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A Guide to Concrete Performance

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Title: A Guide to Concrete Performance


1
A Guide to Concrete Performance
  • Dr. Bryan Magee

2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Law Courts, Bordeaux
5
Canary Wharf, London
6
The Millau Viaduct, France
7
My living room
8
Scope
  • Properties in the design process
  • Options for modifying properties
  • How properties can be measured
  • How each property is determined in EC2
  • How values may be used in design

9
Structural design
  • Compressive strength

10
Structural design
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile and flexural strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Bond strength
  • Creep shrinkage
  • Coefficient of thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance


11
  • BS EN 1992-1-1, Table 3.1

12
Concrete performance
13
Portland cement
14
Portland cement
15
Cement hydration
  • Calcium
  • Silica
  • Water

Cement grain 20µm
16
Cement hydration
  • Calcium
  • Silica
  • Water
  • Calcium Silica - Hydrate
  • Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

17
Cement hydration
CH
C-S-H
18
Voids
0.001µm
Voids within C-S-H
CH
0.01µm
CH
Capillary voids
0.1µm
CH
CH
1.0µm
10µm
CH
CH
100µm
CH
1mm
Entrapped voids
CH
10mm
19
BS 8500
20
Cement Additions
  • Portland cement (20µm)
  • GGBS (lt20µm)
  • Fly ash (10 µm)
  • Silica fume (0.1µm)

21
Cement Additions
  • Portland cement (20µm)
  • GGBS (lt20µm)
  • Fly ash (10 µm)
  • Silica fume (0.1µm)

22
Cement Additions
2,000,000 SF grains 1 PC grain
  • Portland cement (20µm)
  • GGBS (lt20µm)
  • Fly ash (10 µm)
  • Silica fume (0.1µm)

23
Cement Additions
SiO2
SF
FA
GBS
PC
L
CaO
Al2O3
24
Cement Additions
CEM I
CEM II
25
Cement Additions
CEM I
CEM II
26
Cement Additions
CEM I
CEM V
27
Aggregate
28
Aggregate
29
Aggregate
30
Aggregate
31
Aggregate
32
Aggregate
China clay stent
Blastfurnace slag
Recycled concrete
Lead shot
33
Aggregate
Flaky
34
Aggregate
Elongated
35
Aggregate properties
  • Shape / size (63µm - 40mm)
  • Surface texture
  • Strength
  • Density (1200-5000 kg/m3)
  • Porosity
  • Drying shrinkage
  • Creep
  • Thermal expansion


36
Aggregate properties
  • Stiffness
  • Self weight
  • Thermal insulation
  • Noise insulation
  • Fire resistance

37
Aggregate grading
38
Admixtures
  • Permitted by BS 8500 (not mandatory)
  • Widely used (e.g. water reducers)
  • Do not prohibit their use!

39
Admixtures
Flocculation
40
Admixtures
41
Fibres
  • Steel
  • Hook end / crimped
  • Length 12.5 63.5 mm
  • Diameter 0.45 - 1.0 mm
  • Dosage 20 - 157 kg/m3
  • Synthetic
  • Length 40 50 mm
  • Aspect ratio 80 - 90
  • Dosage 2 10 kg/m3

42
Fibres
ASTM C1018-97 (third point bending test)
43
Compressive strength
  • Column design
  • Stress distribution
  • Shear capacity
  • Reinforcement design

44
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45
Burj Dubai
46
Tensile strength
  • Cracking
  • Shear / punching shear
  • Bond and anchorage
  • Deflection calculations
  • Reinforcement design
  • Fibre / un-reinforced sections

47
Tensile strength
48
Tensile strength
49
Tensile strength
50
Tensile strength
51
Tensile strength
52
Modulus of elasticity
  • Deflection calculations
  • Pre- or post-tensioned elements
  • Column shortening
  • Restrained movements

Key Bank Tower, Cleveland (50GPa)
53
Modulus of elasticity
54
Modulus of elasticity
55
Modulus of elasticity
56
Modulus of elasticity
57
Modulus of elasticity
Aggregate volume 5 increase
58
Modulus of elasticity
CEM I
CEM IIIA
CEM IIIB
59
Conclusions
60
www.concretecentre.com
61
End
  • Many thanks for your attention

62
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63
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64
Using Concrete Properties in Design to Eurocode
2
  • Mungo Stacy

65
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

66
Establish Urgency
  • The implementation of the structural eurocodes
    is the biggest change to codified structural
    design ever experienced in the UK
  • IStructE report to ODPM

67
Embracing Change
If you dont like change,
68
Embracing Change
If you dont like change, youre going to like
irrelevance even less Gen Eric Shinseki
69
  • I feel about globalisation a lot like I feel
    about the dawn. Generally speaking, I think it
    is a good thing that the sun comes up each
    morningbut even if I didnt much care for the
    dawn there isnt much I could do about it
  • Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree

70
PBs role in Eurocodes
  • Managing Contractor for Implementation of
    Eurocodes Phase 2 for the Highways Agency
  • Development of National Annexes
  • Development of Eurocodes-aligned DMRB, BSi PDs
  • Studies and implementation strategy
  • BSi Committee Membership
  • Strategic advice to structure owners
  • Training development

71
Objectives for this evening
  • Explain the structure of the Eurocodes
  • Explain the role of relevant documents, including
    NA, PDs, Product and Execution Standards
  • Provide an overview of the Eurocodes relevant to
    concrete design
  • Discuss how concrete properties are determined in
    the Eurocodes
  • Discuss how designs can be optimised

72
Euro-speak
  • What is a National Annex?

73
Euro-speak
  • What is a Nationally Determined Parameter?

74
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

75
Introduction to Eurocodes
  • What are the Eurocodes?
  • How the Eurocodes relate to the overall suite of
    DC standards
  • Why are we changing?
  • Eurocodes required for concrete design
  • Supporting documents
  • National Annexes
  • BSi Published Documents
  • Timescales

76
What are the Eurocodes?
  • Structural Eurocodes
  • 10 standards in 58 parts for the design of
    structures inc. buildings, bridges, chimneys,
    masts and towers, dams etc.
  • For bridge design, about 24 parts are needed
  • Eurocodes are not yet appropriate for assessments
  • Product Standards (specification of construction
    products)
  • Execution Standards (construction requirements,
    workmanship)
  • Test Standards

77
Design and construction suite of standards
Structural Eurocodes
Product standards (national)
Product standards (european)
Testing standards
Execution standards
78
Why are we changing?
  • Public Procurement Directive
  • Common technical specifications
  • Construction Products Directive
  • Compliance of building and civil engineering
    works with the Essential Requirements on
    mechanical resistance and stability
  • Framework for drawing up harmonised technical
    specifications

79
Do we have to?
  • Mandatory for formulating public procurement
    specifications in EU
  • Authorities in EU must accept solutions in
    accordance with Eurocodes
  • Authorities in EU must accept solutions if they
    are equivalent to Eurocodes (onus is on designer
    to prove equivalence)
  • Will become preferred method of satisfying
    building regulations in UK

80
The structural eurocodes
  • EN 1990 Eurocode Basis of structural design
  • EN 1991 Eurocode 1 Actions on structures
  • EN 1992 Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures
  • EN 1993 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures
  • EN 1994 Eurocode 4 Design of composite
    structures
  • EN 1995 Eurocode 5 Design of timber structures
  • EN 1996 Eurocode 6 Design of masonry structures
  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design
  • EN 1998 Eurocode 8 Design for earthquake
    resistance
  • EN 1999 Eurocode 9 Design of aluminium structures

81
How they fit together
82
Eurocodes required for concrete design
EN1990
EN1991
Limit states, combination and partial factors
Actions, inc. load groups, application etc.
Design
Design approach, partial factors, foundations,
earth pressures etc.
Analysis and section design, partial factors
EN1992
EN1997
83
Eurocodes required for concrete design
BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
EN 1990 Basis of structural design Annex A1
Application for buildings Annex A2 Application
for bridges Annex An Application for other
structure types
84
Eurocodes required for concrete design
ACTIONS
EN 1991-1-1 Densities, self weight and imposed
loads EN 1991-1-2 Actions due to fire EN
1991-1-3 Snow loads EN 1991-1-4 Wind loads EN
1991-1-5 Thermal loads EN 1991-1-6 Actions
during execution EN 1991-1-7 Accidental
actions EN 1991-2 Traffic loads on bridges
85
Eurocodes required for concrete design
CONCRETE
EN 1992-1-1 General rules and rules for
buildings EN 1992-1-2 Structural fire design EN
1992-2 Bridges EN 1992-3 Liquid retaining and
containing structures
86
Eurocodes required for concrete design
GEOTECHNICAL
EN 1997-1 Geotechnical Design
87
Design and construction suite of standards
Concrete design to Eurocode 2
EN 1992-1-1 General rules and rules for
buildings EN 1991-1-2 Structural fire design EN
1992-2 Bridges EN 1992-3 Liquid retaining and
containing structures
Product standards (national)
Other related structural eurocodes
EN 1990 Basis of structural design (1 part
Annex) EN 1991 Actions on structures (8
parts) EN 1997 Geotechnical design (1 part) EN
1998 Design for earthquake resistance (1 part)
Product standards (european)
Testing standards
Execution standards
88
National Annexes
  • Each Eurocode Part has a National Annex which
    must be used in conjunction with the Eurocode
    Part
  • National Annex can only contain parameters left
    open for national choice (Nationally Determined
    Parameters or NDPs)
  • Values and/or classes where alternatives are
    given in EN
  • Country specific data (e.g. snow maps)
  • Procedure to be used when Eurocode contains
    alternatives

89
National Annexes
90
National Annexes
EN1992-1-1 Clause 3.1.1 (2)P
UK National Annex to EN1992-1-1 NDP for Clause
3.1.2 (2)P
91
BSi Published Documents
  • PDs contain referenced Non-Contradictory
    Complementary Information (NCCI) in the form of
  • Background to the National Annexes
  • Additional guidance and expansion on Eurocodes
  • Residual non-conflicting information from current
    British Standards
  • PDs are NOT standards, but may be made mandatory
    by authorities

92
Planned Published Documents
93
Design and construction suite of standards
BS EN 197 Specifying cement
BSi PDs
EN 13791 Testing concrete
National Annexes
BS EN 13369 Pre-cast concrete
Concrete design to Eurocode 2
BS EN 206 Specifying concrete
EN 12390 Testing hardened concrete
BS 8500 Specifying concrete
EN 1992 (4 parts)
Other related structural eurocodes
BS EN 10080 Reinforcing steels
BS 4449 Reinforcing steels
EN 1990 (2 parts) EN 1991 (8 parts) EN 1997 (1
part) EN 1998 (1 part)
EN 15630 Test methods for steel reinft. and
prestress
BS EN 10138 Prestressing steel
EN 13670 Execution of Structures
94
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
95
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
National Annex Publication
All NAs published
96
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
National Annex Publication
All NAs published
All British Standards withdrawn
97
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
National Annex Publication
All NAs published
All British Standards withdrawn
Where are we now 56 Eurocode parts, 19 NAs
published
98
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
National Annex Publication
All NAs published
All British Standards withdrawn
Where are we now 56 Eurocode parts, 19 NAs
published
August 08 (approx.) All NAs published for
non-special structures
99
When will it happen?
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Eurocode Publication
All Eurocodes published
National Annex Publication
All NAs published
Coexistence
All British Standards withdrawn
Where are we now 56 Eurocode parts, 19 NAs
published
August 08 (approx.) All NAs published for
non-special structures
100
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

101
Eurocode 2 design of concrete structures
  • EN1992-1-1 - contents
  • Eurocode terminology
  • Eurocode design approach
  • Analysis options, stress blocks, formulae
  • Significant changes to concrete design
  • Shear, strut and tie

102
EN1992 Design of Concrete Structures Contents
  • 1 General
  • Basis of Design
  • Materials
  • Durability
  • Structural Analysis
  • Ultimate Limit States
  • Serviceability Limit states
  • Detailing of Reinforcement and Prestressing
  • Detailing of Members and Particular Rules
  • Additional Rules for Precast Concrete Structures
  • Cont.

103
EN1992 Design of Concrete Structures Contents
  • 11 Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Structures
  • 12 Plain and Lightly Reinforced Concrete
    Structures
  • Design for Execution Stages
  • Annexes A - Q

104
Eurocode English
  • Use of English in Eurocodes is careful to
    facilitate exact translation into other
    languages. As such there is new terminology,
    e.g.
  • Load lt-gt Action
  • Load case lt-gt Combination of actions
    appropriate to limit state
  • Construction lt-gt Execution
  • Design check lt-gt Verification
  • Strength lt-gt Resistance
  • and many more new terms.

105
Subscripts
  • Extensive use of subscripts
  • Ed design effect
  • MEd, NEd, VEd (Moment, Axial force, Shear)
  • Rd design resistance
  • MRd (Design moment resistance)
  • Verification generally expressed as
  • MEd/MRd1,0

106
Concrete Design
  • Uses cylinder strength ( ? 0.8fcu)
  • More rooted in plasticity theory
  • Consistent approach for reinforced and
    prestressed concrete
  • Based on behaviour not element
  • Greater coverage of non-linear analysis and time
    dependent effects

107
Analysis options
  • Linear elastic analysis
  • Linear elastic analysis with limited
    re-distribution
  • Plastic analysis
  • Non-linear analysis

108
Stress Blocks
Stress
Strain
0.8x
x
Bi-linear
Rectangular
Parabolic - rectangular
  • (for fck lt 50 MPa)

109
Reinforcement
Rising branch with strain limit check
kfyd
k (ft/fy)k
fyd fyk/gs
Horizontal branch with No strain limit check
eud
euk
Two alternative stress-strain relationships
110
Design Formulae
  • BS8110 Design Formulae

111
(No Transcript)
112
Shear
  • Shear resistance can be greater or less than
    BS5400-4 values
  • Variable-angled truss used for shear-reinforced
    sections
  • Vc and Vs not added
  • Possibility of flatter truss angle means more
    links can contribute to capacity

113
Variable Angle Truss Model
Web Compression Strut
Compression Chord
a
q
Tension Chord
Reinforcement (stirrups)
21.8 q 45
114
Observations on usability
  • More documentation
  • Scatter of key information
  • Principles are clear application not always
    easily understood
  • More academic in style
  • Large number of possible load combinations
  • Less prescriptive require a greater
    understanding of engineering principles

115
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

116
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability

117
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability

118
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability

119
Compressive strength
  • UK practice

120
Compressive strength
  • Eurocodes
  • UK practice

121
Compressive strength
122
Compressive strength
123
Compressive strength
  • Relationship between product standards and design
    standards

BS EN 1992 Design of concrete structures
BS 8500 Specifying concrete (UK)
BS EN 206 Specifying concrete
124
Compressive strength
  • BS8110
  • fcd 0.67 fcu / gm

Fig. 3.3
125
Compressive strength
  • EN 1992-1-1
  • fcd acc fck / gc

EC2 3.15
  • acc
  • Takes account of long term effects under
    sustained load
  • Recommended value 1
  • NA modifies acc to 0,85 for flexure and axial
    loading (see PD6687 for background)

EC2 3.15
  • gc
  • Recommended value 1,5

EC2 Table 2.1N
126
Compressive strength
  • EN 1992-1-1
  • fcd acc fck / gc

EC2 3.15
127
Compressive strength
128
Characteristic / mean compressive strength
  • Characteristic strength fck
  • Basis of design calculations and specification
  • Target mean strength fcm
  • Serviceability checks and to establish mix design
  • Defined relationship in EC2

EC2 Table 3.1
129
Reinforcement (ULS)
  • Historic UK practice (e.g. BS8110 pre 1997)
  • Reinforcement gm 1.05
  • fy 460 N/mm2
  • European practice (e.g. EN1992-1-1)
  • Reinforcement gS 1,15
  • fyk 500 N/mm2

Table 3.1 (Note 1)
EC2 Table 2.1N BS4449 Table 4
BS EN 1992 Design of concrete structures
BS 4449 Specifying reinforcement (UK)
BS EN 10080 Specifying reinforcement
130
Reinforcement (ULS)
  • Historic UK practice (e.g. BS8110 pre 1997)
  • Reinforcement design stress
  • Eurocode (e.g. EN1992-1-1)
  • Reinforcement design stress

fy / gm 438 N/mm2
Figure 2.2
Figure 3.8
fyd fyk / gS 435 N/mm2
131
Compressive strength
  • Development with time
  • Expressions given for strength development with
    time
  • Coefficient s depends on cement type
  • Strength development after 28 days not to be used
    to justify non-conformance

EC2 3.1
EC2 3.2
132
Compressive strength
133
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep

134
Tensile strength
  • Used for
  • considerations of cracking, shear, punching
    shear, bond, anchorage
  • evaluation of cracking moment for prestressed
    elements
  • crack width control for restrained early-age
    thermal contraction
  • moment-curvature diagrams and deflection
    calculations
  • unreinforced concrete sections

135
Tensile strength
  • Minimum reinforcement area

EC2 7.1
136
Tensile strength
  • Crack width control

137
Tensile strength
  • fctd design tensile strength

EC2 3.16
fctk characteristic tensile strength. Related
to fck (characteristic compressive strength) or
fcm (mean compressive strength) depending on
strength
EC2 Table 3.1
138
Tensile strength
  • fctm,fl - flexural tensile strength
  • May be higher that fctm axial tensile strength
  • EC2 7.4.3 (4) allows deflection calculations
    using fctm,fl provided no axial tensile stresses
    (e.g. due to shrinkage or thermal effects)
  • Opportunity for designers to specify higher
    values than shown in Table 3.1 if justified

EC2 3.23
139
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep

140
Bond strength
  • Used to
  • establish anchor and lap lengths
  • calculate crack spacing / crack width

141
Bond strength
fbd ultimate bond stress
EC2 8.2
Uses fctd design concrete tensile strength
h1 related to quality of bond condition h2
related to bar diameter
142
Bond strength
EC2 Figure 8.2
143
Bond strength
  • Anchorage length

EC2 8.3
ssd design stress in bar
a1 effect of form of bars (bend / hook /
straight) a2 effect of minimum cover a3
confinement by tranverse reinforcement a4
influence of welded transverse bars a5 pressure
transverse to splitting plane
144
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability

145
Modulus of elasticity
146
Modulus of elasticity
  • BS8110
  • E 5.5 fcu / gm 0.5

Fig. 2.1
147
Modulus of elasticity
  • EN1992-1-1
  • Recognises strong dependency on concrete
    composition, especially aggregates
  • Gives indicative values for different aggregate
    types
  • Recommends specific assessment for sensitive
    structures
  • Retains relationship to (mean) compressive
    strength

148
Modulus of elasticity
  • Table 3.1 gives indicative values for Ecm
  • Reduce by 10 for limestone, 30 for sandstone
  • Increase by 20 for basalt

EC2 3.1.3
149
Modulus of elasticity
150
Modulus of elasticity
  • SLS calculations
  • use Ecm
  • ULS calculations
  • use Ecd Ecm / gcE, gcE 1,2
  • Long term modified by creep
  • use Ec,eff Ecm / (1f), f 1-3

EC2 5.20
EC2 7.20
151
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
  • Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Bond strength
  • Modulus of elasticity
  • Tensile strain capacity
  • Creep
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Specific heat
  • Fire resistance
  • Adiabatic temperature rise
  • Durability

152
Durability
  • Exposure classes
  • X0 no risk of reinforcement corrosion or attack
  • XC corrosion induced by carbonation
  • XD chlorides other than seawater
  • XS chlorides from seawater
  • XF freeze/thaw cycles
  • XA chemical attach

BS EN 1992 Design of concrete structures
BS 8500 Specifying concrete (UK)
BS EN 206 Specifying concrete
153
Durability
154
Durability
EC2 4.1
  • cmin - minimum concrete cover in order to ensure
  • safe transmission of bond forces
  • protection of steel against corrosion
  • adequate fire resistance
  • Dcdev allowance for deviation, recommended 10mm

EC2 4.4.1.3
155
Durability
EC2 4.4.1.2 NA Table NA.2-NA.3
  • Cover requirements

156
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

157
Outline of design process
  • Action combinations EN1990
  • Eq 6.10
  • Actions EN1991
  • Verifications EN1992
  • May need supporting guidance on how to apply
    principals (NCCI)

158
Combinations of actions EN1990
From EN1990 Eq. 6.10
Ed E Sj1gG,jGk,j gpP gQ,1Qk,1
Sigt1gQ,i y0,i Qk,i
159
Actions EN1991
  • EN1991-1-1 Typical material densities, floor
    loading categories
  • EN1991-2 Traffic loads on bridges (notional
    lanes, load models 1-4

160
Verifications EN1992
Ed Rd
161
BS 5400 verification
162
BS EN 1990 verification (STR)
163
Agenda
  • Introductions and objectives for the day
  • Overview of the Eurocodes and accompanying
    documents
  • Overview of Eurocode 2
  • Properties of concrete in Eurocode 2
  • Outline of design process
  • Summary and conclusions

164
Summary and conclusions
  • Reviewed structure of the Eurocodes
  • Role of related documents, including NA, PDs,
    Product and Execution Standards
  • Overview of the Eurocodes relevant to concrete
    design
  • Looked at selected concrete properties - how they
    are determined and used
  • Overview of overall design process
  • Confidence in use of Eurocodes

165
Summary and conclusions
  • Majority of Eurocodes are now published
  • Many guidance documents for concrete design are
    available
  • Eurocodes offer opportunities to optimise
    concrete designs
  • Start designing concrete structures to Eurocode 2
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