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Human Growth and Development: Chapter 9


American girl are reaching puberty faster than recently thought. of African-American girls and 15% of White girls begin to develop sexually by 8 years of age. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Growth and Development: Chapter 9

Human Growth and Development Chapter 9
  • Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle

Physical Development
  • In contrast to the rapid increase in height and
    weight during the first years of life physical
    development proceeds at a slowed pace during
    middle childhood.

  • Less food is needed during middle childhood
    because of the slower growth rate. (high quality
    over high quantity)
  • Avoid junk food, excessive sugars and fats.
  • Vegetarian diets are acceptable if iron and zinc
    supplements are obtained.
  • At least 20 fat content is needed to keep growth
    rate going.
  • Excessive fat, however, can lead to obesity.

  • Some children accumulate empty calories from
    high-sugar and high-fat foods.
  • Children who are overweight between the ages of
    10 and 17 years will probably have a lifetime
  • Those who are overweight in their pre-teen and
    teen years have a 64 chance of becoming obese

  • Parents should…
  • Monitor childrens time spent watching
  • Encourage physical activity all year round.
  • Serve plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • Monitor fat intake.
  • Make children aware of what theyre eating.
  • Dont become obsessed with your childs obesity
    (it could be genetic)

Obesity Continued…
  • Physical growth is relatively slow until the
    period when girls development may spurt.
  • American girl are reaching puberty faster than
    recently thought.
  • ½ of African-American girls and 15 of White
    girls begin to develop sexually by 8 years of age.

More On Obesity
  • Variables that cause fluctuations in the growth
    of these children…
  • Genetic influence
  • Health
  • Nutrition
  • Development may well differ among cultures,
    subcultures, and ethnic groups

Physical Changes in Middle Childhood
  • Kurt Fischer believes that he has found evidence
    of at least 12 brain growth spurts. Two of which
    occur during middle childhood.
  • Adults who are around children during this times
    should provide appropriate stimulation that will
    make them want to participate in the world to add
    new connections and strengthen existing ones.

Physical Changes in Middle Childhood
  • Nature manufactured billions of brain cells more
    than will be needed to ensure that the brain will
    be ready to from enough connections for all the
    needed abilities and skills.
  • The neurons that dont make the connections
    simply die
  • The fittest of the neurons survive, so…
  • Keep busy, seek challenges, and stay alert!!

Physical Changes in Middle Childhood
  • Body proportion changes in middle childhood also
  • Head size comes more in line with body
  • Loss of the baby teeth and the emergence of
    permanent teeth change the shape of the lower jaw
  • Trunk become thinner and longer
  • Chest becomes broader and flatter
  • Arms and legs begin to stretch, but show little
    muscle development
  • Some children are tremendously active physically
    and gradually display a steady improvement in
    motor coordination.

Children Who Are Exceptional
  • The notion of exceptionality has changed
    dramatically in recent years.
  • They used to be refused admission to public
  • Today federal law mandates that children with
    special needs should be educated in the
    least-restrictive environment as possible to
    achieve success.
  • Inclusion or Mainstreaming is the procedure of
    taking a special needs student out of the regular
    classroom, home, and family as infrequently as

Children Who Are Exceptional
  • Children who are exceptional received powerful
    support from federal legislation with the passage
    of the Education for All Handicapped Children in
    1975, and is now known as the Individuals with
    Disabilities Act.

Cognitive Development
Piaget and Concrete Operations
  • Children in Piagets concrete operational period
    operate mentally on their environment.
  • They employ logical thought processes through
    concrete materials
  • They also concentrate on more than one aspect of
    a situation which is decentering.

Accomplishments of the concrete Operational Period
  • Conservation appears children can conserve the
    main idea
  • Seriation children can arrange objects by
    increasing or decreasing size
  • Classification enables children to group objects
    with some similarities within a larger category
  • Reversibility enables children to retrace their
  • Numeration children understand the concept of

New Ways of Looking at Intelligence
Gardner and Multiple Intelligence
  • Howard Gardner forged a link between thinking and
    intelligence with his theory of multiple
  • Gardner defines intelligence as the ability to
    solve problems or fashion products that are of
    consequence in a particular culture setting or

Gardners Eight Equal Intelligences
  • 1. Linguistic Intelligence language is a
    preeminent example of human intelligence
  • Children change their use of language to a more
    flexible, figurative form.
  • 2. Musical Intelligence the early appearance of
    musical ability suggests some kind of biological
  • Most children cease musical development after
    school begins. Around nine years of age serious
    skill building commences
  • 3.Logical-mathematical Intelligence evolves from
    our contact with the world of objects
  • Children begin to think abstractly instead of
  • 4. Spatial Intelligence important changes in
    childrens thinking occurs during these years,
    especially with the appearance of conservation
    and reversibility
  • Middle childhood youngsters can now visualize how
    objects seem to someone else and can manipulate
    objects using their spatial intelligence

Gardners Eight Equal Intelligences
  • 5.Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence our control of
    bodily motions and the ability to handle objects
    skillfully are defining features of an
  • 6 7. Interpersonal and Intrapersonal
    Intelligences Interpersonal intelligence builds
    on an ability to recognize what is distinctive in
    others, while intrapersonal intelligence enables
    us to understand our own feelings
  • Autism is a deficit in this intelligence
  • 8.Naturalist Intelligence the human ability to
    discriminate among living things as well as a
    sensitivity to our natural world.

Sternbergs Triarchic Model of Intelligence
  • 1.Components of Intelligence
  • Metacomponents-help us to plan, monitor, and
    evaluate our problem solving strategies
  • Performance components -help us to execute the
    instructions of the metacomponents
  • Knowledge-acquisition components -help us to
    learn how to solve problems
  • 2.Experience and Intelligence experience
    improves our ability to deal with novel tasks and
    to use pertinent information to solve problems
  • 3.The Context of Intelligence we learn how to do
    those practical things that help us to survive in
    our society. Skills are not acedemic

Thinking and Problems Solving
Children and Thinking Skills
  • Children shouldnt just obtain knowledge but…
  • Apply what they have learned
  • Integrate it with other facts
  • Ask themselves if they could have done it any
  • Parents should…
  • Not focus merely on facts, but should stretch
    childs thinking by asking questions that require
    application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

A Thinking Skills Taxonomy
  • The main purpose of the taxonomy is to provide a
    classification of the goals of our educational
  • It consists of three major sections cognitive,
    affective, and psychomotor domains
  • Cognitive is divided into 6 major classes

Cognitive Taxonomy
  • 1.00 Knowledge recall of specific facts
  • 2.00 Comprehension understanding what is
  • 3.00 Application generalization and use of
    abstract info in concrete situations
  • 4.00 Analysis breakdown of a problem into
    subparts and detection of relationships among the
  • 5.00 Synthesis putting together parts to form a
  • 6.00 Evaluation using criteria to make judgments

Using Questions to Improve Thinking Skills
  • Good questions cause children to pay attention,
    process information, organize their ideas, and
    compose an answer
  • Questions should be clearly and concisely phrased
  • Give children enough time to answer
  • When children respond parents should clarify,
    expand, and synthesize, and never let an
    incorrect answer stand

Problem Solving Strategies
Characteristics of a Good Problem-Solver
  • Four components needed for problem-solving
    goals, obstacles, strategies for overcoming
    obstacles, and evaluation of results
  • Children (7-12 years) show marked improvement in
  • They become more capable of transferring
    ever-increasing amounts of info to long-term
    memory by strengthening synaptic connections
  • Childrens speed in processing info increases as
    cognitive skills grow

Improving Childrens Problem-Solving Strategies
  • The adaptive strategy choice model of Robert
    Seigler says that most children devise a wide
    variety of strategies to solve their problems,
    and depending on the nature of the problem
    theyll select what they think is the most
    appropriate strategy

What Kind of Mistakes do Children Make?
  • Failure to observe and use all the relevant facts
    of a problem
  • Failure to adopt systematic, step-by-step
  • Failure to perceive vital relationships in the
  • Frequent use of sloppy techniques in acquiring
    and applying vital information

The DUPE Model
Dont Let Yourself be Deceived
  • D- determine what the nature of the problem is
  • U- understand the nature of the problem
  • P- plan your solution
  • E- evaluate your plan

Moral Development
The Path of Moral Development
  • 2-3 years begin to learn about right and wrong
    from their parents enormously impressed by what
    their parents do
  • 2-6 years developing ability to decide whats
    right and wrong telling the truth remains a
    tough task
  • 7-11 years learn about making and following
    regulations as well as deriving insights into
    those children who break the rules

Parents and Moral Development
  • Children whose mothers treated them reasonably,
    but firmly, after transgressions seemed more
    sensitive to matters of right and wrong.
  • Children with older siblings who were friendly
    and supportive seemed more morally mature.

Piagets Explanation
  • Up to 4 years children arent concerned with
    morality rules are meaningless
  • At 4 years begin to believe rules are fixed and
    unchangeable, they come from authority and are to
    be obeyed without question-heteronomous morality
    believe in immanent justice anyone who breaks a
    rule will be punished immediately
  • From 7-11 years- realize that individuals
    formulate social rules, which can be
    changed-autonomous morality think that
    punishment should be linked to intent

Kohlbergs Theory
  • Kohlberg employed a modified clinical technique
    called the moral dilemma in which a conflict
    leads subjects to justify the morality of their
  • Middle childhood youngsters are typically at
    Kohlbergs Preconventional level of morality
  • As they approach 10 and 12 they begin to edge
    into the conventional level of morality where
    acts are right because thats the way its
    supposed to be
  • 13 and over are the postconventional level of
    maturity and only a small level of adults reach
    this level

Gilligans View on Womens Morality
  • Initially, any moral decisions a girl has to make
    center on the self
  • Gradually, a sense of responsibility for others
    appears and goodness is equated with
    self-sacrifice and concern for others
  • Finally, women resolve the conflict between
    concern for self and concern for others have a
    guiding principle of non-violence
  • Must women exclude themselves and be thought of
    as a good women or exclude others and be
    thought of as selfish

Language Development
Changes in Usage
  • An increase in pragmatic sophistication
    interaction between language and socialization
    devising new ways to use these words

Issue of Literacy
  • 1. Basic Literacy reading, writing, listening,
    and speaking
  • 2. Scientific Literacy knowledge of science,
    scientific thinking, math
  • 3. Visual Literacy ability to decipher,
    interpret, express ideas using images, charts,
    graphs, and video
  • 4. Information Literacy ability to find,
    evaluate, and use info effectively
  • 6.Cultural Literacy knowledge and appreciation
    of the diversity of peoples and cultures
  • 7. Global awareness understanding and
    recognition of the interrelations of nations,
    corporations, and politics around the world

  • Editing was done by
  • Katie Jo Robinson
  • Mrs. Mary Lu Andreu