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Arenguuuringud 5' Arenguhindamine I

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Title: Arenguuuringud 5' Arenguhindamine I


1
Arengu-uuringud5. Arenguhindamine I
  • Mati Heidmets
  • 10.11.2008

2
Arengumõõdikud
  • Välja kujunenud valdkonnad instrumentide
    komplekt hindamaks maailma riikide/ühiskondade
    arengutaset. Tuntumad konstruktid, mida
    hinnatakse
  • Vabadus (poliitilised vabadused, majandusvabadus,
    demokraatia)
  • Tervis, haigestumine, eluiga, hälbiv käitumine
  • Võrdsus (ebavõrdsus, võrdsed võimalused)
  • Majanduskeskkond, tehnoloogia, innovatsioon,
    internet
  • Riigi võimekus
  • Keskkonnaseisund
  • Usaldus, sallivus, rahumeelsus, subjektiivne
    rahulolu, õnn, väärtused
  • Igaühe kohta mis see on, kes mõõdab/hindab ja
    kuidas, millised andmebaasid olemas, näited
    tulemustest

3
Vabaduse mõõtmed ja mõõtjad
  • Poliitilised ja kodanikuvabadused Freedom House
  • Ajakirjandusvabadus Freedom House
  • Demokraatia The Economist
  • Majandusvabadus Heritage Foundation

4
Vabadus Freedom House
  • Mission Statement
  • Freedom House is an independent nongovernmental
    organization that supports the expansion of
    freedom in the world. Freedom is possible only in
    democratic political systems in which the
    governments are accountable to their own people
    the rule of law prevails and freedoms of
    expression, association, and belief, as well as
    respect for the rights of minorities and women,
    are guaranteed.
  • Freedom House is a clear voice for democracy and
    freedom around the world. Since its founding in
    1941 by prominent Americans concerned with the
    mounting threats to peace and democracy, Freedom
    House has been a vigorous proponent of democratic
    values and a steadfast opponent of dictatorships
    of the far left and the far right.   Eleanor
    Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie served as Freedom
    Houses first honorary co-chairpersons.

5
Freedom House
  • Andmekogumine ja publitseerimine
  • Beginning with Freedom in the World in 1972,
    Freedom House has actively published comparative
    surveys and special reports focused on the state
    of democracy and human rights around the world.
  • Freedom House's annual publications include
    Freedom in the World, an assessment of the state
    of political rights in 192 countries and 14
    related and disputed territories Freedom of the
    Press, an annual report on journalistic
    independence around the world Nations in
    Transit, which examines 29 countries from Central
    Europe to Eurasia and Countries at the
    Crossroads, a first-of-its-kind survey of
    democratic governance that evaluates performance
    in 30 key countries that are at a crossroads in
    determining their political future.
  • In addition, Freedom House produces a number of
    special reports focusing on issues of import.
    Freedom House's publications are widely used by
    policy-makers, journalists, and scholars, and can
    be read for free on this website
  • Vt http//www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page
    363year2008

6
FH mõõtmisinstrumendid
  • Survey Methodology
  • The 2008 survey, which provides analytical
    reports and numerical ratings for 195 countries
    and territories, expands a process conducted
    since 1980 by Freedom House. The findings are
    widely used by governments, international
    organizations, academics, and the news media in
    many countries. Countries are given a total score
    from 0 (best) to 100 (worst) on the basis of a
    set of 23 methodology questions divided into
    three subcategories. Assigning numerical points
    allows for comparative analysis among the
    countries surveyed and facilitates an examination
    of trends over time. The degree to which each
    country permits the free flow of news and
    information determines the classification of its
    media as Free, Partly Free, or Not Free.
    Countries scoring 0 to 30 are regarded as having
    Free media 31 to 60, Partly Free media and
    61 to 100, Not Free media. The criteria for
    such judgments and the arithmetic scheme for
    displaying the judgments are described in the
    following section. The ratings and reports
    included in Freedom of the Press 2008 cover
    events that took place between January 1, 2007,
    and December 31, 2007.
  • Checklist of Methodology Questions for 2008
  • A. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT (030 POINTS)
  • 1. Do the constitution or other basic laws
    contain provisions designed to protect freedom of
    the press and of expression, and are they
    enforced? (06 points)
  • 2. Do the penal code, security laws, or any other
    laws restrict reporting, and are journalists
    punished under these laws? (06 points)
  • 3. Are there penalties for libeling officials or
    the state, and are they enforced? (03 points)
  • 4. Is the judiciary independent, and do courts
    judge cases concerning the media impartially?
    (03 points)
  • 5. Is freedom of information legislation in
    place, and are journalists able to make use of
    it? (02 points)
  • 6. Can individuals or business entities legally
    establish and operate private media outlets
    without undue interference? (04 points)
  • 7. Are media regulatory bodies, such as a
    broadcasting authority or national press or
    communications council, able to operate freely
    and independently? (02 points)
  • 8. Is there freedom to become a journalist and to
    practice journalism, and can professional groups
    freely support journalists rights and interests?
    (04 points)

7
FH mõõtmisinstrumendid II
  • B. POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT (040 POINTS)
  • 1. To what extent are media outlets news and
    information content determined by the government
    or a particular partisan interest? (010 points)
  • 2. Is access to official or unofficial sources
    generally controlled? (02 points)
  • 3. Is there official censorship? (04 points)
  • 4. Do journalists practice self-censorship? (04
    points)
  • 5. Do people have access to media coverage that
    is robust and reflects a diversity of viewpoints?
    (04 points)
  • 6. Are both local and foreign journalists able to
    cover the news freely? (06 points)
  • 7. Are journalists or media outlets subject to
    extralegal intimidation or physical violence by
    state authorities or any other actor? (010
    points)
  • C. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (030 POINTS)
  • 1. To what extent are media owned or controlled
    by the government, and does this influence their
    diversity of views? (06 points)
  • 2. Is private media ownership transparent, thus
    allowing consumers to judge the impartiality of
    the news? (03 points)
  • 3. Is private media ownership highly
    concentrated, and does it influence diversity of
    content? (03 points)
  • 4. Are there restrictions on the means of
    journalistic production and distribution? (04
    points)
  • 5. Does the state place prohibitively high costs
    on the establishment and operation of media
    outlets? (04 points)
  • 6. Do the state or other actors try to control
    the media through allocation of advertising or
    subsidies? (03 points)
  • 7. Do journalists receive payment from private or
    public sources whose design is to influence their
    journalistic content? (03 points)

8
Ajakirjandusvabadus 1984
  • .

9
Ajakirjandusvabadus 1994
  • .

10
Ajakirjandusvabadus 2007
  • .

11
Press freedom in the world, by population,
2008Source Freedom House
12
Press freedom in the world, by country,
2008Source Freedom House
13
Vabadus maailmas(allikas Freedom House, 2007)
14
Demokraatia The Economist
  • The Economist has in a study examined the state
    of democracy in 167 countries and attempted to
    quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit
    Index of Democracy which focused on five general
    categories free and fair election process, civil
    liberties, functioning of government, political
    participation and political culture. Sweden
    scored a total of 9.88 on a scale from zero to
    ten, which was the highest result, North Korea
    scored the lowest with 1.03.
  • "Full Democracies", "Flawed Democracies", and
    "Hybrid Regimes" are considered to be democracies
    and "Authoritarian Regimes" are considered to be
    dictatorial.
  • Vt http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy_Index

15
Demokraatia mõõtmine
  • The democracy index is a kind of weighted average
    based on the answers of 60 questions, each one
    with either two or three permitted alternative
    answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments.
  • The questions are distributed into the five
    categories enumerated supra. Each answer is
    translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the
    three answer alternative questions, 0.5.
    Likewise, there are a few questions considered so
    important that a low score on them yields a
    penalty on the total score sum for their
    respective categories, namely
  • "Whether national elections are free and fair"
  • "The security of voters"
  • "The influence of foreign powers on government"
  • "The capability of the civil servants to
    implement policies".
  • The five category indices, which all are listed
    in the report, are then averaged to find the
    democracy index for a given country. Finally, the
    democracy index, rounded to one decimal, decides
    the classification of the country, as quoted
  • Functioning democraciesscores of 8-10.
  • Flawed democraciesscores of 6 to 7.9.
  • Hybrid regimesscores of 4 to 5.9.
  • Authoritarian regimesscores below 4.

16
Demokraatia indeks The Economist
  • .

17
Majandusvabadus Heritage Foundation
  • MissionFounded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation
    is a research and educational institute - a think
    tank - whose mission is to formulate and promote
    conservative public policies based on the
    principles of free enterprise, limited
    government, individual freedom, traditional
    American values, and a strong national defense.
  • Index of economic freedom http//www.heritage.org
    /Index/
  • The Index's 2008 definition of economic freedom
    is the following "The highest form of economic
    freedom provides an absolute right of property
    ownership, fully realized freedoms of movement
    for labor, capital, and goods, and an absolute
    absence of coercion or constraint of economic
    liberty beyond the extent necessary for citizens
    to protect and maintain liberty itself."
  • The index scores nations on 10 broad factors of
    economic freedom using statistics from
    organizations like the World Bank, the IMF and
    the Economist Intelligence Unit Business
    Freedom,Trade Freedom, Monetary Freedom, Freedom
    from Government, Fiscal Freedom, Property
    Rights, Investment Freedom, Financial Freedom,
    Freedom from Corruption, Labor Freedom,
  • The 10 factors are averaged equally into a total
    score. Each one of the 10 freedoms is graded
    using a scale from 0 to 100, where 100 represents
    the maximum freedom.

18
Majandusvabadus, 2007 (allikas Heritage
Foundation)
  • .

19
Majandusvabadus 2008 (allikas Heritage
Foundation)
  • .

20
Miks vabadus?
  • E. Fromm põgenemine vabaduse eest?!
  • Oluline individuaalse ressursi avanemine,
    etteaimatav ühiskond, inimõigused,
  • Demokraatia vähemohtlik kui autokraatia,
    kohanemisvõimelisem, kollektiivset tarkust
    kasutav

21
Tervis, haigused, eluiga
  • World Health Organization
  • WHO is the directing and coordinating authority
    for health within the United Nations system. It
    is responsible for providing leadership on global
    health matters, shaping the health research
    agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating
    evidence-based policy options, providing
    technical support to countries and monitoring and
    assessing health trends.
  • In the 21st century, health is a shared
    responsibility, involving equitable access to
    essential care and collective defence against
    transnational threats.
  • Vt http//www.who.int/research/en/
  • WHOSIS, the WHO Statistical Information System,
    is an interactive database bringing together core
    health statistics for the 193 WHO Member States.
    It comprises more than 70 indicators, which can
    be accessed by way of a quick search, by major
    categories, or through user-defined tables. The
    data can be further filtered, tabulated, charted
    and downloaded. The data are also published
    annually in the World Health Statistics Report

22
Life expectancy at birth, males, 2003Allikas WHO
23
Tervishoiukulutused inimese kohta, 2004(Allikas
WHO)
  • .

24
AIDSi levik maailmas(allikas WHO)
  • .

25
Hälbiv käitumine
  • Normi eiramine
  • Deviance describes actions or behaviors that
    violate cultural norms including formally-enacted
    rules (e.g., crime) as well as informal
    violations of social norms (e.g., nose-picking).
    It is the remit of sociologists and
    criminologists to study how these norms are
    created how they change over time and how they
    are enforced.
  • Anomie, in contemporary English language is a
    sociological term that signifies in individuals,
    an erosion, diminution or absence of personal
    norms, standards or values, and increased states
    of psychological normlessness. When applied to a
    government or society, anomie implies a social
    unrest. Emile Durkheim described anomie as a
    state of relative normlessness or a state in
    which norms have been eroded. A norm is an
    expectation of how people will behave, and it
    takes the form of a rule that is socially rather
    than formally enforced.
  • Arengukontekstis kuritegevus, alkoholism,
    tapmised, narkomaania

26
Hindajad
  • Vangid Kings College, UK http//www.kcl.ac.uk/sch
    ools/law/research/icps
  • Alkoholitarbimine WHO, http//en.wikipedia.org/wi
    ki/ImageAlcohol_consumption_per_capita_world_map.
    PNG
  • Tapmised Jeandre du Toit http//commons.wikimedi
    a.org/wiki/ImageMap-world-murder-rate.svg
  • Enesetapud WHO, http//www.who.int/mental_health/
    prevention/suicide/country_reports/en/index.html
  • AIDS WHO

27
Prison population EuropeAllikas
http//www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/law/research/icps
  • .

28
Prison population rates (per 100 000)
  • Russia 624
  • Belarus 426
  • Ukraine 345
  • Estonia 333
  • Latvia 292
  • Georgia 276
  • Moldova 247
  • Poland 238
  • Lithuania 235
  • Azerbaidjan 202
  • Czech Rep 186
  • Hungary 156
  • Romania 155
  • Slovakia 155
  • Bulgaria 148
  • Serbia 117
  • Armenia 89
  • Croatia 87
  • Slovakia 65
  • Bosnia and Hzg 64
  • .
  • India 30
  • Iceland 40
  • China 118
  • USA 737
  • Source International Centre for Prison Studies,
    Kings College, 2007

29
Vange 100 000 elaniku kohta, 2006
  • .

30
World alcohol consumption - litres per capita
http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ImageAlcohol_co
nsumption_per_capita_world_map.PNG
31
Tapmiste arv(100 000 elaniku kohta,
2004)(Allikas http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image
Map-world-murder-rate-red.svg)
  • .

32
Enesetappude arv 100 000 elaniku
kohta(Allikas http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image
SuicideRates.PNG)
33
Kommentaarid
  • 90 mehed!
  • Within the Western world, nearly 90 of all
    murders are committed by males, with males also
    being the victims of 74.6 of murders (according
    the US Department of Justice). There is a sharp
    peak in the age distribution of murderers between
    the ages of 17 and 30. People become decreasingly
    likely to commit a murder as they age.
  • Arvukus!
  • According to official statistics, about a million
    people die by suicide annually, more than those
    murdered or killed in war. Worldwide suicide
    rates have increased by 60 in the past 50 years,
    mainly in the developing countries. Most suicides
    in the world occur in Asia, which is estimated to
    account for up to 60 of all suicides. According
    to the World Health Organization, China, India
    and Japan may account for 40 of all world
    suicides.
  • In the Western world, males die much more often
    by means of suicide than do females, although
    females attempt suicide more often. This pattern
    has held for at least a century. Some medical
    professionals believe this stems from the fact
    that males are more likely to end their lives
    through effective violent means (guns, knives,
    hanging, etc.), while women primarily use more
    failure-prone methods such as overdosing on
    medications again, this has been the case for at
    least a century

34
Võrdsus, võrdsed võimalused
  • Gini indeks, sissetulekute jaotus, mõõdab UNDP
  • The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical
    dispersion most prominently used as a measure of
    inequality of income distribution or inequality
    of wealth distribution. It is defined as a ratio
    with values between 0 and 1 A low Gini
    coefficient indicates more equal income or wealth
    distribution, while a high Gini coefficient
    indicates more unequal distribution. 0
    corresponds to perfect equality (everyone having
    exactly the same income) and 1 corresponds to
    perfect inequality (where one person has all the
    income, while everyone else has zero income).
  • Sooline võrdõiguslikkus, mõõdavad paljud
  • UNDP - The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is a
    measure of inequalities between men's and women's
    opportunities in a country. It combines
    inequalities in three areas political
    participation and decision making, economic
    participation and decision making, and power over
    economic resources. It is one of the five
    indicators used by the United Nations Development
    Programme in its annual HDR
  • OECD - The OECD Gender, Institutions and
    Development Data Base (GID-DB) is a tool to
    determine and analyse obstacles to womens social
    and economic development. The data base, which
    was introduced by the OECD Development Centre on
    International Women's Day 2006, covers a total of
    160 countries and comprises an array of 60
    indicators on gender discrimination.
  • Vt http//stats.oecd.org/WBOS/Index.aspx?Dataset
    CodeGIDlangen

35
Majanduslik ebavõrdsus maailmas(allikas UNDP,
HDR 2007/08)
  • .

36
(No Transcript)
37
Sooline diskrimineerimineAllikas OECD
http//www.oecd.org/document/11/0,3343,en_2649_339
35_38205899_1_1_1_1,00.html
  • .

38
Miks võrdsus?
  • Sama mis vabadus individuaalse ressursi
    avanemine, surve demokraatiale ja inimõigustele
  • Eriline surve soolisele võrdõiguslikkusele
    MDG!?
  • Võrdsuse pahupool?
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