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Romance Languages 200 Second Language Acquisition Part I

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In US studies: girls are better learners than boys. ( right hemisphere) 'Me Tarzan! ... Fromkin, Victoria & Robert Rodman, An Introduction to Language, 6th. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Romance Languages 200 Second Language Acquisition Part I


1
Romance Languages 200Second Language
AcquisitionPart I

2
  • Human language is perhaps the most distinctive
    behavioural adaptation on our planet. Language
    evolved in only one species, in only one way
    without precedent and without parallel.

3
Human language
  • Is productive.
  • syntactic system
  • Has semanticity.
  • symbolic representation
  • ideas, events and objects
  • Offers possibility of displacement
  • decontextualized language
  • (not tied to here and now)

4
1. The brain
5
The sites
6
Sagittal view of the brain
7
Cortex from the left side
8
the cerebral cortex
  • "...makes humans what they are. Within the vast
    human cortex lies a critical part of the secret
    of human consciousness, our superb sensory
    capacities and sensitivities to the external
    world, our motor skills, our aptitudes for
    reasoning and imagining and above all our unique
    language abilities.
  • Thompson, 1985, p22.

9
The coexistence of two languagesConversations
with Neils Brain
10
We are unaware of most of the things that go on
in our heads, and sometimes thats better, as in
Zen archery. When we really learn a new movement
sequence, it seems to become a subroutine that no
longer requires conscious attention tying a
necktie or hair ribbon required lots of conscious
attention in the beginning, but once established
(perhaps at a subcortical level) we can do it
better if we dont try to think about it. What
is, initially, consciously mediated can become
subconscious with practice. William H. Calvin in
The Cerebral Code
11
Where is language?
  • Subacute stroke hesitating speech transcortical
    aphasia

12
Is it all one skill?
  • Acute stroke writes, but cant read alexia
    without agraphia

13
Applications in the classroom
14
Regarding the brains perception and production
of language
  • Physical movement ties in language.
  • Text is easier when it is scrolled to the right
  • Elements of language can be independent of each
    other.

15
regarding memory in adults
  • repetition does not produce long-term memory
  • loss of information (depression) is
    natural/necessary/normal in adult brains
  • long-term memory (plasticity) is associative

16
Second Language... L2 ACQUISITION!
  • Steven KrashenLearning is what you use to
    pass a test on Friday while Acquisition is what
    you use when you try to get a glass of wine in
    Paris. comprehension output acquisition

17
Noam Chomsky
  • Language Acquisition Device
  • sufficient examples
  • produces the rules of the language
    unconsciously

18
  • The innateness of the LAD means that language
    acquisition is biologically based.
  • Some of the evidence that supports this
    hypothesis is as follows

19
  • 1. All human languages share a universal grammar.
    So, across all languages there are some common
    features.
  • This would suggest that there are certain innate
    biological rules that all humans follow simply
    because it is a human biological trait.

20
  • 2. There is a uniform rate of language
    acquisition. In other words, language is learned
    by all humans in stages 1st words, 2-word stage,
    etc .....
  • Hence, it is like a biological program unfolding.

21
  • 3. Language acquisition is specialized, meaning
    that it involves structures and operations that
    have no non-linguistic counterparts.

22
  • 4. Acquisition is automatic regardless of
    instructions. Adults seldom provide children with
    positive examples of the language. For example,
    parents often correct meaning rather than
    grammar.
  • Even with severe induction problems, children
    still have normal comprehension and
    grammaticality judgments.

23
5. It has been shown that there is a critical
period during development for language
acquisition.
24
  • 6. Language disorders may be genetically
    transmitted, meaning that there must be a
    biological device to be affected.
  • 7. Language deficits are functionally modular,
    which means that some people have deficits that
    specifically impair language.
  • example stuttering
  • 8. Anatomically modular.

25
I gotta tell Igor to stop getting me
right-brained monsters
26
Romance Languages 200Second Language
AcquisitionPart II
  • Teaching a Second Language

27
The Natural Approach ... speaking ability
'emerges' after the acquirer has built up
competence through comprehending input." Steven
Krashen
  • Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
  • Acquired competence
  • fluency
  • unconscious language picked up in communicative
    situations
  • Learned competence
  • rules and grammar information
  • make repairs on output
  • Natural order hypothesis
  • I no go.
  • Input hypothesis
  • Comprehensible input
  • Affective filter hypothesis

28
Problems with monitor theory
  • no transfer between monitor and LAD

29
Existing second language acquisition theories
  • Krashen's monitor model (1981, 1985)
  • McLaughlin's information processing model (1983)
  • Schumann's acculturation theory (1986, 1978)
  • Cummins' language proficiency models (1986, 1981)

30
McLaughlin's information processing model (1983)
  • http//typhoon.coedu.usf.edu/eme4402/lectures/lea
    rn/sld010.htm
  • feedback is crucial in the learning process

31
Information processing
  • PERCEPTUAL FILTER
  • The progress of recognition feedback is
    crucial in learning process
  • What different individuals perceive is seen to be
    influenced in part by their own by their own
    relatively unique background or past experience
    stored in memory
  • model is largely asocial

32
Acculturation and the grammar of
selfSchumann, Fenimore
  • grammar of self the rules for the social and
    linguistic self
  • developmental stages (behavior)
  • observer
  • participant
  • friendship
  • Adaptation to a new culture
  • reorientation of thinking, feeling and
    communicating

33
What do we know about language acquisition, that
can be applied to the classroom?
  • Only 5 of speakers can acquire full mastery of a
    2nd. Language after puberty.
  • Ego link with accent of first language makes 2nd.
    Language acquisition impossible.
  • Motivation is crucial with age.
  • In US studies girls are better learners than
    boys. (right hemisphere)

34
Me Tarzan! You Jane!
35
Applications in the classroom
36
dealing with memory
  • Perceptual information can be stored for only a
    brief time, unless it is used immediately. If
    you attempt to crowd in too much, some will be
    lost.
  • 15-20 seconds
  • Until a high level of proficiency is acquired, an
    individual can concentrate only on one thing at a
    time.

37
  • The retention of briefly presented information
    depends on
  • past experience,
  • context,
  • and its perceived importance.
  • To improve memory
  • relax
  • relate.

38
Gina is by lingalthat means she can say the
same thing twice, but you can only understand it
once.
39
Second Language Acquisition
  • Part III
  • The teaching grammar

40
  • Pragnanz
  • The law of Pragnanz states that forms with
    the most simplicity, regularity, symmetry, and
    ease of remembrance are most easily understood.
    People tend to see the interpretation of
    pictures that makes the most sense to them based
    on logic, intuition, and past experience.

41
The essence of a shape
  • What is the simplest way to represent the figure
    at left?

42
  • A line drawing is efficient.

43
  • The circle method. Draw a circle as large as
    possible within the bound of the figure, and
    repeat throughout. The centers of the circles are
    the points on the lines.

44
  • 'brush fire' method.
  • Start a "fire" on each edge, and move inward
    until the "fires" meet.

45
A grammar explanation should be...
  • Simple
  • Symmetrical
  • Intuitive (connected to past experience)

46
Ive written a book on grammar. Can I see
it?MAY I see it?
  • Not only that, you can keep it.

47
Our robust minds
  • Scrambled words

48
Advantages of adult learner
  • Thinks about language.
  • Questions.
  • Can rehearse and practice.
  • Additional ability
  • self-criticism
  • observe others usage
  • select among possible styles.
  • Increased exposure.

49
Adult learning orientation a continuum(accultur
ation theory)
  • L1
  • native language metalinguistic
  • well developed lexical structures
  • fallback position
  • L2
  • target language
  • progression development of explicit and implicit
    knowledge

50
Learning task analysis(defense of eclectic
methodology)
  • intellectual skills
  • cognitive strategies
  • verbal information
  • motor skills
  • attitudes.
  • Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., Wager, W. W.
    (1992). Principles of Instructional Design. Fort
    Worth Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College
    Publishers.

51
Applications in the classroom
52
Pedagogical implications
  • suppress L1 orientation (L2 reading)
  • consider students objective in learning
  • physical aspect include practice drills
  • instructors use normal speech

53
Very brief bibliography
  • Calvin, William H. , How Brains Think Evolving
    Intelligence, Then and Now, New York Science
    Masters, Basic Books, 1996.
  • Deacon, Terrence W., THE SYMBOLIC SPECIES The
    Co-evolution of Language and the Brain, New York
    W. W. Norton Company, 1997
  • Bickerton, Derek, Language and Human Behavior,
    Washington University of Washington Press, 1995.
  • Fromkin, Victoria Robert Rodman, An
    Introduction to Language, 6th. edition, Fort
    Worth Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.
  • Krachen, Stephen D. Tracy D. Terrell, The
    Natural Approach, Language Acquisition in the
    Classroom, New York Prentice Hall, 1983.
  • Pinker, Steven, The Language Instinct, How the
    Mind Creates Language. New York Harper
    Perennial, 1995.
  • Purves et al., Neuroscience, Sunderland, Mass.
    Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1997.
  • A Brief Description of Steven Krashens Theories
  • Conversations with Neils Brain
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