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PINEHURST SURGICAL CLINIC, P'A' OSHA Training March 2003

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Title: PINEHURST SURGICAL CLINIC, P'A' OSHA Training March 2003


1
PINEHURST SURGICAL CLINIC, P.A. OSHA Training
March 2003
2
OSHA
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,
    the law that created OSHA, spells out certain
    duties for all employers and employees.
  • Basically, employers are responsible to provide a
    safe work environment and employees are
    responsible to ensure their own safety.

3
Safety and Health Hazards
  • Imminent Dangers-are hazards that can reasonably
    be expected to cause death or serious physical
    harm immediately.
  • Serious Hazards-can cause an accident or health
    hazard exposure resulting in death or serious
    physical harm.
  • Other-than-serious hazards-lack the potential for
    causing serious physical harm, but could have a
    direct impact on employee safety and health.

4
Electrical Safety
  • Hazards of Electricity
  • Shock
  • Burns
  • Arc-Blast
  • Explosions
  • Fires
  • Causes of Electrical Accidents
  • Unsafe equipment and/or installation
  • Unsafe workplaces caused by environmental factors
  • Unsafe work practices

5
Preventing Electrical Accidents
Insulation Frayed cord
  • Insulation
  • no frayed cords
  • Electrical protective equipment
  • fuses, circuit breakers, cover plates
  • Guarding
  • access by authorized personnel only

6
Preventing Electrical Accidents
  • By not following outlined recommendations, the
    potential effects can lead to electrical shock,
    burns and electrocution from contact with live
    parts.
  • Do not bring items from home to work because of
    the risk of having an unpolarized two plug
    connection that can become ungrounded.

Standard 29 CFR 1910.304 (f)(4)
7
Lock Out/ Tag Out
  • This procedure is applicable to any shut-down for
    any maintenance, inspection, cleaning, adjustment
    or servicing of equipment (electrical, mechanical
    or other) that requires entrance into or close
    contact with the machinery or equipment.
  • The main power disconnect or lever controlling
    its source of power or flow of material will be
    locked out and tagged. These procedures apply
    to, but are not limited to, building and grounds
    maintenance personnel.

8
Evacuation Protocols
  • Fire
  • Tornado
  • Earth Quake
  • Hurricane
  • Act of God

9
Fire Safety
  • Remain calm, turn off equipment, close
    doors/windows, and evacuate quickly following the
    procedures outlined in our Fire Escape Plan.
  • The most important step in the fire escape
    procedure is to verify that everyone is out of
    the building. This should be confirmed before
    attempting to extinguish the fire. Be sure to
    report to your assembly area for accountability.
  • Learn the location of the fire extinguishers in
    your area.
  • Fire Drills are held 4 times per year.

10
WEATHER WHAT IS A WATCH?
  • A WATCH means conditions are right for a tornado
    and/or hurricane to develop. Plan your action.
  • If a WATCH is issued
  • Keep the radio or TV tuned to weather casts.
  • Be alert for changes in the weather.
  • Be prepared to move to a safe shelter.

11
WEATHER WHAT IS A WARNING?
  • A WARNING means a tornado and/or hurricane has
    been sighted. Seek shelter.
  • If a WARNING is issued
  • Seek shelter
  • Seek the interior rooms on lower floors
  • Stay away from windows, exterior walls, and large
    open rooms.

12
Things to Remember in a Weather Emergency
  • Move to the center of the building or your
    departments designated area if there are violent
    weather conditions.
  • Keep away from file cabinets and other objects
    which may fall.
  • Do not use matches or lighters in the event there
    is a loss of power. Have emergency flash lights
    available.
  • Avoid elevators!
  • Remain calm. Reassure others nearby.
  • Help patients.
  • Watch out for falling plaster, bricks, light
    fixtures and other objects.
  • Stay in the building unless you are in immediate
    danger.

13
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • Any life threatening condition (e.g. heart
    attack, stroke, hemorrhage)
  • The following procedures are to be followed in
    the event of a Code 4
  • 1. Patient goes into Code 4 condition.
  • 2. Nurse or person on the scene notifies nearest
    secretary of Code 4 incident and location. Nurse
    then returns to the patient and attempts
    resuscitation.

14
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • 3. Secretary immediately implements the following
    procedures a. Dial 604 on the phone (paging
    system) and announces      CODE 4, DEPARTMENT
    NAME ____________ b. Calls Rescue Squad - 911 c.
    Informs business office receptionist in their
    department of Code 4 and location. d. Calls the
    switchboard, Ext. 200 for names of doctors in
    that morning and/or afternoon. e. Stays at the
    desk and acts as central information point.

15
WHAT IS A CODE 4 ?
  • 4 . Business office receptionist, after
    notification by secretary immediately goes to
    main hallway in front of department and directs
    incoming personnel and doctors to location of
    Code 4 incident.
  • 5. One nurse or lab technician from each
    department is to come to Code 4 scene. These
    personnel are designated and if not present would
    be replaced by other nurses and/or lab personnel
    in department.
  • 6. Code 4 physicians are designated as any
    physician in the clinic at time of Code 4. There
    should be at least 2 physicians available for
    each half-day session. Also, any physician in
    department where Code 4 occurs, if in, is to be
    present. They will be notified by personnel in
    department.

16
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • 7. Identical crash carts are located in each
    department for a Code 4 situation.
  • If your crash cart does not have a
    defibrillator, designate a department which does
    and have them transport their defibrillator to
    your department in the event of a Code 4
    situation.
  • The following departments have defibrillators Gen
    eral Surgery/Cardiac-Thoracic, Orthopaedic, Head
    and Neck.

17
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • 8. If a Code 4 situation occurs in an area
    without a crash cart
  • On the second floor, Head and Neck should bring
    their crash cart in response to the Code.
  • In Medical Records or the Lab,  General
    Surgery/Cardiac-Thoracic should bring their crash
    cart in response to the Code.

18
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • 9. Business office receptionist, after directing
    Code 4 respondents to Code 4 scene are to locate
    and direct incoming ambulance/rescue to Code 4
    scene.
  • 10. Personnel in other departments, upon hearing
    Code 4 announcement are to immediately notify
    designated Code 4 personnel and physicians in the
    clinic that day of occurring Code 4 and location.

19
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • 11. The Code 4 response team should designate a
    Team Leader (the most qualified person at the
    scene) and a Recorder (a person who records all
    events on paper).
  • 12. After Code 4 incident is resolved, those
    designated personnel involved will fill out the
    appropriate forms and forward to the Human
    Resources Department.

20
WHAT IS A CODE 4?
  • Code 4 Designated Response Teams
  • These employees are responsible for responding to
    a Code 4 emergency situation. The primary
    employee should always respond first. If the
    primary employee is not available, the back-up
    employee should respond. If neither are
    available, the next most qualified employee in
    the department should respond. NOTE This list is
    subject to change at any time. You will be
    informed from time to time of any changes.

21
CODE 4 RESPONSE TEAMS
  • General Surgery  
  • Teresa Ussery, Primary
  • Heather McInnis, Back-up
  • Urology Department
  • Jamie Wesner, Primary
  • Amanda Dorset, Backup
  • Lab
  • Risa McCaskill, Primary
  • Denise Williams, Backup

22
CODE 4 RESPONSE TEAMS
  • Head and Neck
  • Melinda McKay, Primary
  • Paula Fields, Backup
  • Orthopedics
  • Debbie Marks, Primary
  • BJ Goodridge, Backup
  • OB-GYN
  • Susan McBrayer, Primary
  • Carol Mark, Backup

23
CODE 4 RESPONSE TEAMS
  • Neurosurgery
  • Jennifer McKay, Primary
  • Cardio-Thoracic 
  • Michelle Steen, Primary
  • Vascular
  • Kim Ussery, Primary

24
Hazard Communication Standard The Right to Know
  • The Right to Know Law requires that employees be
    protected from occupational exposure to hazardous
    chemicals
  • The Hazard Communication Standard involves
    anyone who comes into contact with hazardous
    chemicals
  • The standard covers MSDS, Labels/Labeling,
    Written HAZCOM Policy, and Employee Information
    and Training

25
MSDS
  • Manufacturers prepare a Material Safety Data
    Sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous product they
    make.
  • Purchasing Department is responsible to obtain a
    copy of the MSDS for each product we buy.
  • All MSDS information is kept online in our MSDS
    database. This database will also contain a
    Summary Hazardous Chemical Substance List.
  • As new products/chemicals are ordered, the
    departments must review the MSDS, be familiar
    with the risks associated with the chemicals, use
    the appropriate PPE and be prepared to handle
    emergency actions in the event of a chemical
    spill.

26
MSDS
  • MSDS Information includes
  • Chemical Identification The introductory
    section includes chemical manufacturers name,
    address and emergency phone number, the chemical
    name, trade name, and chemical formula.
  • Hazardous ingredients Section lists hazardous
    ingredients.
  • Physical Data lists important physical
    properties of the chemical, like boiling point,
    vapor density, percent volatile, appearance and
    odor, etc.
  • Fire and Explosion Data The section determines
    the flash point, which is the temperature at
    which a chemical will release enough flammable
    vapor to ignite.
  • Health Hazard Data describes health effects
    associated with being overexposed to the chemical
    through ingestion, inhalation, and skin or eye
    contact.
  • Reactivity Data this information helps you
    determine if the chemical will react with other
    chemicals or conditions that may cause explosion,
    burns, or release of toxic substances under
    certain conditions.

27
MSDS
  • MSDS Information includes
  • Spill or leak procedures outlines procedures to
    follow when a chemical is accidentally released
    or spilled. It will also cover cleanup and
    protective equipment needed to contain the spill
    and proper disposal.
  • Special protection information this is a
    listing of special protective equipment that is
    recommended when working with this chemical, like
    gloves, goggles, respirators, etc.
  • Special precautions discusses any additional
    special precautions to be taken when handling and
    storing the chemical.

28
Labeling of Containers
  • Identity of hazardous chemicals-Aloe Guard,
    Isopropyl Alcohol, etc.
  • Appropriate hazard warnings- Caution, Danger,
    harmful if inhaled, Eye Irritant, etc
  • Name and address of manufacturer
  • The original container should be properly
    labeled upon receipt from the manufacturer.
  • Chemicals which are not in the original
    container require labels containing the products
    brand name, chemical name, manufacturers name and
    phone number, and hazard warning to include
    target organs.

29
Spill Clean-Up
  • Each Department has a BIOHAZARD AND CHEMICAL
    SPILL KIT.
  • Kit Contents
  • LATEX GLOVES
  • DISPOSABLE SURGICAL GOWN DISPOSABLE SHOE COVERS
  • EYE PROTECTION PAPER TOWELS
  • CAT LITTER/ABSORBENT MATERIAL SHOVEL
  • WHITE PLASTIC BAG ANTISEPTIC HAND
    TOILETTE RED BIOHAZARD BAG
  • ALWAYS refer to the MSDS for specific clean-up
    procedures for that chemical agent.

30
Infectious Waste Disposal
  • ALL REGULATED infectious waste must be placed in
    a RED BIOHAZARD bag/container. These should be
    located in each exam room or procedure room.
  • Contaminated needles and other sharps must be
    placed in appropriately labeled, red leak proof
    containers immediately after use.
  • Once these containers are ¾ full, they are to be
    taken to the lab department. These containers are
    then placed in a larger box for disposal and
    secured in the designated pick up area outside of
    the central lab facility. BFI is a contracted
    company that will pick these items up for
    disposal.
  • These same procedures should be utilized at our
    satellite facilities as well.

31
Infectious Waste Disposal
  • ALL NON-REGULATED WASTE can be placed in a
    regular waste bag or other white bags that may be
    marked with the biohazard symbol which indicates
    medical waste. These items will go to the
    landfill for disposal.

32
Bloodborne Pathogens Modes of Transmission
  • Sexual Contact
  • Mucous membrane exposure
  • Transfusion with infected blood
  • Infected mother to her infant during pregnancy or
    at the time of birth (HIV)
  • Contaminated instruments (HBV/HCV).

33
Personal Protective Equipment
  • PSC provides all PPE for employees. This
    includes gloves, mask, eye/face protection,
    gowns, aprons, lab coats, surgical caps and
    hoods, shoe covers and boots.

34
HIV Facts
  • 1/300 Americans is infected with HIV
  • Eighth leading cause of death in U.S.
  • Annual Death rate for AIDS is 1 Million worldwide.
  • Adolescent AIDS cases increased 260 in the past
    two years.
  • 55 of all AIDS cases are reported from five
    states NY, California, Florida, New Jersey, and
    Texas.

35
HIV - Symptoms
  • FATIGUE
  • FEVER
  • SKIN LESIONS
  • WEIGHT LOSS
  • SWOLLEN LYMPH GLANDS (NECK, UNDERARM, GROIN)
  • NIGHT SWEATS
  • MOUTH SORES
  • DECREASED APPETITE
  • DIARRHEA
  • NEUROLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS

36
Hepatitis B Facts for Healthcare Workers
  • Hepatitis B infection is the major infectious
    occupational hazard to healthcare workers.
  • Hepatitis B is a viral infection causing
    inflammation of the liver. Similar symptoms can
    be caused by a number of other viruses,
    medications, and chemicals. Hepatitis B can be
    found in virtually all body fluids and secretions
  • Annually, it is estimated that 300,000 cases of
    HBV infections occur 10,000 hospitalizations, and
    250 deaths.
  • Without pre-or post-exposure prophylaxis, 6-30
    of non-immune healthcare workers who sustain an
    exposure from an infectious source develop
    hepatitis B infection.

37
Hepatitis B - Symptoms
  • ANOREXIA
  • MALAISE
  • NAUSEA
  • VOMITING
  • ABDOMINAL DISCOMFORT
  • JAUNDICE
  • RASH
  • MILD FEVER
  • CIRRHOSIS
  • LIVER CANCER

38
Hepatitis B Vaccination
The hepatitis B vaccine is made available to all
employees who have occupational exposure. This
vaccination is available at no cost to the
employee. Each employee will receive training
and if necessary initial vaccination within 10
working days of hire or job change.
39
Hepatitis B
  • The vaccine is not available for employees who
  • Have been previously vaccinated.
  • Known immunity according to antibody testing
  • Hypersensitivity to yeast, receiving
    hemodialysis, immunosuppressed
  • Each employee must receive a physicians approval
    to begin immunization.
  • Pregnant or lactating women (need written consent
    from physician)
  • No other prescreening is required.

40
Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis C was formerly known as Non A- non B
    hepatitis and was traditionally
    transfusion-associated. But it now affects
    healthcare workers and drug needle users. It is
    also a virus that causes inflammation of the
    liver. Hepatitis C is transmitted in the same
    manner as Hepatitis B. It also manifests similar
    symptoms as HBV.

41
Hepatitis C Facts
  • 60 of all persons infected with the hepatitis C
    virus develop chronic hepatitis.
  • No immunization exists against HCV, and there is
    no cure.
  • Information regarding the transmission of
    hepatitis C is still being compiled.
  • NC Bloodborne Pathogen Policy, JAN 95

42
Tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis, TB, is a disease caused by bacteria
    called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria
    can attack any part of your body, but usually
    attack the lungs.
  • TB is spread through the air from one person to
    another. The bacteria are put into the air when
    a person with TB sneezes or throat coughs.
    People near by may breathe in these bacteria and
    become infected.
  • The clinic performs TB testing prior to
    employment and annually thereafter for all
    employees.

43
TB Symptoms
  • A bad cough that lasts longer than two weeks
  • Pain in chest
  • Coughing up blood or sputum
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Weight Loss
  • No appetite
  • Chills, Fever, Night Sweats

44
BCG Vaccination
  • BCG (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin) is a
    vaccine for controlling TB. This vaccine is not
    widely used in the U.S., but is often given to
    infants and small children in countries where TB
    is common. BCG DOES NOT ALWAYS PROTECT PEOPLE
    FROM TB.

45
Exposure Control
  • EXPOSURE DETERMINATION is conducted upon hire
    and annually for all staff to determine if job
    related tasks and procedures place an employee at
    risk (high, medium or low risk) to exposure to
    HBV and HIV .
  • Examples of job related tasks evaluated
  • Injections and immunizations, Handling
    contaminated sharps
  • Lab tests on body fluids, Invasive procedures
  • Vaginal exams and procedures
  • Starting IVs, Phlebotomy
  • Minor surgical procedures, Cleaning up body fluid
    spills
  • Dressing changes and wound care
  • Handling contaminated laundry or containers of
    infectious waste

46
Exposure Incident
  • An exposure incident occurs when a patients
    body fluids may have gained entry into an
    employee. Should this occur, the employee must
    quickly follow these procedures
  • Wash the exposed area with soap and running water
    and stimulate blood flow.
  • Notify your Supervisor immediately
  • Complete the Employee Exposure to Potentially
    Infectious Human Blood and Body Fluid Form. This
    form will lead you through all protocol steps and
    is available on the Intranet.

47
ERGONOMICS
A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY ACTIVITY DEALING WITH THE
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE AND THEIR TOTAL
WORKING ENVIRONMENT PLUS SUCH TRADITIONAL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS AS ATMOSPHERE, HEAT, LIGHT
AND SUN, AS WELL AS TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT OF THE
WORKPLACE.
48
GOALS OF ERGONOMICS
  • AMPLIFY HUMAN CAPABILITIES
  • UTILIZE HUMAN ABILITIES
  • FACILITATE HUMAN EFFICIENCY
  • AVOID OVERLOADING OR UNDERLOADING
  • MAKE THE WORKPLACE USER FRIENDLY

49
WHAT ERGONOMICS IS NOT!
  • IT IS NOT JUST USING A CHECKLIST AND GUIDELINES
  • NOT USING ONESELF AS THE DESIGN
  • DOES NOT APPLY TO THE ENTIRE WORKPLACE. IT IS
    JOB SPECIFIC
  • NOT JUST COMMON SENSE

50
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Signs and
Symptoms
  • Signs are documented, objective physical findings
    that an employee may be developing an MSD.
    Examples of signs include
  • decreased range of motion
  • deformity
  • decreased grip strength
  • loss of function

51
MSD Signs and Symptoms
  • Examples of symptoms include
  • numbness
  • burning
  • pain
  • tingling
  • cramping
  • stiffness

52
Workplace Organization
  • Make sure that you organize your work area
  • Have sufficient desk area which allows you to
    position your keyboard, mouse, display, document
    holder and other items (such as a telephone) in
    the way that works best for you.
  • Organize your desk to reflect the way you use
    work materials and equipment. Place the things
    that you use most regularly, such as a mouse or
    telephone, within the easiest reach.
  • Vary your tasks and take periodic breaks. This
    helps to reduce the possibility of discomfort or
    fatigue.

53
Eyes, Head and Neck
  • Viewing the monitor with a straight neck and
    head posture reduces the risk of neck discomfort.
  • Positioning papers adjacent to the monitor, or
    directly in front of or below the monitor,
    improves head posture and reduces neck pain.
  • It will also improve the readability of the copy
    and reduce eyestrain.

54
Eyes, Head and Neck
  • The proper viewing distance to the monitor is
    determined by many factors.
  • Some of the factors are character size and
    contrast of characters, and your own visual
    needs.
  • It is recommended that you be a minimum of 20"
    away from your monitor. If the size of your
    monitor is more than 17" diagonally, the distance
    may be increased, even to 30" (50-75 cm) or more.
  • For flat screen displays (portable computers),
    you may need to be closer.

55
Eyes, Head and Neck
  • Move your monitor directly behind your keyboard.
  • With your monitor turned off, face your computer
    and sit as you typically sit when you are working
    on the computer.
  • Close your eyes.
  • Position your head in its most "natural" posture
    (your muscles should be as relaxed as possible).
    You may want to move your head around to find
    this position.
  • Open your eyes.
  • Identify the place on your monitor that you see
    first. This should be approximately 2" from the
    top of your display area (not the top of the
    monitor).

56
The Keyboard
  • Comfortable use depends on keyboard height, arm
    position and touch. You are seated correctly if
  • The keyboard is positioned so that your arms are
    relaxed and comfortable, and your forearms are
    roughly horizontal.
  • Your shoulders are in a relaxed position, not
    hunched up.
  • Place the mouse close to the keyboard so that
    you can use it without stretching or leaning over
    to one side.

57
The Keyboard
  • Your wrists should be extended straight, not
    bent up or down uncomfortably.
  • If you use a wrist/palm rest, it should NOT be
    used while actually keying but in between periods
    of keying.
  • Your hands should glide over the keys. Hands
    remaining in a fixed position cause fingers to
    over-reach for the keys. Use a light touch for
    keying, keeping your hands and fingers relaxed.

58
Eyes, Head and Neck
  • Cradling the phone between your head and
    shoulder contributes to neck and shoulder
    discomfort.
  • If you infrequently cradle the phone between
    your head and shoulder, consider attaching a
    phone hand cradle.
  • If you frequently cradle the phone between your
    head and shoulder, consider obtaining a phone
    head set. There are many styles available.

59
The Chair
  • The chair is one of the most important items in
    your workplace. It can encourage good posture and
    circulation and so help you to avoid discomfort.
    Select a chair that is comfortable for you it
    should be adjustable and provide good back
    support. You should adjust your chair so that
  • Your thighs are horizontal and there is support
    for your lower back. If your chair has
    insufficient adjustment, lower back support may
    be improved with a cushion.

60
The Chair
Your feet rest flat on the floor when you are
seated and using your keyboard. If you cannot do
this, your chair is probably too high and you
should use a footrest. You should change your
sitting position occasionally during the work
day. Sitting in a fixed position for too long can
induce discomfort.
61
Lower Extremities
  • If you don't have enough space for your legs,
    feet and thighs, you have to twist your body to
    work. This can be uncomfortable to your legs,
    back and arms.
  • An adjustable keyboard tray may provide more
    thigh clearance.
  • Lower your chair.
  • Raise your work surface.
  • Clear out materials, wires, equipment, and
    papers stored within your leg space.
  • Move your computer away from credenzas or other
    inhibiting furniture to an area with sufficient
    leg clearance.

62
Lower Extremities
  • While you are seated, good lumbar support to the
    small of your back increases comfort and reduces
    fatigue in your entire body.
  • If possible, adjust the back of your chair to
    reposition the lumbar area to better fit your
    lower back.
  • Use a lumbar support (cushion or pillow).
  • Try another chair.

63
Back Injury Prevention
64
Our Knack for Bad Backs
  • It is estimated that 8 out of 10 Americans will
    have a back problem at some time in their lives.
  • Back pain is one of the most common health
    problems affecting working people in the U.S.
  • It affects people of all ages and in all
    occupations-those whose jobs require heavy
    physical labor and those whose jobs keep them
    seated for most of the day.

65
Back Injury Prevention
  • Causes of Back Strain
  • The way you perform your tasks, and the way you
    treat your back and yourself.
  • It is when a person is tired and careless that
    strains can occur.
  • Remember to slow down and ask for assistance if
    you need to lift things that are too heavy for
    you too handle.
  • Anytime you intend to take on a job that you are
    not accustomed to, or begin a new job requiring
    more use of your back, you must train yourself to
    meet the new exertion.

66
Back Injury Prevention
  • Are you at risk?
  • You are most at risk for back pain if
  • Your job requires frequent bending and lifting
  • You must twist your body when lifting and
    carrying an object
  • You must lift and carry in a hurry
  • You are overweight
  • You do not exercise regularly or do not engage in
    recreational activities
  • You smoke

67
How to Work Properly and Avoid Strain
  • There is a right and a wrong way to do
    everything, even if your job only requires you to
    stand or sit.
  • Standing ordinary standing strains the back. To
    remove strain, stand with your hips flexed.
  • Sitting Distribute your weight evenly and do not
    be twisted in the chair. Your back should be
    supported by the back of the chair, and your feet
    should be firmly on the floor.

68
How to Work Properly and Avoid Strain
  • Moving Patients
  • To move a patient lying on an exam table to a
    wheelchair, put the wheelchair close to the table
    and lock the wheels.
  • If the patient is not strong enough to sit up,
    place one of your arms behind the patients legs
    and place your other arm under the patients
    back.
  • Move the patients legs over the edge of the
    table while pivoting his or her body so the
    patient ends up sitting on the edge of the table.
  • Keep your feet shoulder-width apart, your knees
    bent and your back in a natural straight position
    as you help the patient sit upright on the table.

69
How to Work Properly and Avoid Strain
  • Moving Patients
  • Standing up
  • If the patient needs assistance getting out of a
    chair, face the patient, spread your feet
    shoulder-width apart, and bend your knees.
  • Position the persons feet firmly on the floor
    and slightly apart.
  • The persons hands should be on the bed or
    armchair or on your shoulders.
  • Place your arms around the persons back and
    clasp your hands together or use a transfer belt
    which fits around the persons waist and provides
    a secure handhold.
  • Hold the person close to you, lean back, and
    shift your weight as you lift the person to an
    upright position.

70
How to Work Properly and Avoid Strain
  • Moving Patients
  • Sitting Down
  • Pivot toward the chair, bend your knees, and
    lower the person into the chair. The person
    should have both hands on the arms of the chair
    before you lower him/her down.
  • Caring
  • Caregivers who assist seated or reclining persons
    for long periods of time should stand with their
    knees bent and their back in a natural straight
    position. Dont bend at your waist.

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What to do In Case of Injury
  • If your back catches or has a sudden, painful
    muscle spasm at work, you can
  • Relieve the pain by assuming a squatting
    position.
  • Sitting on a chair or bench and leaning forward
    for a short time can also be beneficial.
  • Lying down and supporting your legs on a chair or
    bench for a time can also help. Be sure to relax
    and do this for 20-30 minutes.
  • Ice packs help reduce the initial pain and
    swelling.
  • Most back pain disappears in a few days.
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