraged the poor to save and
    economize. There was this prevailing belief that
    the poor were lazy, worthless and could do
    better

7
SETTLEMENT HOUSES
  • Working with neighbourhood residents, their aim
    was to improve their living conditions.
  • Sought to empower people via collective action
    and to bring about change in the system.
  • Viewed individuals e.g. the poor as caught in a
    situation that they had no control over.
  • The first settlement house was est. in 1884 in
    London, known as Toynbee Hall.
  • Settlement house workers were mainly ministers
    daughters.

8
SETTLEMENT HOUSES
  • They were from the middle class or upper middle
    class and unlike COS workers lived in the
    impoverished communities as their clients so as
    to experience the harsh realities of poverty.
  • They sought to improve housing, health and living
    conditions, find jobs, teach English, hygiene and
    occupational skills.
  • Settlement houses played critical roles in
    drafting legislation and in organizing to
    influence social policy.

9
  • Jane Addams is the most noted proponent of the
    settlement house movement she started Hull House
    in Chicago.
  • A/c to Zastrow, the settlement house leaders
    believed that by changing neighbourhoods they
    would improve communities and through altering
    communities they would develop a better society.
  •  Settlement houses were the precursor for what is
    now called in contemporary social work as social
    group work, social action and community
    organization.

10
The Charity Organization Society
  • To provide direct services to individuals and
    families (Forerunner of casework and family
    counseling approaches.
  • To plan and coordinate the efforts of private
    organisations to address the urban social
    problems (Forerunner of community organisation
    and social planning approaches)
  • The London COS est. 1869 partially in response to
    the urban poverty and squalor coming out of a
    rapidly industrializing society.
  • They came about because the do-gooders
    programmes started to overlap

11
COS Continued
  • The USA then followed with its COS in the larger
    cities. e.g. Buffalo, New York 1877
  • They were est. to help the poor, the ill, the
    unemployed, persons with disabilities and
    orphans.
  • Had a concept of the deserving poor
  • Original name was the Society for Organizing
    Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendicicity

12
HERE IS MORE!!!!
  • In 1870 it referred to itself as the COS.
  • In 1910, it changed its long title dropping
    Repressing Mendicity ----now known as Society
    for Organizing Charitable Effort and Improving
    the Condition for the Poor.
  • In 1945 it became the Family Welfare Assoc.
  • Jamaica adopted its own model in the form of the
    Kingston Liguanea Charity Organisation in 1882
    w/ help from Enos Nuttall.

13
WHAT DID THE COS DO?
  • Conduct thorough investigations of each applicant
    for services and financial help.
  • Maintained a central client registrations system
    to avoid duplication
  • WHO WERE THESE WORKERS?
  • Middle and upper class do-gooders
  • Mostly women

14
HOW DID THEY CARRY OUT THEIR WORK?
  • They used volunteers, friendly visitors
  • These do-gooders generally gave sympathy and
    encouraged them to seek employment
  • They saw a need and went to fill that need, not
    based on any theoretical framework. (Blankets,
    food etc.)

15
NEGATIVES OF COS
  • Being poor was viewed as a personal shortcoming.
  • Responded mainly to the physical needs (food,
    shelter)
  • Concept of deserving and
  • undeserving poor
  •  

16
POSITIVES OF COS
  • B/c of system set up to avoid duplication of
    services to individuals and agencies many
    professional beggars and fraudulent charities
    were exposed.
  • Rejected giving alms , more in favour of casework
    and improvement of social conditions.
  •  

17
WAKE UP!!!!
  • TAKE A FIVE MINUTE BREAK!!!
  • WHEN YOU COME BACK WE ARE MOVING ON TO THE
    HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL WORK IN JAMAICA
    AND THE CARIBBEAN

18
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL WORK IN JAMAICA
THE CARIBBEAN
19
INTRODUCTION
  • Throughout the Caribbean, specifically the
    English-speaking Cbean, social services are
    offered by a combination of government and
    private agencies.
  • The pattern of how these agencies and services
    evolved and the establishment of a recognised
    collection of persons called social workers was
    influenced by how these similar services and
    professional groups developed in Britain, the
    colonial power, which in the case of Jamaica
    governed the country from 1655-1962.

20
John Maxwell---Social Worker
  • The Evolution of Social Welfare Services and
    Social Work in the English-speaking Caribbean
    attempts to give an overview of the historical
    development of social welfare services and the
    practice of social work in the West Indies,
    specifically the English-speaking countries.

21
Maxwell divides this overview into 3 significant
historical stages.
  • Pre-20th century which covers the period from
    European colonisation to the abolition of slavery
    in 1838 and also the post abolition period from
    1838 to the end of the century. (end of slavery,
    no meaningful social and economic provisions to
    facilitate the transition for a people
    conditioned to centuries of restrictive
    dependency Maxwell). During this era, the sole
    form of social welfare provision was by way of
    the was fashioned after the British Poor Law of
    1602, which provided for the deserving
    poor----sick, aged, children not able-bodied
    poor.

22
STAY WITH ME!!!!
  • (2) 1900-1938. -Characterised by the development
    of the of the voluntary /NGO sector, it marked
    100 years after slavery and the West Indian Royal
    Commission in 1938 headed by Lord Moyne to look
    into the social and economic conditions in the
    British West Indian colonies and make
    recommendations for improvements. Also during
    this period there was a 5 year period of strikes
    and labour uprisings.

23
OTHER ISLANDS POST SLAVERY
  • Guyana- a Poor Relief Act introduced in 1839
    stipulated who should maintain whom, and in all
    other cases the central govt. accepted full
    responsibility for poor relief in the colony.
  • Barbados - A Poor Mans Board was set up in 1880
    to provide casual relief and the Poor Act of 1897
    made provisions to put destitute children in alms
    houses.

24
SOON FINISH!!!!
  • Post 1938 - the WWII period to the present. This
    period saw the development of the govt. social
    service sector, the increase presence of the NGOs
    and the emergence of social work as a
    professional field.

25
THE SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES IN JAMAICA
26
DID YOU KNOW?
  • The Kingston COS, formerly the Kingston
    Liguanea Charity Organization Enos
    Nuttall----1882, went into abeyance shortly after
    it was established and then was re-born in 1900.
    There was also a Manchester COS

27
I BET YOU DIDNT KNOW
  • The social welfare services of today and the
    evolution of social work from a charitable
    voluntary activity to a professional occupation
    is a 20th century phenomenon.
  • In Jamaica, the period 1900-1940 saw the
    emergence of a lot of the voluntary social svc.
    Sector. The main govt. services having
    materialized within the last 60 years.

28
FYI
  • Personnel employed by the government in many of
    the Caribbean islands for the delivery of poor
    relief services in the late 19th century are
    regarded as the first public service welfare
    employees. In Jamaica, their functions included
    identifying, screening and paying out of benefits
    to the indigent poor ( that is the destitute,
    the penniless, the poverty-stricken),
    recommending these persons for medical care etc.

29
VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICES
  • The voluntary social services. can be
    categorized under the headings of
  • Benevolent and Relief Organizations
  • Services for Children
  • Youth Services
  • Services for the Aged
  • Services for the Disabled
  • Agencies for Women
  • Community Development

30
THE COUNCIL OF VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICES
  • Listing of voluntary organisations functioning in
    Jamaica.
  • Much wider cross-section of organisations and
    their activities

31
PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
  • Following on the social service scene was the
    establishing of social work education for the
    persons staffing these agencies.
  • 1961 UWI introduced a two year Professional
    Certificate in Social Work at the Mona Campus
  • 1963- A four month residential paraprofessional
    course was started at the Extra- Mural Dept at
    the Social Welfare Training Centre, now the
    School of Continuing Studies, which is still
    offered.

32
  • 1970 University of Guyana, 1981- The College of
    Bahamas and University of Belize started offering
    training and/or undergraduate degrees
  • 1989- Full scale B.Sc
  • 1989- Certificate in Social Services was
    introduced to cater to persons without degree.

33
LAST ONE!!!!
  • Early 1990s Barbados (Cave Hill) and Tdad
    started offering the B.Sc.
  • 1993 MSW at Mona .At the time only two
    concentrations were offered, now there are four.

34
WHATS NEXT????
  • LIGHT THE CANDLEDO NOT CURSE THE DARKNESS!!!!!

35
THANKS FOR LISTENING!!!
36
REFERENCES
  • Bryan, Patrick (2002). Philanthropy Social
    Welfare in Jamaica An Historical Survey. (Sir
    Arthur Lewis Institute of Social Economic
    Studies, UWI, Mona).
  • Council of Voluntary Social Services (1987). A
    Handbook of the Social Services in Jamaica. (The
    Council of Voluntary Social Services, Kingston,
    Jamaica).
  • Johnson, Louise (2004). Social Work Practice- A
    Generalist Approach. Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Maxwell, John A. (March 2002) The Evolution of
    Social Welfare Services and Social Work in the
    English-speaking Caribbean. Article in The
    Caribbean Journal of Social Work, Volume 1
    (Association of Caribbean Social Work Educators)
  • Zastrow, Charles (2003) - The Practice of Social
    Work Brooks/Cole Publications
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