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Title: MAJOR%20POINTS%20OF%20THIS%20TALK


1
MAJOR POINTS OF THIS TALK
  • Butler/Cunningham Background
  • Current Alabama Agriculture and Rural Life
  • Alabama Agriculture Before 1950
  • Alabama Agriculture After 1950 Decline and
    Change
  • Recent non-row crop agriculture
  • Recent non-traditional rural residents and the
    Urban-Rural Interface
  • Social effects of changes in rural life
  • Corporate role in modern agriculture
  • Land value, land use, land tax, development
  • Environmental issues
  • Polls on attitudes toward agriculture and land use

2
BUTLER/CUNNINGHAM BACKGROUND
  • Major sections of this presentation will have
    begin with a slide that has a pale green
    background, and in which the caption is in large
    capital letters, like this slide.

3
Butler/Cunningham Endowment
  • Eugene Butler and Emory Cunningham published
    journals about Southern rural life, such as
    Southern Living Magazine and Progressive
    Farmer.
  • About 1990, they endowed the College of
    Agriculture of Auburn University with a fund for
    an Eminent Scholar in Agriculture and the
    Environment in Alabama. Normally the term lasts
    from two to five years. The scholar in 2004 is
    Claude E. Boyd of the Department of Fisheries.
  • For further information www.ag.auburn.edu/BC

4
Eugene Butler
5
Emory Cunningham
6
Conference Series
  • Dr. Boyd began a series of conferences on
    agriculture and the environment in Alabama. There
    have been two conferences so far, in November
    2002 and November 2003. Each lasted for two
    days, had about half-a-dozen major topics with
    about half-a-dozen speakers, and other events.
    The speakers are from around the country. Another
    conference is scheduled for November 2004.

7
Specific Conferences
  • FIRST conference was on the history of, and
    issues (problems) with, agriculture and the
    environment in Alabama.
  • SECOND conference was on land history, farming
    history, settlement history, land value, land
    prices, the evaluation of land, and some
    questions about taxes.
  • THIRD conference will be about the upcoming USDA
    Ag Census release in 2004, and about appropriate
    institutional and private responses to the issues
    raised in the first two conferences.

8
CURRENT ALABAMA AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LIFE
9
Various Land Uses 2004, in acres
  • 1,123,249
  • 454,486
  • 884,891
  • 2,212732
  • 7,860,345
  • 6,657,414
  • 7,801,353
  • 3,453,377
  • 3,110,794
  • 33,682,203
  • Open Water
  • Developed
  • Barren
  • Wetlands
  • Deciduous Forest
  • Evergreen Forest
  • Mixed Forest
  • Pasture/Hay
  • Row Crops
  • TOTAL STATE

10
Land in Various Ag Uses 2002 (from USDA Bulletin
45, page 11)
  • 1000 acres 1000 dollars
  • Corn 400 42,768
  • Cotton lint 590 117,300
  • Hay 800 96,800
  • Peanuts 190 63,714
  • Soybeans 170 19,902
  • Winter Wheat 150 6,960
  • Sweet corn 1.9 1,972
  • Tomatoes 1.2 7,438
  • Watermelons 4.0 2,933
  • Peaches - 8,360
  • Floriculture (page 28) - 66,234

11
Livestock and Poultry Receipts 2002(from USDA
Bulletin 45, page 29)
  • Million dollars Total
  • Broilers 1,610 67.6
  • Cattle and calves 305 12.8
  • Eggs 297 12.5
  • Catfish 76 3.2
  • Dairy 38 1.6
  • Other 34 1.4
  • Hogs 20 0.9
  • TOTAL about 2,380

12
Revenue from Major Ag Sources(1000 dollars from
USDA Bulletin 45, page 44-45)
  • Standard Ag (crops) 583,800
  • (row crops, orchard, etc.)
  • Floriculture 66,234
  • Animal husbandry 2,378,300
  • (including aquaculture)
  • Hunting, fishing, recreation 2,400,000
  • (This figure is the approximate official
    statistic, from Steve Guy of ALFA. We are trying
    to get data on unofficial hunting revenues too)
  • Forestry 735,150

13
Who Produces How Much
  • The next slide shows that a minority of the
    farms (about 8) produces a majority of the crops
    by value (about 82).
  • According to Herb Vanderberry of the Alabama
    State Division of the USDA, the same small group
    of farms (about 11) own about 30 of the
    farmland in Alabama.
  • This does not mean there is no place for small
    farms or family fams, but only that small farms
    have been under stress, the rural way of life is
    changing, and rural people need to consider many
    options.

14
Who Produces How Much (from 1997 Ag Census)
  • Farm size range Total Farms Total Ag Sales
  • Less than 10,000 68.9 2.7
  • 10,000 - 49,000 16.5 4.5
  • 50,000 99,999 3.3 3.1
  • 100,000 249,000 3.5 7.6
  • 250,000 499,000 3.3 16.2
  • 500,00 or more 4.5 65.9

15
ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL HISTORY BEFORE 1950
16
Alabama Agriculture History Before 1950
  • European and African settlement was delayed
    until the Native Americans were moved out or
    forced out.
  • Original European and African settlement was in
    the best farmland in the valleys, along the Black
    Belt and near Huntsville.
  • Later settlement moved into the smaller
    northern valleys and hills, mostly by small scale
    white farmers of Scots-Irish descent.
  • By 1920, pretty much all land was densely
    settled and farmed
  • The northern areas were in small farms, on
    sandy soil, with mixed forest cover and
    pastureland, and with a long tradition of animal
    raising. Chicken farming later developed here.

17
Early Alabama Population Distribution, 1820
18
Later Alabama Population Distribution, 1860
19
Early Alabama Farm Distribution, 1850
20
Later Alabama Farm Distribution, 1950
21
Table of Alabama Cropland 1850-1950
22
ALABAMA AGRICULTURE SINCE 1950 DECLINE AND
CHANGE
23
Highlights of Alabama Agriculture Since 1950
  • Total number of farms has decreased
  • Average farm size has increased
  • The few remaining row-crop farms are viable
  • Originally, Alabama farmland was both
  • A. Row crop land
  • B. Mixture of pasture and light forest cover
  • The pasture and light forest cover was
    converted to pure forest without pasture
  • The total forest land grew because of the
    conversion
  • Farms that could not raise row crops converted
    to chickens, catfish, and other alternatives

24
Number of Farms and Land In Farms (in acres, all
numbers x 1000)USDA, Economic Research Service
(ERS), "Farm Real Estate Historical Series Data,
1950-1992", Statistical Bulletin No. 855
  • Year Number of Farms Land in Farms
  •  
  • 1950 220 21300
  • 1954 168 21200
  • 1959 129 17600
  • 1964 102 16200
  • 1969 85 15000
  • 1974 78 14600
  • 1978 59 12500
  • 1982 55 11800
  • 1987 49 10700
  • 1992 46 9800
  •  

25
Ag and Forest Land Use (in acres, all numbers x
1000)USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS),
"Major Land Uses 1945-1992", Stock No. 89003
  •   A. B. C. D. E.
  • Year Total Crop Total Forest Woodland
  • Only Land Forest Use, as Pasture
  • Not
  • Grazed
  •  
  • 1945 32690 8266 18748 4889 13859
  • 1949 32690 8271 18817 8305 10512
  • 1954 32690 7481 20766 10785 9981
  • 1959 32678 6028 20771 16000 4771
  • 1964 32545 5211 21749 17241 4508
  • 1969 32452 5885 21748 19437 2311
  • 1974 32452 5797 21333 19444 1889
  • 1978 32452 5888 21333 19452 1881
  • 1982 32491 5642 21179 19479 1700
  • 1987 32491 4803 21659 19965 1694
  • 1992 32480 4539 21941 20337 1604

26
Why Row Crop Agriculture Has Declined
  • Crops can grow in Alabama but they cannot compete
    with other areas of the country
  • Climate too severe and unpredictable
  • Late, early, unpredictable frosts
  • Severe storms
  • Occasional droughts
  • Soil is poor, except for a few good areas in the
    Black Belt and by Huntsville
  • Still, some alternatives have opened up

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29
Climatic Variability Last Frost
  • The next slide is a map showing the average date
    of last frost in various places in Alabama.
    There is almost three months difference between
    the north and south of the state. Because of
    this difference across the state, each point in
    the state varies considerably in the date of last
    frost. In Alabama, crops have to be planted
    later than people think, and the growing period
    is shorter than people think. This makes Alabama
    farmers less able to compete.

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31
Alabama Has Poor Average Yields
  • The next two slides compare Alabama yields of
    bushels of corn per acre, and pounds per milk of
    cow, with three other states, for two periods
    1960 and 2000.
  • Alabama improved its yields, especially with
    milk, but it has not been able to match
    production in other states regardless of how much
    effort has gone into research and extension.
    Notice how production in other states has held
    more steady. Much of the apparent improvement in
    Alabama actually came about because poor
    producers dropped out rather than because all
    producers improved.

32
Average Bushels of Corn per Acre
State/Year 1960 2000
Alabama 26 65
Indiana 68 146
Iowa 64 144
Oregon 69 180

33
Average Pounds of Milk per Cow
State/Year 1960 2000
Alabama 3970 13920
Indiana 7460 16568
Minnesota 8120 17777
Oregon 6980 18222
34
RECENT NON-ROW CROP AGRICULTURE AND OTHER RURAL
ENTERPRISE
35
Recent Non-Row Crop Agriculture,and Other Rural
Enterprise
  • Recall current agriculture from the beginning of
    this presentation. Important growth activities
    include
  • Poultry and other livestock
  • Catfish growing
  • Forestry
  • Hunting and recreation
  • Tourism
  • Rural residences of various kinds

36
Graphs of Change in Crops(from Ag Bulletin 45,
courtesy Herb Vanderberry)
  • The following sequence of graphs shows changes in
    Alabama crops, mostly since 1950.

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48
RECENT NON-TRADITIONAL RURAL RESIDENTS AND THE
URBAN-RURAL INTERFACE
49
Alabama Rural Population
  • According to the 2000 US Census, now only a
    minority of Alabama rural residents call
    themselves farmers, or live on farms (see next
    slide). We do not know much about the non-farm
    rural residents.

50
Alabama Population 2000 (US Census Data)
  • Total Population 4,447,100
  • Urban Population 2,465,539
  • Rural Population 1,981,561
  • Rural Non-farm Population 1,927,390
  • Farm Population 54,171
  • Total Housing Units 1,963,711
  • Urban Housing Units 1,080,525
  • Rural Housing Units 883,186
  • Rural Non-farm Housing Units 862,385
  • Farm Housing Units 20,801

51
Various New Residents
  • Old farmers with small plots of land
  • Retired people looking for a cheap place to live
  • People on pensions
  • Poor people in general, many of whom have moved
    back to the countryside
  • Mobile home park residents
  • Ex-urbanites with a job in town and 1-30 acres of
    a home site
  • Ex-urbanites with 10-200 acres of land, and who
    often raise some livestock
  • Hobby farmers and cattle growers

52
The Urban-Rural Interface
  • In the past 30 years, cities, satellite towns,
    suburban housing developments, and ex-urbanites
    home sites have all expanded rapidly into
    farmland.
  • Counties that were once predominantly farming now
    have many non-farming residents living right next
    to farms. The non-farming residents might
    outnumber the farmers.
  • The farmers and non-farmers do not always know
    each others way of life, and get along.
  • The following pictures were borrowed from various
    presenters at the 2003 conference.

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54
Southeast Fastest Growing Region
  • Over 3.26 million acres developed 1992-1997
  • Over 652,000 acres per year

55
Atlanta in 1972
56
Atlanta in 1993
57
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN RURAL LIFE
58
The Rural Life Cycle
  • Rural life forms a cycle between successful
    farms, schools, young people, farm-related
    business, social institutions such as the church,
    and decisions to say on the farm.
  • When one part of the cycle is broken, the whole
    cycle comes apart.
  • Declining relative farm income alone has been
    enough to break the cycle, as people need
    off-farm jobs and young people leave the
    countryside.
  • The following slides come from Dr. William Hardy
    of Auburn.

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62
Departure of Skilled Workers and Youth
Loss of Jobs
Decrease in Public And Private Investment
Drop in Birth Rate
Consolidation of Government Services Closure
of Businesses, Schools, Churches
63
Here ends the slides from Dr. Hardy
64
ROLE OF COROPORATIONS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
65
Effects of Corporations
  • The family farm has had to adopt the structure of
    a corporate business, which also has changed the
    character of rural life.
  • Many farms now are partners with corporations.
    They get their seed from corporations and sell
    their crops (animals) to corporations.
  • For example, the chicken industry is done almost
    entirely in partnership with corporations.
  • Only a few large corporations now dominate all
    the agribusiness in the world and shape the
    markets.

66
  • The following slides are from Professor Taylor
    of Auburn University.

67
The Changing Structure of Global Agriculture
  •  

68
The New Cowboy Economy
  • The world is going to have a global economy
    without a global government. this means a global
    economy with no enforceable, agreed-upon set of
    rules and regulations, no sheriff to enforce
    codes of acceptable behavior, and no Judges and
    Juries to appeal to if one feels that justice is
    not being done.  
  • Lester Thurow

69
Economics of Wealth Creation in the Global Economy
  • Businesses bring Labor and Capital together to
    create wealth or profit
  • How is wealth distributed in the global economy?
  • The investor class increasingly capture wealth
    that is created
  • With less and less going to the working class
  • Profits increasingly flow to financial centers,
    and not to rural areas

70
The Deadly Combination
  • Horizontal concentration
  • Vertical integration
  • Interlocking spider web of directorates,
    subsidiaries, joint ventures, strategic
    alliances, and partial ownership of other
    agribusiness firms
  • No real structure to the global economy
  • Only Imposing facades Thurow
  • No global antitrust laws or police
  • Dated domestic antitrust laws
  • Increasingly narrow interpretation of domestic
    antitrust laws
  • External (community) costs

71
Early Antitrust Interpretation
  • It is not for the real prosperity of any
    country that such changes should occur which
    result in transferring an independent business
    man . . . into a mere servant or agent of a
    corporation . . . having no voice in shaping the
    business policy . . . and bound to obey orders
    issued by others.
  • Justice Peckham one of the first substantive
    decisions interpreting the Sherman Antitrust Act
    (from Carstensen)

72
Independent Businessmen?
  • Many of us admire the fierce independence of
    farmers and farm families
  • Are farmers really independent any more?
  • No!
  • They are increasingly puppets of the corporate
    world
  • Their independence has hindered actions for them
    to band together to countervail corporate power

73
Free Markets?
  • There isnt one grain of anything in the world
    that is sold in a free market. Not one! The only
    place you see a free market is in the speeches of
    politicians.
  • Dwayne Andreas, CEO of ADM

74
Is the Global Food System Out of Control?
  • Our present economic system has emerged without
    any apparent forethought about what kind of
    economic/social system citizens want
  • Change has been driven by corporate interests
  • Fathers of a competitive market economy
    recognized that there is an inherent instability
    in the system
  • A competitive market economy may evolve, through
    natural growth, acquisitions or mergers, to
    monopoly
  • Unless the market is regulated
  • Antitrust laws were intended to prevent this
    outcome
  • Contract production is part of the corporate
    mindset

75
Giant Corporate System
  • Big business is not necessarily bad, but
  • An imbalance of market power or economic power
    often leads to abuse, which is bad
  • Concentration was initially driven by economies
    of size, which do not include costs imposed on
    the environment and on rural communities
  • Concentration is now driven more by attempts to
    gain raw economic power than by economies of size
  • Corporations are more concerned about immediate
    profit, rather than long-term conservation and
    stewardship
  • Increasing control of food production technology

76
Lost in the Fifties
  • Small and mid-sized producers of commodities
    selling on the cash market
  • Returns will likely be dismally low, at best
  • Some markets are disappearing with vertical
    integration
  • Many markets thinning due to contracting
  • Less accurate and more easily manipulated
  • Partial vertical integration transfers risk to
    what remains of the market
  • Markets are increasingly manipulated by giant
    transnational corporations

77
Traditional Family Farms
  • Growing size
  • Attempt to compete within the industrialized
    system
  • Some may produce bulk commodities, while others
    will produce identity preserved products
  • Even with large size, they cannot countervail the
    market power of buyers of their products, or the
    market power of input sellers
  • Thin profit margins

78
Giant Corporate System
  • Participation in commercial production
    agriculture is increasingly by invitation only
  • Who will be invited?
  • Independent, outspoken, astute businessman and
    entrepreneurs?
  • Or Servile, submissive, not particularly astute
    businessmen?
  • The free market allows for cultural diversity in
    the production system the evolving global food
    system may not
  • Are a few CEOs through their economic and
    political power becoming the social planners
    for the world?

79
Here end the slides from Dr. Taylor
80
Degree of Corporate Concentration
  • The following data is from Professor William
    Heffernan of the University of Missouri
  • Economists worry when the top four firms control
    more than 40 of the industry. The following
    industries were under such control
  • Beef packers Flour Milling
  • Cattle Feedlots Dry Corn Milling
  • Pork packers Wet Corn Milling
  • Turkeys Soybean Crushing
  • Animal Feed Plants Ethanol Production
  • Multiple Elevator Companies

81
Worlds Largest Agribusiness Firms
  • The following data is also from Prof. Heffernan
  • The worlds largest agribusiness firms are
  • Phillip Morris Novartis
  • Nestle Continental
  • ConAgra
  • Archer Daniels Midlands (ADM)
  • Cargill
  • Dow Chemical
  • Monsanto

82
Here ends the slides from Dr. Heffernan
83
LAND USE, LAND, VALUE, TAXES, AND DEVELOPMENT
84
Land Use, Value, and Taxes Main Points
  • Rural land in Alabama is valued (1500-1900 per
    acre) about the same as in Georgia and South
    Carolina, less than in Florida, more than in
    Kansas and Mississippi.
  • The value of land here does not come primarily
    from its use in agriculture or from its innate
    productivity.
  • Land in Alabama has held its value consistently,
    and is a good deal for investment.
  • Land taxes in Alabama are the second lowest in
    the nation, lower than all our regional
    neighbors.
  • Evaluation for land taxation is not done on the
    basis of current market value but on the basis of
    current use value. Current use evaluation
    results in a value of about 500 per acre.

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89
Alabama Land Values Over Time
  • The following slides come from Professor Walt
    Prevatt of Auburn University.
  • They show the changes in Alabama land values over
    time, in comparison to the region and to the
    country.

90
Farm Real Estate Values,Alabama, 1950-2003
91
Farm Real Estate Values,Alabama, 1950-2003
1Alabama Farm Real Estate Values were deflated
using the Gross Domestic Product Deflator,
1950100.
92
Annual Percent Change In Farm Real Estate
Values,Alabama, 1950-2003
93
Farm Real Estate Values,Alabama U.S., 1970-2003
94
Here ends the first series of slides from Dr.
Prevatt
95
Population Determines Rural Land Value
  • The following slides, also from Dr. Prevatt of
    Auburn, show what influences the value of
    agricultural land. The r2 indicates how
    strongly a factor influences land value.
  • The first two slides show that cotton prices and
    calf prices have almost no influence on land
    value. Productivity is not key.
  • The third slide shows that timber value accounts
    for about 35 of land value.
  • The fourth slide shows that population accounts
    for about 61 of land value (96 35 61).
  • Population has influence because of the demand
    for housing and other development. Land can be
    held for speculation because of the low tax.

96
Econometric Analysis Of Value
  • Cropland ValueCropland Value f ( Alabama
    Cotton Prices ) Cropland
    Value 1,362 - 525 CP
    R2 0.0693

97
Econometric Analysis Of Value
  • Pastureland ValuePastureland Value f (
    Alabama Calf Prices )
    Pastureland Value 937 0.5019 CP
    R2
    0.0009

98
Econometric Analysis Of Value
  • Timberland Value
  • Timberland Value f ( Alabama Timber Prices
    ) Timberland Value 9.2193
    30.3644 PP
    R2 0.3459

99
Econometric Analysis Of Value
  • Farm Real Estate Value (FREV)
  • FREV f ( Forestry Receipts Population)
    FREV -1234 2.85
    FR 39.01 POP
    R2 0.9617

100
Here ends the second series of slides from Dr.
Prevatt
101
Raising Taxes
  • Alabama land taxes are low. Low land taxes allow
    land to be held by speculators, by successful
    timber growers and farmers, by poor farmers, and
    by poor rural residents.
  • Raising taxes might gain some revenue for the
    state, and might cause the land to move.
  • Raising taxes might also adversely affect poor
    farmers and poor rural residents.
  • Land tax changes have to be part of a larger view
    about taxes and development.

102
Alabama Development Problems
  • The following sequence of slides comes from Dr.
    Sumners of Auburn University. It shows that the
    traditional development policy in Alabama has not
    worked.
  • The traditional development policy was low land
    taxes, little provided infrastructure, with a
    poor and undereducated work force (but hard
    working). This policy actually resulted in
  • High rural poverty
  • Poor education, including low test scores
  • No infrastructure development
  • Out migration
  • Break-down of the rural lifestyle
  • No Development

103
Economic Development Issues for Rural Alabama
Joe A. Sumners, Ph.D. Director Economic
Development Institute Auburn University 334-844-4
704 sumneja_at_auburn.edu
104
Alabama Rural Distress
  • County June 03 Unemployment
  • Washington 17.4
  • Wilcox 15.4
  • Lowndes 13.8
  • Dallas 13.7
  • Sumter 12.9
  • Greene 12.7
  • Bullock 12.5
  • Choctaw 12.0
  • Perry 11.7
  • Lamar 10.9
  • Hale 10.5
  • Butler 10.1
  • Randolph 10.0
  • County Over 65
  • Covington 17.9
  • Crenshaw 17.1
  • Tallapoosa 16.6
  • Clay 16.5
  • Henry 16.4
  • Geneva 16.3
  • Fayette 16.1
  • Etowah 16.0
  • Lamar 15.9
  • Randolph 15.9
  • 9. Cherokee 15.9

105
Alabama Rural Distress
  • Counties with Lowest SAT Scores
  • 1. Bullock
  • 1. Macon
  • 1. Perry
  • 1. Sumter
  • 2. Barbour
  • 2. Greene
  • 2. Lowndes
  • 2. Wilcox
  • 3. Marengo
  • 4. Butler
  • 4. Coosa
  • 4. Pike
  • 4. Russell
  • 5. Chambers
  • 5. Clarke
  • County Median Family Income
  • Wilcox 22,200
  • Sumter 23,176
  • Bullock 23,990
  • Greene 24,604
  • Perry 26,150
  • Macon 28,511
  • Lowndes 28,935
  • Dallas 29,906
  • Butler 30,905
  • Crenshaw 31,724

106
History of Economic Development in Alabama
  • Throughout the 20th Century, Alabamas economic
    development strategy was built on low taxes and
    unskilled, low-cost labor.
  • In the later 20th Century, the U.S began to
    export low wage, polluting industries new focus
    on high technology.
  • Alabama was poorly positioned to compete when
    question became not what does labor cost but
    what does labor know.

107
The State of the South 2002 Shadows in the
Sunbelt Revisited (MDC, Inc.)
  • National recovery wont bring jobs back to the
    rural South. Production has moved to other
    countries with lower wages, or plants have
    substituted technologically advanced machines for
    people. Tens of thousands of jobs are not coming
    back.
  • Gone forever is the kind of economic development
    strategy that Alabama and other Southern states
    used for decades to lure industry Enticing
    companies from afar to relocate with the bait of
    cheap land, low taxes and a surplus of
    hardworking but undereducated workers. That old
    recipe no longer works.

108
Tax Burden
  • TOTAL PER CAPITA STATE AND LOCAL TAX REVENUE (FY
    2000)
  • STATE TAXES NAT. RANK
  • Georgia 2,841 25
  • North Carolina 2,664 31
  • Florida 2,624 35
  • Kentucky 2,517 39
  • Louisiana 2,436
    41
  • South Carolina 2,379
    44
  • Arkansas 2,230 47
  • Mississippi 2,214 48
  • Tennessee 2,185
    49
  • Alabama 2,117 50
  • National Average 3,100
  • Alabama 68 of Nat. avg 75 of Georgias tax
    burden

109
Property Tax Revenue 2002 (Per Capita)
  • PROPERTY TAX REVENUE PER CAPITA (FY 2000) 
  • STATE PROP TAXES NAT. RANK
  • Florida 882 22
  • Georgia 725 33
  • South Carolina 668 36
  • North Carolina 572 39
  • Mississippi 514 40
  • Tennessee 507 41
  • Kentucky 426 45
  • Louisiana 390 46
  • Arkansas 361 48
  • Alabama 301 50
  •   National Average 885
  • Alabama 34 of Nat. avg. 54 of other southern
    state avg. (561)

110
Education Spending
  • EDUCATION SPENDING PER K-12 PUPIL (2000-01)
  • STATE SPENDING NAT. RANK
  • Georgia 7,620 19
  • Kentucky 7,047 25
  • South Carolina 7,012 26
  • North Carolina 6,364 39
  • Florida 6,254 40
  • Louisiana 6,010 41
  • Mississippi 5,699 44
  • Tennessee 5,693 45
  • Arkansas 5,684 46
  • Alabama 5,210 47
  • National Average 7,463
  • Alabama 70 of national average 82 of other
    southern state avg.

111
Rural Schools
  • Local funding for education in Alabamas rural
    school systems is only 57 of the local support
    provided to school systems in the states
    metropolitan areas.
  • County and city school systems in Alabamas 45
    rural counties average 793 per student in local
    support.
  • County and city school systems in the states 22
    counties located in metropolitan statistical
    areas average 1,386 per student a difference
    of 593 per student.
  • (Source Public Affairs Research Council of
    Alabama, Samford University, Local Support for
    Public Schools Tax Rates and Revenues Per
    Student, 1999).

112
Economic Growth
  • ECONOMIC GROWTH
  • ( change in employment 2002-03)
  • STATE NAT. RANK
  • Florida 4
  • Tennessee 10
  • Mississippi 12
  • Arkansas 16
  • Louisiana 18
  • Georgia 25
  • Kentucky 28
  • South Carolina 32
  • North Carolina 40
  • Alabama 41

113
Economic Growth
  • INDEX OF STATE ECONOMIC MOMENTUM (September 2002)
  • STATE NAT. RANK
  • Florida 5
  • Tennessee 12
  • South Carolina 20
  • Georgia 22
  • Arkansas 23
  • Kentucky 24
  • Mississippi 25
  • North Carolina 27
  • Louisiana 33
  • Alabama 38
  • The Index looks at one-year changes in 1)
    employment, 2) personal income, and 3) population

114
Here ends the series from Dr. Sumners
115
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
116
Summary of Environmental Issues
  • Along with the country in general, Alabamas
    physical environment improved after 1970, due to
    urban migration, less chemicals on the farm and
    forest, better technology , and the Clean Air and
    Water Acts.
  • Alabama actually has a pretty good physical
    environment, largely because it is still largely
    rural (if not agricultural).
  • Alabama has some problems left over from the
    past.
  • Alabama has some problems in its urban areas.
  • Alabama has many concerned groups monitoring the
    environment and helping maintain quality.

117
Summary of Environmental Issues, cont.
  • Aside from state actions, land in Alabama is
    conserved in these ways
  • Private foundations and trusts
  • Farmers finding alternatives uses including
    agro-tourism and rural expensive, extensive
    housing
  • Sports, particularly large hunting tracts
  • The perception that Alabama has a poor
    environment partly comes from the notion that the
    general quality of life in the South is poor, and
    thus the misconception that the physical
    environment must be poor too. This material may
    be found on the website.

118
Environmental Problems from the Past
  • Old mining and manufacturing scars in the north,
    especially around Montgomery.
  • Chemicals and radioactive agents from the defense
    industry.
  • Lakes, ponds, and streams that had been polluted
    or that had undergone eutrophication, and have
    not recovered.
  • Poorly planned water supplies and sewage systems
    for urban areas of all sizes.
  • Alabamas physical environmental is fragile due
    to the climate and soil. Some (national)
    forested areas had been logged off or overused,
    and have never properly recovered.

119
Present Environmental Issues
  • Alabama gets cheap electricity but it generates
    this electricity primarily through coal-fired
    plants. Some of the plants choose the cleanest
    coal and have installed clean modern technology,
    but hardly all. These plants contribute
    significantly to air quality problems in urban
    areas.
  • Urban areas have paved over or covered up old
    mining and manufacturing scars.
  • Birmingham in particular has air problems caused
    both by cars and by generating plants.
  • Birmingham has sewage problems, and intends to
    solve those problems with a super sewer.

120
Present Environmental Issues, continued.
  • Near urban areas, Alabama rivers are overused.
    Too much water is taken out, and the water that
    is put back in is not always best treated. See
    the Birmingham super sewer.
  • Medium sized towns have expanded without
    planning. Where they have expanded into
    unincorporated areas (or into another county)
    there is no clear supervising authority.
  • Dense rural residences (trailer parks) have
    expanded without planning and without any clear
    supervising authority.
  • See the urban-rural interface from previous
    slides.

121
CAFO Pollution
  • CAFO concentrated animal feedlot operation.
    This is a large scale chicken or hog farming
    operation.
  • These produce about three times as much manure
    and other by-product as can be absorbed by the
    local environment or the state market for manure
    fertilizer.
  • The state has enacted regulations calling for the
    limitation but it is not clear that CAFOs can
    comply.
  • Most CAFOs are run well, but some are not. The
    state keeps a list of all CAFOS, and of their
    record of operation.
  • Neighbors often complain of smell from CAFOs even
    when they are run well

122
Environmental Groups
  • A comprehensive list of dozens of groups
    concerned with the environment and land can be
    found at the following website
  • Alabama Grassroots Clearinghouse
  • www.ag.auburn.edu/grassroots

123
Various Conservation Programs
  • The following two sets of slides illustrate some
    conservation initiatives by the federal
    government and by one private agency in Madison
    country.

124
Protecting Working LandsThrough USDA
Conservation Programs
  • Denise Coleman
  • National Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program
    Manager
  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service

125
2002 Farm Bill Changing the Focus
126
Conservation Programs
  • Easement Programs
  • Cost-Share Programs
  • Stewardship Program

127
Here ends the series by Dr. Coleman
128
A Greenprint for Growth
  • A Master Land Preservation Plan for Madison
    County, AL
  • (from the Land Trust of Huntsville and North
    Alabama)

129
(No Transcript)
130
Who we are and how far we have come.
  • MISSION STATEMENT
  • The Land Trust of Huntsville North Alabama is a
    non-profit organization dedicated to preserving
    lands for public use to enhance recreation,
    education, conservation and prosperity in the
    North Alabama region.
  • As of 2002
  • 1800 members
  • 3,240 acres across Madison County one in
    Limestone County
  • Partner support from the City of Huntsville,
    the Madison County Commission and the City of
    Madison.

131
The Land Trust of Huntsville North Alabama
  • Percentages for 2002
  • Income 
  • Fundraising 30 
  • City Appropriation 29
  • Membership 24
  • Contributions 17

132
Historical and Projected Land Use
Change, Madison County
1984
1990
2000
2020
133
(No Transcript)
134
Here ends the series from the Land Trust of
Huntsville and North Alabama
135
POLL RESULTS, 2002 and 2003
  • For each conference, Dr. Boyd commissioned a poll
    of Alabamans on attitudes toward rural life, or
    toward land use and land value. About 100 people
    responded to each poll. The margin of error is
    about - 5 for any given question. The
    following slides give selected results.

136
Selected Results from 2002 Poll onAttitudes
Toward Rural Life
  • 56 think Alabama is a leading agricultural state
    in the U.S.
  • 77 think Alabama soil and water is well suited
    for agriculture
  • 90 think that the climate is well suited for
    agriculture
  • Over 50 know that the number of farms has
    declined
  • 53 know that farming is generally not profitable
  • 73 know that farmers need a second income
  • 60 are willing to pay more for food to protect
    farms
  • 76 are willing to limit imports to protect farms
  • Only 4 felt that agriculture was the leading
    cause of pollution

137
Selected Results from 2003 Poll onLand Use, Land
Value, Land Taxes
  • A selection of slides follows this summary
  • Many people bought and sold land. Land moves in
    the market.
  • People want rural land kept in stereotypical row
    crop farms and orchards.
  • People do not know that Alabama is largely
    forested.
  • People think that owners should be free to do
    whatever they wish with their land.
  • At the same time, they think that owners should
    be good stewards and should keep rural land as
    natural as possible.
  • People support current use evaluation for taxes.
  • At the same time, most people thought that rural
    land taxes were more than 2 per acres, or more
    than 5 per acre, and that this was fair.

138
Motivations for Past Future Purchases of Rural
Land
139
B-1.Perceived Economic ValueEstimates of Current
versus Fair Annual Taxes on Rural Land
140
B-1.Perceived Economic ValueEstimates of Current
versus Fair Annual Taxes on Rural Land
141
C-1. Rural Land Usage
  • Respondents indicated whether or not each of 11
    land uses would be acceptable

142
D-1. Maintenance Protection
  • 56.1 agreed that rural landowners should be
    awarded government subsidies to maintain land in
    its natural state.
  • 61.3 agreed that more rural land should be put
    into protected state or national forests.

143
D-2. Maintenance Protection
144
D-2. Maintenance Protection
145
END OF SLIDE SHOW
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