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Antisocial Personality Disorder

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20th century: 'Sociopath' DSM-IV: 'Antisocial Personality Disorder' ... By definition APD individuals demonstrated antisocial behaviour during adolescence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Antisocial Personality Disorder


1
Antisocial Personality Disorder
2
Antisocial Behaviour
  • Antisocial Behaviour
  • criminal, aggressive behaviour that might come to
    clinical attention
  • less inflexible, maladaptive, persistent,
    distressing, and impairing than APD

3
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Pervasive disregard for, and violation of, the
    rights of others that begins before the age of 15
    and continues into adulthood
  • 1 of females and 4-6 of males

4
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Defining features
  • Antisocial behaviour present before age 15
  • Irresponsible
  • Irritable/Aggressive
  • Impulsive/Reckless
  • Deceitfulness

5
Psychopathy
  • Late 19th century Psychopath
  • 20th century Sociopath
  • DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • not all antisocial behaviour is evidence of a
    disorder
  • but fails to include emotional and interpersonal
    characteristics associated with psychopathy

6
APD vs. Psychopathy
  • Impulsive, but motivated vs. unmotivated
  • Irritable, angry vs. shallow emotions - no
    empathy or anxiety
  • Normal learning vs. poor passive avoidance
    learning
  • Constantly in conflict with society vs. pleasant
    exterior deceptive
  • reactive aggression vs. instrumental aggression

7
  • Considerable overlap and debate
  • Clinically antisocial
  • Simply a criminal
  • Psychopath

8
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • By definition APD individuals demonstrated
    antisocial behaviour during adolescence
  • Homicide rates among boys are much higher in the
    USA than anywhere else
  • Violence has been increasing among children in
    the USA

9
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • Two DSM-IV categories for childhood antisocial
    behaviour
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder

10
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • Antisocial behaviour in childhood is a good
    predictor of adult antisocial behaviour
  • Protective factors
  • high levels of physiological arousal
  • strong orienting response

11
Sociocultural Approach
  • Next to gender, poverty is the single greatest
    risk factor for violent behaviour
  • Injustices in society contribute to the
    development of criminal behaviour
  • need and inability to succeed in a socially
    sanctioned manner
  • Socialization into groups that encourage
    antisocial behaviour

12
Behavioural Approach
  • Focus on the individuals immediate environment
    (family)
  • Modeling
  • media, family examples
  • Poor reinforcement of pro-social behaviour
  • Inconsistent and harsh punishments
  • Do not perceive connection between positive
    behaviour and treatment they receive (luck)

13
Cognitive Approach
  • Poor social problem solving and ability to read
    social situations
  • See hostility where none was intended

14
Biological Approach
  • Identical twins are more likely than fraternal
    twins to be concordant in criminal activity
  • Adopted twins separated at birth are more likely
    to be concordant with each other than with
    adopted siblings

15
Biological Approach
  • APD shows high comorbidity with addictions
  • General vulnerability to toward antisocial
    behaviour, not violence
  • EEG abnormality in left frontal lobes

16
Biological Approach
  • Limited capacity for fear
  • Poor fear conditioning
  • Underaroused stimulus-seekers
  • heart rates at age 3 predict aggression at age 11

17
  • Anderson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel and Damasio
    (1999) Impairment of social and moral behaviour
    related to early damage in human prefrontal
    cortex
  • impaired social behaviour, insensitivity to
    consequences of decisions, defective autonomic
    responses to punishment
  • defective social and moral reasoning (but normal
    intelligence)

18
  • Raine, Lencz, Bihrle, LaCasse, and Colletti
    (2000) Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and
    reduced autonomic activity in antisocial
    personality disorder
  • people with APD who do not have discernable
    brain trauma nevertheless have subtle prefrontal
    deficits
  • this my explain low arousal, poor fear
    conditioning, lack of conscience, and
    decision-making deficits

19
Psychodynamic Approach
  • Traditional psychoanalytic approaches
  • poor SuperEgo development
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