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Title: A%20Brief%20History%20of%20American%20Higher%20Education


1
A Brief History of American Higher Education
  • Karen Bauer
  • EDCE 644 Fall 2000

2
For Discussion Today
  • Syllabus
  • Assignments, Exam
  • Brief history of American Higher Ed
  • Think back to when you first entered college--
    what were your thoughts, feelings, fears,
    successes?
  • What is it about the college experience that
    makes it so highly valued?

3
Brief History
  • Earliest Colonial colleges began in 17th C.
  • originally designed to prepare men as clergy
  • clergy to thoroughly understand Latin writings
  • defend religious doctrine
  • 1606 Smith sets out for America
  • 1633 John Eliot proposed the establishment of
    Harvard
  • 1638 John Harvard donated personal land library
    for which school named after him

4
What was The Primary Mission of Colonial Colleges?
  • Education of clergy
  • Puritans extremely committed to their religious
    beliefs and wanted to educate children.
  • Considered a learned ministry vital to community
  • Who were earliest students?
  • Sons of wealthy land owners planning for ministry
  • had to read/write Latin Greek, translate
    classics into English participate in weekly
    declamations
  • concept of mall

5
Colonial College Administrators
  • Only a handful of individuals ran the college.
    These men completed all college operations--
    hired faculty, admitted students, invested ,
    purchased property, etc.
  • Harvard had a president, 5 fellows, a treasurer
    (all clerics). Also, in earliest colleges they
    serve life (or nearly) life terms.

6
After Harvard...
  • 1691 England ruled by 2 cousins- William Mary
  • 1693 - these new rulers granted royal charter for
    2nd Colonial college, WM.
  • It was structured after Queens College in
    Oxford.
  • Board of Trustees and faculty - 2 separate
    governing boards all property rights assigned to
    President.

7
William Mary
  • Faculty the governing body
  • Blair also head of Anglican Church in VA
  • had philosophy divinity school as well as
    school for American Indians
  • some students paid tuition, some supported by
    college. Much financial aid from tobacco taxes

8
More after Harvard.
  • Collegiate School in Connecticut Yale, 1701 A
    reformed Puritan college - purpose to protect
    the faith of the fathers
  • 1746 - College of NJ at Princeton, NJ chartered
    by King George, III.
    Despite its religious orientation, the
    school did not exclude any person of any
    denomination, So Princeton broke
    the strongly religious mold others followed-
    Brown, Columbia

9
Historical Climate
  • Much turmoil as colonies are forming England
    tightens control
  • 1752 French English War
  • 1773 Boston Tea Party
  • 1776 Declare Independence
  • so in mid-late 1700s we see colleges moving away
    from Church
  • First actual non-church college was College of
    Philadelphia in 1749. A broad practical kind
    of education by Ben Franklin

10
More colleges form
  • Rhode Island College founded as Baptist
    institution in 1764 later changed name to Brown
    (Nicholas Brown primary donor)
  • Queens College - 1766 - later Rutgers
  • last colonial college was Dartmouth - 1769

11
9 Colonial Colleges
  • 1636 Harvard
  • 1693 William Mary
  • 1701 Yale
  • 1746 Princeton
  • 1754 Columbia
  • 1755 U of Pennsylvania
  • 1764 Brown
  • 1766 Rutgers
  • 1969 Dartmouth

12
After Revolutionary War
  • 1782 Washington College
  • 1785 U. of Georgia
  • 1785 Coll. of Charleston
  • 1789 U. North Carolina
  • 1791 U. Vermont
  • 1794 Bowdoin
  • 1833 Newark College

13
After 1800
  • After 1800, private colleges in financial
    difficulty
  • Board of trustees move to laymen
  • Students see higher education as a means to
    worldly advancement more than spiritual salvation
  • 1819 - University of Virginia - first
    state-controlled university. Thom. Jefferson to
    diffuse and advance knowledge.

14
Morrill Land Grant Acts
  • 1862 - 1st Morrill Land Grant Act provided
  • support in every state for agric mechanic arts
  • public lands - 30,000 acres for each senator
    rep.
  • Funds must be put in endowment at 5 interest
  • if not used in 5 yrs, returned to federal govt.
  • 1890 - 2nd Morrill Land Grant Act provided
    regular (ongoing) federal appropriations
  • from this Delaware revived Delaware College

15
Cornell University
  • Andrew White studied at Yale, visited Oxford
    Cambridge
  • conceived the idea of Amer. University free from
    sectarian contol dreamed of learned professors,
    classical practical prgms, and physically
    conducive buildings
  • 1864 White was US senator, met Ezra Cornell
  • White persuaded Cornell to found new school
  • Cornell chartered in 1865, White president

16
Cornell University
  • I would found an institution in which any person
    can find instruction in any study.
  • No caste system
  • All courses equally prestigious
  • Students did work-study
  • Scientific studies emphasized in all fields
  • Real purpose of education was to develop
    individual to their fullest for useful roles in
    society.

17
Minorities and Women
  • 1862 White proposed admitting women and blacks
  • 1872 first womans dorm built, but blacks not
    admitted for another 100 years
  • 1854 - Lincoln University opened Oberlin,
    Bowdoin, Amherst admit blacks
  • 1881 - Tuskegee founded by Booker T. Washington

18
Graduate Schools
  • 1861 - Yale awarded 1st Ph.D but formalized
    program not established until 1872
  • 1872 Harvard began Grad Sch. Arts Sciences
  • Hopkins planned to be premier graduate school
  • hired foremost scholars was faculty-centered
    institution only cream of crop students
  • U of Chicago, Clark followed Hopkins model
  • In general, grad pgms did not prepare students
    for teaching and did little to broaden knowledge

19
Students Make Their Mark in History
  • 1900-1920s - students remembered as relatively
    quiet no great activism, no controversy.
  • Yes drinking-- 1903 survey found 90 drink in
    frosh year 95 drink in senior year
  • 1913 - corsets out, skirts raised to 6 above
    floor
  • 1920s - hedonism was high, cars, radios more
    available
  • 1929 crash changes the mood between 1929-34
    50-85 male undergrads unemployed

20
Students Make Their Mark
  • During WWI and II students didnt know if they
    would get to finish college or serve
  • end of WWII - GI Bill launched
  • mid-end 1940s time of great growth
  • 1950s - back to lost commitment, little
    controversy, no one wanted to rock the boat
  • 1960s - commitment, relevance, pot. Also time
    of huge increase in colleges and number of
    students

21
Proportion of 18-21 year olds enrolled in college
out of 100 individuals
Based on ACE (1997) Flint (1997)
Center for the Study of Higher Education Dr. A.
F. Cabrera
22
Enrollment in Higher Education 1900-2010 projected
Millions
16
?
?
14
?
?
12
10
?
8
Estimate
6
4
?
?
2
?
?
?
?
1900
1910
1920
1930
1950
1940
2010
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
23
Clark Kerr
  • president of University of California system
  • one if not the most instrumental person in
    creating American HE system
  • 4 contributions
  • modernized and mass-produced the research univ.
  • developed a vocabulary philsophy to define the
    university
  • incorporated diversity instit. Types
    universal access
  • directed largest scale assessment reform effort
    in history of HE

24
Recent Decades
  • 1980s and 1990s - end of post WWII expansion
    growth.
  • Downsizing, rightsizing, fiscal constraints,
    faculty productivity are the new buzzwords
  • Research Universities especially criticized for
    esoteric research, little emphasis on teaching,
    undergrad curriculum, assessment

25
Where Are We Now?
  • Renewed emphasis on the teaching and learning
    process
  • Continued support in tying student life
    activities to a central core of student learning
  • More diverse student body
  • Wider range of reasons for enrolling in college

26
Percent of Women enrolled
Source 1998 Chronicle of Higher Educations
Almanac Issue
Center for the Study of Higher Education Dr. A.
F. Cabrera
27
College-Age Populations (18-24 years and
25- 29 years) with projections1983-2008
millions
50
40
18-24 year old population
30
20
25-29 year old population
10
0
1983
1988
1993
1998
2003
2008
year
Source NCES
28
College Participation Rates 18-24 year Old High
School Graduates
Center for the Study of Higher Education Dr. A.
F. Cabrera
Source of data Carter D.J., Wilson, R.
(1997). Minorities in Higher Education 1996-97
15th Annual Status Report. Washington, DC.
American Council on Education.
29
Percentage of Adults with a Bachelor's Degree or
Higher 1990
23
19
20
18
22
21
24
18
18
24
17
23
19
27
17
21
18
19
17
15
27
17
16
22
25
21
23
12
27
27
21
25
18
14
21
33
17
16
20
18
13
20
17
20
19
16
15
16
20
23
18
23
23
18 to 22
FV Volkwein, PSU
0 to 17
30
PROJECTED PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN NUMBER OF HIGH
SCHOOL GRADUATES 1996-97 to 2006-07
29
10
5
-19
14
17
17
39
-12
29
-7
7
15
13
-18
27
16
21
-5
1
17
79
3
3
33
-6
17
-17
36
20
19
12
35
51
7
-2
24
14
-2
42
16
4
9
30
-4
3
15
-16
40 and above
25
57
20 to 39
10
1 to 19
Decrease to 0
FV Volkwein, PSU
31
Average Tuition and Fees at 4-Year Public,
Private Campuses
1991
16,000
14,508
14,000
1999
12,000
10,017
10,000
8,000
6,000
3,243
4,000
2,137
2,000
0
Four-Year Public
Four-Year Private
Percent Increase Four Year Public 52 Four Year
Private 45
32
Average Tuition and Fees For In-State
Undergraduates at 4 Year Public Colleges
Universities, Fall 1999
9,000
8,044
8,000
6,939
7,000
6,436
6,072
5,398
6,000
4,939
5,489
4,453
5,008
5,000
4,134
3,957
4,000
3,339
3,243
3,000
2,568
2,000
1,000
0
CUNY
Plattsburgh
Ohio State
U Conn
U West Virginia
National Average
Rutgers College
Penn State
U New Hampshire
U Mass Amherst
SUNY - Albany
U Maryland
U Delaware
U Vermont
FV Volkwein, PSU
33
Median Family Income by Educational Attainment of
Householder 1956 to 1996
?
?
5 Years College
Bachelors Degree
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
1-3 Years College
?
Median Family Income in Constant 1966 Dollars
?
?
?
?
?
?
High School
?
?
?
?
?
?
1-3 Years High School
?
?
?
?
?
Eighth Grade
?
?
Cabrera-
34
December 1999 unemployment rates of the civilian
population 25 years and over by educational level
(seasonally adjusted)
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -- USA

Overall 4.1
Dr. Alberto F. Cabrera
SourceTerenzini, Cabrera Bernal (2000).
Swimming against the tide.
35
Rates of Return for University Level Education,
above a high school equivalent (1995 Report)
30
28
25
21
21
20
20
14
14
14
15
12
11
Men
10
8
8
7
5
Women
0
FV Volkwein, PSU
36
Theories of Student Change
  • Since 1960s- introduction of several theories
    models of student growth and change
  • Developmental theories
  • seek to ID dimensions and structures of growth in
    college, and to explain the dynamics by which
    growth occurs
  • movement from general to specific
  • toward differentiation, integration, complexity
  • generally hierarchic, structured
  • due to biological or psychological or interaction

37
Variety of Theories and Models
  • Psychosocial - view development thru age
    maturation, sociocultural, environmental
    influences
  • Erikson, Chickering, Marcia, Cross, Heath
  • Cognitive (Structural) - describe process of
    change in cognitive structures hierarchical
  • Piaget, Kohlberg, Perry, Gilligan, Kitchner
    King, Loevinger

38
Theories and Models of Change
  • Typological Models - examine differences among
    individuals
  • Kolb, Myers-Briggs, Sociodemogrpahic, Personality
    Styles
  • Person-Environment Interaction Theories - not
    really developmental dont try to explain growth
  • Astin, Pace, Holland, Tinto, Moos, Stern,

39
College Impact Models -
  • Dont focus on internal process , but do examine
    external process and origins of change
  • Spady Student Access - Experience - Performance
    (1970, 1971)
  • Astin Input - Environment - Output (1970)
  • Astin/Pace Theory of Involvement (1985)
  • Pascarella Model for Assessing Student Change
    (1985)
  • Weidman Model for Undergraduate Socialization
    (1989)

40
Astins I - E - O Model
Environment
A
B
Inputs
Outputs
C
41
Spadys (1971) Empirical Model of the
Undergraduate Dropout Process
42
Pascarellas (1985) General Causal Model
43
Metzner and Beans (1987) Conceptual Model of
Nontraditional Student Attrition
44
Tintos (1993) Longitudinal Model of
Institutional Departure
Goals/Commitments
Institutional Experiences
Pre-entry Attributes
Integration
Outcome
Goals/Commitments
Academic System
Family Background
Academic Integration
Skills and Abilities
Departure Decision
Social Integration
Prior Schooling
Social System
Time
45
The Role of Finances in the Persistence Process
(Cabrera, Nora, and Castaneda (1992))
Financial Aid
Academic Intellectual Development
Institutional Commitment
Pre-college Academic Performance
Intent to Persist
Persistence Decisions
GPA
Goal Commitment
Significant Others Encouragement
Social Integration
Financial Attitudes
46
The Student Learning Model
Institutional Context
Coursework Curricular Patterns
Student Pre-college Traits
Out-of-Class Experiences
Learning Outcomes
Classroom Experiences
---- Reciprocal effects
Source Terenzini, et al., 1995
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