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Completing the Revolution 17891815

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10 survived & became the Bill of Rights. Bill of Rights. Guarantees Individual liberties & limits the power of the national gov't ... The Star-Spangled Banner ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Completing the Revolution 17891815


1
Completing the Revolution 1789-1815
  • Chapter 8

2
Establishing the Government 1788-89
  • Washington elected President (1789)
  • Senate creates title for President
  • 1st controversy in Congress
  • - What title did Congress settled on?

3
The First Congress
  • 1st business- Money
  • Source of income- tariff on imports
  • Amending the Constitution
  • - Madison proposed 19
  • - 10 survived became the Bill of Rights
  • Bill of Rights
  • Guarantees Individual liberties limits the
    power of the national govt

4
The First Congress (continue)
  • creates framework of new government
  • creates Federal Courts
  • - Judiciary Act of 1789
  • - Supreme Court
  • - 13 district courts 3 courts of appeal

5
The National debt (1789)
  • Congress focused on natl debt
  • - payment ensures credibility of new govt
  • Hamiltons report on debt
  • US debt- 59 million

6
The National debt (continue)
  • Hamilton proposes plan
  • - consolidate / charter bank / tax on spirits
  • Plan creates controversy
  • - approved in 1791
  • Where does compromise move the capital?

7
Problem on the Frontier
  • Whiskey Rebellion 1794
  • Western Pennsylvania

8
Whiskey rebellion
  • Problems with the spirit tax
  • Settlers on frontier refused to pay tax
  • 6k whiskey rebels threaten to attack Pittsburgh

9
Whiskey rebellion, 1794
  • Washingtons reaction to crisis
  • - calls in federal troops (12k)
  • Rebellion suppressed with little resistance

10
Troubles abroad
  • French Revolution (1789)
  • - King Louis XVI beheaded in 1793
  • - declare war on Britain (1793)
  • Americas hopes of peace in jeopardy
  • - Treaty w/ France (1778)

11
Troubles abroad (continue)
  • Washington declares neutrality (1794)
  • US in no condition to fight a war
  • America divided over outbreak of war
  • Need to maintain good relations with Great
    Britain
  • National Debt

12
The Jay Treaty (1794)
  • France resumes trade with US (1793)
  • British retaliate by seizing US ships
  • - refuse to leave US northwest
  • Jay is sent to negotiate w/British (1794)
  • - trade / British abandon forts
  • - neutrality maintained / war avoided
  • - Jay Treaty (1795)

13
Washingtons Farewell
  • Washington decides not to seek reelection
  • Set precedent for executive office
  • - appearance / 2 terms (1789-1797)
  • Oversaw creation of Natl govt
  • Suppressed rebellion
  • Avoided war with Great Britain

14
Election of 1796
  • Adams (Federalist) Jefferson (Dem Rep)
  • 1st contested election
  • France threaten war unless Jefferson is elected
    (Jay Treaty)
  • gt seized US ships trading with Britain

15
Adams elected 2nd President of US
France severed relations with US
16
XYZ Affair
  • Adams sends statesmen to France
  • - 3 Frenchmen demand a bribe loan
  • - What did the Frenchmen identify themselves
    as?
  • - delegates return to US
  • Adams ask Congress to prepare for war
  • 1798- conflict between US French
  • British intervene
  • French expelled / treaty signed

17
Crisis at home
  • Troubles with France produced hostility toward
    the French and, to some extent, toward their
    Republicans friends in the US.

18
The Alien Sedition Acts
  • Passed 1799, in response to France
  • - gave President power to deport aliens
  • - punishment for speaking against the govt
  • Republicans claim act violates constitution
  • - journalist, Congressmen, others jailed
  • Act damages Adams presidency for election of 1800

19
Jefferson wins election of 1800
3rd President of US
20
The Jefferson Presidency
  • Jeffersonian Politics
  • Cut backs on military spending (1802)
  • gt maintain a small, well trained professional
    army for defense
  • Repealed Alien Sedition Acts
  • Natl debt fell from 80 to 57 million

21
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • Westward expansion vital for survival of Republic
  • - vital New Orleans
  • Louisiana territory owned by France
  • - Napoleons plans for an empire
  • Troubles of war slaves revolts
  • Jefferson sent delegates to buy N.O.
  • Jefferson purchases Louisiana Territory for 15
    million
  • What did this do to the size of US?

22
Louisiana Purchase 1803
23
Justifying the Purchase
  • Too good to refuse
  • Access to rivers gulf
  • Protection
  • New farm land
  • Congress ratified purchase (1803)
  • big govt (opposite Jeffersons beliefs)

24
Jeffersons reelection
  • Dismantled govts power to coerce citizens
  • Cut down natl debt
  • increased size of US
  • Maintained peace
  • Reelected in 1804

25
Napoleonic Wars
  • Napoleon declares war on Britain (1803)
  • US profits by remaining neutral
  • War reaches stalemate in 1805
  • - Napoleon controlled Europe Britain
    controlled the seas
  • - both begin to seize US ships

26
Jeffersons ending term
  • Jefferson maintains neutrality
  • - passed embargo act on Europe (1807)
  • - peaceable coercion
  • - US lost 86 million in 1807 (trade)
  • - economy slowed / unemployment
  • Jefferson endorces Madison as successor

27
Madison elected (1809-1817)
28
The Road to War
  • Madisons Non-intercourse Act
  • British continue seizing US ships
  • - 6k US sailors impressed between 1803-12
  • War Hawks fed up with Britain

29
Madisons war message (1812)
  • Whether the United States shall continue passive
    under these accumulating wrongs or apply force
    in defense of their national rights…shall commit
    a just cause for war
  • 1st declared war
  • Congress declares war (06-18-1812)

30
War of 1812
  • US advantages
  • England already at war
  • War close to US
  • US Disadvantages
  • Unpopular war
  • Poor inexperienced militia

31
War of 1812
  • Land invasion / Canada
  • US campaign leads to disaster
  • British defeat Napoleon (1814)
  • - concentrate on US forces
  • - attack Washington, D.C.
  • War reaches a stalemate
  • Peace negotiations begin

32
Battle of New Orleans (1/8/1815)
  • British focus on N.O.
  • Jackson commands US troops
  • British (6k) troops invade US forces (4k)
  • Causalities
  • gt British
  • gt US
  • Revived American nationalism
  • Jackson viewed as a war hero
  • Treaty of Ghent (1814)
  • What was unique about the battle of New Orleans?

33
The Star-Spangled Banner
  • During the war of 1812, Francis Scott Key peered
    through clearing smoke to see an enormous US flag
    flying proudly after a British naval bombardment.
    He was inspired to write a poem (1814), which was
    later set to music
  • made the national anthem by Congress on March 3,
    1931

34
Conclusion
  • America establishes sovereignty
  • - constitution / debts
  • Washington establishes presidency
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • War of 1812
  • Peace in Europe US
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