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Revolution and the Age of Ideology

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Title: Revolution and the Age of Ideology


1
Revolution and the Age of Ideology
  • Heather Ramirez
  • Sandra Sandoval

2
Republicanism, Revolution, and Education
3
Education in the United States
  • After the American Revolution, it was very
    important to unite the 13 colonies
  • Created a system that
  • distributed power
  • Divided townships into 36
  • sections one reserved for education
  • U.S. Constitution leaves out education- so it
    becomes the states responsibility

4
Early American Educational Theorists
  • Benjamin Rush
  • Father of American Psychiatry
  • Provide Lewis Clark with medical
  • kit
  • Samuel Smith
  • Engaged in the shipping business
  • Commanded Marylands quota
  • during the Whiskey Rebellion
  • Member of Congress and Senate

5
Benjamin Franklin
  • 15th of 17 children and
  • youngest of 10 sons
  • Father was a candle maker and
  • soap maker
  • Was supposed to become a minister, but could
  • not afford school
  • Apprenticed as candle maker and printer

6
Benjamin Franklin (cont)
  • Published anti-religious articles under the
  • pseudonym Silence Dogwood
  • Opened the 1st public
  • library
  • Became an abolitionist
  • Signed all 4 founding
  • documents of the U.S.

7
Franklin Education
  • Advocated a different kind of school
  • School to be focused on practical curriculum
  • Students would be able to choose
  • second language
  • Provided for vocational crafts
  • School unsuccessful but
  • ideal lives on
  • Benjamin Franklin An Enlightened American
  • Quick Biography of Benjamin Franklin

8
Thomas Jefferson
  • Born into a wealthy family
  • The 3rd of 10 children
  • Experienced death of father at 14 is
  • left 5000 acres of land and many slaves
  • Received a classical education and goes into law
  • Married once to Martha Wayles Skelton and had 6
  • children

9
Thomas Jefferson (cont)
  • Set out to reform and update Virginia's system of
    laws to reflect its new status as a democratic
    state
  • Drafted 126 bills in 3 years
  • Became President in 1801
  • Obtained Louisiana
  • Purchase for 15 million

10
Jefferson and Education
  • Obsessed by idea of higher education without
    religious influences
  • Wanted students to be able
  • to specialize in classes not
  • offered at other schools
  • Founded the University of
  • Virginia in 1819
  • 1st University to offer full variety
  • of electives
  • Centered around a library not a church

11
Jefferson Facts
  • He had a lisp and therefore hated public
    speaking
  • He died on the 4th of July on the 50th
  • anniversary of the signing of the
  • Declaration of Independence
  • He invented more words than
  • any other president
  • He kept 2 bear cubs in cages in
  • front of the White House Gifts from Lewis
    Clark
  • Jefferson's West Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis
    and Clark Expedition

12
Republican Education
  • Shift from religious to social and political
  • Tried to form educated and
  • capable citizens
  • Exhibited a distrust in
  • centralized powers
  • Emphasized educating ordinary
  • people not just elite intellectuals
  • Sought separation of church and state

13
The French Revolution
  • Caused by resentment of royal absolutism
  • 95 of population
  • represented by only
  • 1 vote
  • Enlightenment spreads
  • In 1789, Third estate proclaims itself the
    National Assembly
  • and Bastille is stormed
  • French Revolution - Wikipedia, the free
    encyclopedia

14
French Education
  • Switch from Catholic domination
  • before the war, to government
  • domination
  • Complete rejection of the old order
  • Emphasis on teaching the French language
  • Rewards were offered for those who attended
    republic schools as opposed to religious-based
    private schools
  • Strong French centralization commitment
  • The Revolution, Napoleon, and Education

15
Napoleon
  • Born to minor Italian nobility
  • Entered military school at age 9
  • Had to learn French but spoke
  • with Italian accent
  • Called The Little General but
  • was actually not short
  • Married Josephine de Beauharnais they had no
    children

16
Education under Napoleon
  • Napoleon forms Concordat with Pope, allowing
    religious elementary schools to re-establish
  • Napoleon felt education was different
  • for boys and girls
  • Girls were to be taught religion and
  • domestic skills
  • Boys divided into two categories under 12
  • and over 12
  • Elementary schools governed by municipalities
  • Secondary schools run strictly by the state
  • Created the Imperial University in 1808
  • Lycees and centralized power still exist in
    France today

17
Revolutionary Consequences
  • French Changes
  • Less emphasis on religion
  • More emphasis on nationalism
  • Education for common citizens (except women)
  • Education as tool for creating soldiers
    government
  • U.S. Changes
  • Less emphasis on religion
  • More emphasis on democracy
  • Education for common people
  • Education for creating citizenry

18
The 19th Century-The Age of Ideology
19
Ideologies
  • Industrialism
  • Liberalism
  • Conservatism
  • Socialism
  • Humanitarianism
  • Romanticism and Nationalism

20
Industrialism
  • Enlightenment provided framework for application
    of scientific knowledge
  • Dominated by industry and manufacture of
    machinery
  • Protestant work ethic prevailed among middle
    class
  • Saw the rise of the middle class
  • Used education to advance upward

21
Industrialism
  • Reordered class structure aristocracy, middle
    and working class
  • Capitalism had profound effect on social,
    political, and economic life
  • Education greatly impacted

22
Industrialism

Aristocracy Middle Class Working Class
Landed aristocrats Conservative ideology Appropriateness" of doctrine Education maintain political and status quo Nouveau riche Challenged status quo (liberalism) Literate and educated citizenry Educationadvance upward mobility Became the lever for social change (Socialism) Lost touch with values and trad. Dispossessed
23
Liberalism
  • Retained the ideas of Enlightenment
    intellectual, religious and economic freedom
  • Rejected the idea of Divine Right of Kings,
    established religion
  • Respected individualism, free from government
    interference, elected representation
  • Supported by middle class

24
Liberalism
  • Beginning of suffrage movement in the U.S
    (1830s)
  • Women abolitionists endorsed rights in 1837
  • Frances Wright, Flora Tristan, Louise Otto

25
Liberalism-The Split
  • Positive Liberalism vs Negative liberalism
  • Herbert Spencer and
  • John Stuart Mill
  • John Stuart Mill supported reformed liberalism
    (i.e. government programs, such as popular
    education)

26
Conservatism
  • Reaction against 19th century liberalism
  • Found support in aristocracy
  • Allied with state churches
  • Emphasized social stability
  • Social class gave individuals purpose

27
Socialism
  • Origins French Revolution, Industrial Revolution
  • Envisioned a system where wealth and property
    subject to social control
  • Utopian socialists Saint-Simon, Owens, Fourier,

28
Socialism-Saint-Simon
  • Founder of Saint-Simonian society
  • Advocated New Christianity
  • Proposed that scientists as priests
  • Called for the science of society

29
Socialism Charles Fourier
  • Believed that care and cooperation were the
    secrets of social success
  • If everyone cooperated, production would improve
  • Instituted the ideas of community phalanxes
    Selection from Charles
  • Fourier)

30
Socialism-Phalanxes
  • Place for quiet activity
  • Dining rooms, meeting rooms, libraries, study
  • Central room temple, tower, ceremonial chimes
  • A large number of rooms, apartments

31
Socialism-Robert Owen
  • Believed mans character is made not by him but
    for him
  • Influences on early education
  • New Lanark to New Harmony
  • " I left this country in 1824 to go to the United
    States to sow the seeds in that new fertile soil
    - new for material and mental growth - the cradle
    of the future liberty of the human race"

32
Socialism-New Communities
  • New Harmony
  • Brook Farm
  • Oneida Society
  • North American Phalanx

33
Humanitarianism
  • Human beings deserve respect and dignity
  • Against slavery, violation of basic human rights,
    discrimination
  • Women supported
  • Humanitarian bills focused on improvement of
    working conditions

34
Romanticism
  • Reaction against the Enlightenment,
    counter-enlightenment
  • Emphasized imagination and feeling
  • Return to nature and belief in the goodness of
    humanity
  • Development of nationalism

35
Romanticism
  • Music-Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven
  • Literature Hoffman, Wordsworth, Coleridge,
    Chateaubriand, Hugo, Irving, Hawthorne, Cooper
  • Art Delacroix, Wyatt,

36
Romanticism and Trancendentalism
  • Rooted in philosophy of Kant
  • Founded in Cambridge, MA
  • Protest against culture and society
  • Believed in ideal spiritual state that transcends
    the physical
  • Emerson, Thoreau, Putnam, Peabody, Alcott

37
Nationalism
  • Arose in Europe
  • Transition to nation-states against large empires
  • Promoted national identity and culture
  • Germany-strong cultural identity

38
Nationalism-von Herder
  • Saw Germany as a land interspersed with various
    languages, religions, etc.
  • Identified need for German identity
  • No greater injury can be inflicted on a nation
    that to be robbed of her national character

39
Implications for Education
  • Liberalism-individualism, competition
  • Socialism-cooperative activities, relationships
    at school, new society
  • Conservatism-saw school as an agency of
    historical and social continuity
  • Liberalism-saw education as an instrument for
    change
  • Nationalism-national systems for education,
    popular literacy
  • Romanticism-emphasized the person and their
    emotions

40
Questions to consider?
  • Which ideology is most evident in todays
    education?
  • Do politics guide education or does education
    guide politics?

41
References
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_revolutio
    n
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism
  • http//www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1784herder-mank
    ind.html
  • httpen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism
  • httpwww.binghampton.edu/womanhist/arhm

42
References
  • http//plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/
  • http//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/naw/nawstime.html
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism
  • http//historicaltextarchive.com
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Fourier

43
References
  • http//www.marxists.org/reference/archive/fourier/
    works/ch20.htm
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