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Conflict in the Middle East

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Describe the outcome of each of the wars fought by Israel and her neighbors. ... Israeli invincibility brought into question; Arabs emboldened. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conflict in the Middle East


1
Conflict in the Middle East
2
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the historical roots of the Middle
    East Conflict.
  • Describe the outcome of each of the wars fought
    by Israel and her neighbors.
  • Describe the terms of the various peace accords
    signed by Israel and her opponents.

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Background
  • Ground Zero for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Judaism Israel Biblical Promised Land
  • Occupied by Moses and Hebrews around 1000 B.C.
  • Invaded and occupied by Philistines
  • Greeks and Romans call it Land of Philistines,
    which becomes Palestine.
  • Region of Jesus Christs birth, ministry, and
    death.
  • Ownership changes hands frequently.
  • Muslims capture in 640
  • built Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691
  • Spot where Mohammed stopped on his way to heaven.
  • Holiest site in Islam outside Saudi Arabia.
  • Ottoman Turks control from 1500s-1900s.

6
Balfour Declaration
  • European Jews face persecution in late 1800s.
  • Founded movement called Zionism to establish
    Jewish homeland in Palestine.
  • Begin establishing communities in Palestine prior
    to World War One.
  • British Foreign Secretary Balfour supported the
    idea of a national home for the Jews.
  • Hoped to gain Jewish support for World War One.
  • Balfour Declaration endorses this homeland as
    well as an independent state for Arabs.
  • Arabs interpret the independent state clause to
    specify Palestine Brits say that isnt what they
    had in mind.

7
The British Mandate
  • Ottoman Turks on losing side of WW I
    British gain control of Palestine in 1920.
  • 90k Jews
  • Palestinians and Jews begin arming themselves and
    conducting terrorist attacks against their
    counterparts.
  • Rise of Nazism brings flood of new Jewish
    settlers to Palestine from Europe in 1930s.
  • UN votes to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab
    states in 1947, giving the Jews 55 of the land
    west of the Jordan River and designating
    Jerusalem as an international enclave.

8
Arab-Israeli War of 1948
  • 14 May 1948 Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion
    declares that Israel is an independent state.
  • Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq
    invade on 15 May.
  • Fighting continues until Jan 1949.
  • Israel prevails and gains territory in Galilee to
    the north and the Negev Desert to the south.
  • Jerusalem is divided between Israel and Jordan.
  • Fate of 700k Palestinian refugees is left
    undecided.

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Arab-Israeli War of 1956
  • USSR signs arms agreement with Egypt in 1955.
  • Israelis feel threatened by arms build up and
    launch pre-emptive strike against Egypt.
  • Attack and seize the Sinai and Gaza Strip.
  • Relinquished in 1957.
  • French and British retake Suez Canal which Egypt
    had seized several months earlier.
  • UN establishes peace keeping force in Sinai that
    is still in place today.

11
Arafat and the PLO
  • Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National
    Liberation Front) in 1959.
  • Goal was to liberate Palestine from Israel
    through guerilla warfare.
  • Variety of Palestinian factions form the
    Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1964.
  • Arafat becomes chairman in 1969.
  • Charter calls for elimination of state of Israel.
  • Hussien feels threatened and expels PLO from
    Jordan in 1970.
  • Arafat moves HQ to Lebanon.
  • PLO driven out of Lebanon by Israel in 1982.

12
Six Day War
  • 5-10 June 1967
  • Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military
    mobilization.
  • Israel launches surprise pre-emptive strike.
  • Destroys most of Egyptian Air Force on the
    ground.
  • Knocked out 350 aircraft in first three hours.
  • Armored forces supported by air and infantry
    quickly take Sinai, Golan Heights, West Bank
    (including Arab portion of Jerusalem, and Gaza.
  • Destroyed over 200 Arab tanks in two days.
  • UN arranges cease-fire, but terms did not specify
    exactly what land Israel was required to give up.

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Yom Kippur War
  • 6 Oct 1973 Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack
    on holiest day of Jewish year.
  • IDF not fully mobilized and is initially pushed
    back.
  • Arab integrated air defenses and anti-tank
    missiles take heavy toll on IDF.
  • 10-14 Oct IDF pushed Syrians out of Golan and
    entered Syria.
  • 15-24 Oct IDF pushes Egyptians back across the
    Suez.
  • Soviets threaten to intervene when Egyptians are
    surrounded.
  • Kissinger/US convince Israel to accept truce.
  • Israeli invincibility brought into question
    Arabs emboldened.
  • OPEC doubles oil prices and embargoes Israeli
    supporters.

16
Lebanon
  • Israel launches air strikes against PLO positions
    in Lebanon in retaliation for terrorist attacks.
  • Subsequently invades Lebanon and surrounds Beirut
    in 1982.
  • US-led UN coalition establishes presence ashore
    to keep the peace.
  • Departs after bombing of barracks.
  • PLO agrees to leave Beirut.
  • Israel completes withdrawal of its troops from
    Lebanon in May 2000.
  • Nearly 1k IDF soldiers killed during 22 year
    occupation.

17
Peace Accords
  • Camp David 1979
  • Egypt recognizes Israels right to exist.
  • Israel returns Sinai to Egypt.
  • Leads to Sadats assassination in 1981.
  • Oslo Accords 1993
  • Israel and PLO accept each others right to
    exist.
  • Allows limited Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and
    Jericho.
  • Establishes framework for settlement of Gaza and
    West Bank issues.
  • Leads to Rabins assassination in 1995.

18
Peace Accords
  • Wye River Accords 1998
  • Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorists.
  • Israeli will pull troops back from occupied
    territories.
  • 14.2 percent of the West Bank land will be
    transferred to Palestinian control.
  • Safe passage corridors will be established for
    Palestinians between Gaza and the West Bank.
  • 750 Palestinians will be released from Israeli
    prisons.

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Where Do We Stand?
  • Israel has begun implementing its provisions from
    Wye.
  • Many blame Arafat for terrorism he argues it is
    beyond his control.
  • Both sides constrained by hard-liners among their
    backers.
  • Former Israeli Prime Minister Sharon visits
    Temple Mount in Jerusalem in Sept 2000, spurring
    a rash of riots and terrorism by Palestinians.
  • Israel responds to riots with force.
  • Guns beat rocks
  • Status of Jerusalem and religious sites is the
    critical issue for both sides, and the issue that
    is least open to compromise.
  • Both sides claim as their capital.
  • Boundaries of Palestinian state also still at
    issue.

21
For Further Study
  • From Beirut to Jerusalem Friedman
  • A History of the Middle East Mansfield
  • Six Days in June Hammel
  • No Victor, No Vanquished Yom Kippur
    War OBalance
  • The Root Hammel
  • The Haj Uris
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