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Conflict in the Middle East


Describe the outcome of each of the wars fought by Israel and her neighbors. ... Israeli invincibility brought into question; Arabs emboldened. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conflict in the Middle East

Conflict in the Middle East
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the historical roots of the Middle
    East Conflict.
  • Describe the outcome of each of the wars fought
    by Israel and her neighbors.
  • Describe the terms of the various peace accords
    signed by Israel and her opponents.

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  • Ground Zero for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Judaism Israel Biblical Promised Land
  • Occupied by Moses and Hebrews around 1000 B.C.
  • Invaded and occupied by Philistines
  • Greeks and Romans call it Land of Philistines,
    which becomes Palestine.
  • Region of Jesus Christs birth, ministry, and
  • Ownership changes hands frequently.
  • Muslims capture in 640
  • built Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691
  • Spot where Mohammed stopped on his way to heaven.
  • Holiest site in Islam outside Saudi Arabia.
  • Ottoman Turks control from 1500s-1900s.

Balfour Declaration
  • European Jews face persecution in late 1800s.
  • Founded movement called Zionism to establish
    Jewish homeland in Palestine.
  • Begin establishing communities in Palestine prior
    to World War One.
  • British Foreign Secretary Balfour supported the
    idea of a national home for the Jews.
  • Hoped to gain Jewish support for World War One.
  • Balfour Declaration endorses this homeland as
    well as an independent state for Arabs.
  • Arabs interpret the independent state clause to
    specify Palestine Brits say that isnt what they
    had in mind.

The British Mandate
  • Ottoman Turks on losing side of WW I
    British gain control of Palestine in 1920.
  • 90k Jews
  • Palestinians and Jews begin arming themselves and
    conducting terrorist attacks against their
  • Rise of Nazism brings flood of new Jewish
    settlers to Palestine from Europe in 1930s.
  • UN votes to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab
    states in 1947, giving the Jews 55 of the land
    west of the Jordan River and designating
    Jerusalem as an international enclave.

Arab-Israeli War of 1948
  • 14 May 1948 Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion
    declares that Israel is an independent state.
  • Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq
    invade on 15 May.
  • Fighting continues until Jan 1949.
  • Israel prevails and gains territory in Galilee to
    the north and the Negev Desert to the south.
  • Jerusalem is divided between Israel and Jordan.
  • Fate of 700k Palestinian refugees is left

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Arab-Israeli War of 1956
  • USSR signs arms agreement with Egypt in 1955.
  • Israelis feel threatened by arms build up and
    launch pre-emptive strike against Egypt.
  • Attack and seize the Sinai and Gaza Strip.
  • Relinquished in 1957.
  • French and British retake Suez Canal which Egypt
    had seized several months earlier.
  • UN establishes peace keeping force in Sinai that
    is still in place today.

Arafat and the PLO
  • Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National
    Liberation Front) in 1959.
  • Goal was to liberate Palestine from Israel
    through guerilla warfare.
  • Variety of Palestinian factions form the
    Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1964.
  • Arafat becomes chairman in 1969.
  • Charter calls for elimination of state of Israel.
  • Hussien feels threatened and expels PLO from
    Jordan in 1970.
  • Arafat moves HQ to Lebanon.
  • PLO driven out of Lebanon by Israel in 1982.

Six Day War
  • 5-10 June 1967
  • Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military
  • Israel launches surprise pre-emptive strike.
  • Destroys most of Egyptian Air Force on the
  • Knocked out 350 aircraft in first three hours.
  • Armored forces supported by air and infantry
    quickly take Sinai, Golan Heights, West Bank
    (including Arab portion of Jerusalem, and Gaza.
  • Destroyed over 200 Arab tanks in two days.
  • UN arranges cease-fire, but terms did not specify
    exactly what land Israel was required to give up.

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Yom Kippur War
  • 6 Oct 1973 Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack
    on holiest day of Jewish year.
  • IDF not fully mobilized and is initially pushed
  • Arab integrated air defenses and anti-tank
    missiles take heavy toll on IDF.
  • 10-14 Oct IDF pushed Syrians out of Golan and
    entered Syria.
  • 15-24 Oct IDF pushes Egyptians back across the
  • Soviets threaten to intervene when Egyptians are
  • Kissinger/US convince Israel to accept truce.
  • Israeli invincibility brought into question
    Arabs emboldened.
  • OPEC doubles oil prices and embargoes Israeli

  • Israel launches air strikes against PLO positions
    in Lebanon in retaliation for terrorist attacks.
  • Subsequently invades Lebanon and surrounds Beirut
    in 1982.
  • US-led UN coalition establishes presence ashore
    to keep the peace.
  • Departs after bombing of barracks.
  • PLO agrees to leave Beirut.
  • Israel completes withdrawal of its troops from
    Lebanon in May 2000.
  • Nearly 1k IDF soldiers killed during 22 year

Peace Accords
  • Camp David 1979
  • Egypt recognizes Israels right to exist.
  • Israel returns Sinai to Egypt.
  • Leads to Sadats assassination in 1981.
  • Oslo Accords 1993
  • Israel and PLO accept each others right to
  • Allows limited Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and
  • Establishes framework for settlement of Gaza and
    West Bank issues.
  • Leads to Rabins assassination in 1995.

Peace Accords
  • Wye River Accords 1998
  • Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorists.
  • Israeli will pull troops back from occupied
  • 14.2 percent of the West Bank land will be
    transferred to Palestinian control.
  • Safe passage corridors will be established for
    Palestinians between Gaza and the West Bank.
  • 750 Palestinians will be released from Israeli

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Where Do We Stand?
  • Israel has begun implementing its provisions from
  • Many blame Arafat for terrorism he argues it is
    beyond his control.
  • Both sides constrained by hard-liners among their
  • Former Israeli Prime Minister Sharon visits
    Temple Mount in Jerusalem in Sept 2000, spurring
    a rash of riots and terrorism by Palestinians.
  • Israel responds to riots with force.
  • Guns beat rocks
  • Status of Jerusalem and religious sites is the
    critical issue for both sides, and the issue that
    is least open to compromise.
  • Both sides claim as their capital.
  • Boundaries of Palestinian state also still at

For Further Study
  • From Beirut to Jerusalem Friedman
  • A History of the Middle East Mansfield
  • Six Days in June Hammel
  • No Victor, No Vanquished Yom Kippur
    War OBalance
  • The Root Hammel
  • The Haj Uris