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Give Me Liberty!

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V-J Day (August 14, 1945) Toward victory and beyond. The atomic bomb ... Negation of civil liberties. Dearth of public protest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 22
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • Prewar trends in U.S. foreign policy
  • Recognition of Soviet Union
  • Good Neighbor Policy toward Latin America
  • Mixed results repeal of Platt Amendment /
    dictatorships
  • Aggression and repression abroad
  • Japanese invasions of Manchuria, China (Rape of
    Nanking)
  • Adolf Hitlers Germany
  • Nazism
  • Rearmament
  • Rhineland (1936) annexation of Austria,
    Czechoslovakia (1938)
  • Persecution of Jews
  • Policy of appeasement toward
  • Adoption by Britain, France, United States
  • Munich conference (1938)
  • Neville Chamberlain
  • peace in our time

3
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • Aggression and repression abroad
  • Benito Mussolinis Italy
  • Fascism
  • Invasion of Ethiopia
  • Francisco Francos Spain
  • Spanish Civil War
  • Overthrow of democracy establishment of fascist
    regime
  • Support from Hitler

4
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • American isolationism reluctance to confront
    overseas aggression
  • Sources
  • Pro-Nazi sentiment
  • Business ties to Japan, Germany
  • Memory of World War I
  • Nye Committee
  • Pacifism, especially on college campuses
  • Ethnic allegiances
  • Manifestations
  • Neutrality Acts
  • Even-handed arms embargo on Spanish belligerents

5
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • Outbreak of WWII
  • Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact (1939)
  • German invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939)
  • Blitzkrieg
  • British and French declarations of war on Germany
  • German conquests across Europe, North Africa
  • Occupation of Paris (June 1940)
  • Formation of German-Italian-Japanese Axis
  • Battle of Britain

6
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • Americas shifting response
  • Persisting popular ambivalence
  • Steps toward involvement
  • Arms sale to Britain cash and carry
  • Military rearmament
  • Reelection of Franklin Roosevelt (FDR)
  • Unprecedented quest for third term
  • Victory over Wendell Willkie
  • Toward intervention
  • America as arsenal of democracy
  • Lend Lease Act (1941) freezing of Japanese
    assets
  • Interventionist mobilization efforts
  • Freedom House

7
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) U.S. entry into
    war
  • War in the Pacific
  • Early setbacks for Allies
  • Japanese conquests (Guam, Philippines)
  • Bataan death march
  • Turning of the tide
  • Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942),
  • Midway (June 1942)
  • Island campaigns
  • Island hopping

8
Map 87
9
Fighting World War II (WWII)
  • War in Europe
  • Allied advances
  • North Africa (Allied invasion Nov. 1942 May
    1943)
  • The Atlantic (Spring 1943)
  • Italy (July 1943)
  • Mussolini overthrown
  • D-Day (June 6, 1944)
  • Eastern front
  • German invasion of Russia
  • Siege of Stalingrad (Aug. 1942 Jan. 1943)
  • German surrender
  • Magnitude of bloodshed
  • 10 million German casualties in Russia
  • 20 million Russians
  • The Holocaust
  • 6 million

10
Map 88
11
Toward victory and beyond
  • Winding down of war
  • In Europe
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Final German counteroffensive
  • 700,000 U.S. casualties
  • Allied invasion of Germany
  • Fall of Hitler V-E Day (May 8, 1945)
  • In the Pacific advance of U.S. forces towards
    Japan
  • Changing of guard in Washington
  • Replacement of Wallace by Harry S. Truman as
    FDRs running mate
  • FDR reelection victory over Thomas E. Dewey
  • Death of FDR Truman succession to presidency

12
Toward victory and beyond
  • The atomic bomb
  • Development
  • Albert Einsteins theory of relativity (Emc2)
  • Manhattan Project
  • Robert Oppenheimer
  • Testing in New Mexico (July 1945)
  • Use on Hiroshima, Nagasaki (August 1945)
  • Devastating impact
  • Immediate _at_70,000 at both locations
  • Long-term _at_150,000 at both locations
  • Surrender of Japan
  • V-J Day (August 14, 1945)

13
Toward victory and beyond
  • The atomic bomb
  • Lasting controversy over use
  • Justifications
  • Criticisms
  • Context for decision to use
  • WWII practice of targeting civilian populations
    firebombing
  • Dehumanization of Japanese in wartime propaganda
  • Postwar planning by Allied leaders (Britain,
    United States, Soviet Union)
  • Summit meetings at Tehran (43), Yalta (45),
    Potsdam (45)
  • Potsdam Persecution of Nazi leaders
  • Emerging points of tension among Allies
  • Timing of Allied invasion of France
  • Yalta Soviet intentions in eastern Europe
    retention of Baltic states and large portion of
    Poland
  • Prospects for dissolution of British empire
  • India
  • Churchills private deals with Stalin divided
    portions of Europe as spheres of influence

14
Toward victory and beyond
  • New economic order Bretton Woods (44)
    conference
  • Initiatives
  • Eclipse of British pound by dollar in global
    trade
  • Return to gold standard
  • Creation of World Bank, International Monetary
    Fund
  • Significance for postwar capitalist economic
    system
  • Trend toward removal of barriers to free trade
  • Recognition of United States as worlds financial
    leader

15
Toward victory and beyond
  • The United Nations (UN)
  • Founding
  • Planning conference at Dumbarton Oaks (44)
  • Adoption of United Nations Charter at San
    Francisco
  • Endorsement of United Nations Charter by U.S.
    Senate
  • Structure and mission outlawed force or threat
    of as means of settling international disputes
  • Death Toll
  • 50 million deaths
  • 400,000 American combat deaths
  • 20 million civilians

16
Home front
  • Government mobilization of economy
  • Wartime federal agencies
  • Areas of impact
  • Allocation of labor
  • Shipping, manufacturing
  • Wages, prices, rents
  • GNP
  • Employment rate
  • Business in wartime
  • New relationship with government
  • Prominence of business leaders in federal
    bureaucracy
  • Production incentives
  • Federal funding for large corporations
  • Low-interest loans, tax concessions

17
Home front
  • Business in wartime
  • Achievements of wartime manufacturing
  • Scale of production
  • Scientific advances
  • Restoration of public esteem for business
  • Geography of manufacturing boom
  • Revival of old industrial centers
  • Emergence of new industrial centers
  • West
  • South
  • Centrality of military-related production

18
Map 89
19
Home front
  • Organized labor in wartime
  • Government-business-labor collaboration
  • Terms and impact
  • Surge in union membership
  • Spread of union recognition
  • No-strike pledge
  • Acceptance of employer prerogatives, fair
    profit
  • Junior position of labor
  • Rolling back of New Deal programs
  • Rise of labor walkouts

20
Home front
  • The Four Freedoms
  • Freedom as ideological focus of wartime
    mobilization
  • Content and implications
  • Freedoms of speech and religion
  • Freedoms from fear and want
  • Points of controversy
  • Freedom from want
  • International trade barriers or standard of
    living
  • Office of War Information (OWI)
  • Designed to give the war an ideological meaning
  • New Deal liberalism of
  • Conservative curtailment of
  • Freedom as free enterprise, material
    consumption (the fifth freedom)

21
Home front
  • Women in wartime labor force
  • Entry into traditionally male jobs
  • 1944 1/3 of the civilian labor force
  • Industrial, professional, and government
    employment
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Steps toward workplace equality, entitlements
  • Experience of wartime labor taste of freedom
  • Postwar reversals world of tomorrow

22
Visions of postwar freedom
  • Alternative outlooks
  • Conservative Henry Luces American Century
  • Free enterprise, material abundance
  • Embrace role as worlds dominant power
  • New Deal liberal Henry Wallaces Price of Free
    World Victory
  • Century of the common man
  • International cooperation
  • Global New Deal
  • Shared conception of America as world model

23
Visions of postwar freedom
  • Liberal economic program
  • National Resources Planning Board (NRPB)
    blueprint for peacetime economy
  • Goals and principles
  • Economic security, full employment
  • Expanded welfare state
  • Mass consumption
  • Keynesian emphasis on government spending
  • Congress eventually eliminated funding

24
Visions of postwar freedom
  • Liberal economic program
  • FDRs Economic Bill of Rights (1944)
  • Government expansion to protect employment, fair
    wage, medical care, education, etc.
  • Failure to pass in Congress
  • Servicemens Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights)
  • Provisions college education, home loans
  • Impact and significance
  • Full Employment Bill (1945)
  • The GI Bill for all Americans
  • Passage of watered-down version

25
Visions of postwar freedom
  • Renewal of economic conservatism Friedrich A.
    Hayeks The Road to Serfdom
  • Themes
  • Economic planning as threat to liberty
  • Planning leads to dictatorship
  • Equated fascism, socialism, and the New Deal
  • Superior effectiveness of free market
  • Critiques of absolute laissez-faire dogma, social
    hierarchy, authoritarianism
  • Endorsed minimum wage, maximum working hours,
    antitrust enforcement, and other social programs
  • Basis for modern conservatism

26
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • Discrediting of ethnic and racial inequality,
    intolerance
  • Broad assimilation of ethnic outsiders
  • Diversity of army, industrial work force
  • Shift from forced Americanization (WWI) to
    patriotic assimilation (WWII)
  • Promotion of pluralism, group equality
  • Government
  • FDR pluralism social harmony
  • OWI brotherhood American way of life
  • Scholars
  • Ruth Benedicts Races and Racism racism as a
    travesty of scientific knowledge
  • Ashley Montagus Mans Most Dangerous Myth The
    Fallacy of Race

27
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • Promotion of pluralism, group equality
  • Hollywood
  • Ongoing barriers to assimilation
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Racism
  • Mexican Americans
  • Bracero program (1942-1964)
  • Purposes
  • Promise and reality
  • New employment opportunities
  • Emergence of Chicano culture
  • Intolerance and discrimination
  • Zoot Suit riots

28
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • American Indians
  • Participation in military, war industry
  • Code-talkers
  • Exposure to urban life
  • Marginality of reservations
  • Chinese-Americans
  • Easing of traditional stereotypes
  • Participation in military, war industry

29
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • Japanese-Americans
  • Dehumanizing portrayals
  • Internment policy
  • FDRs Executive Order 9066
  • Expulsion to interment camps
  • Negation of civil liberties
  • Dearth of public protest
  • Supreme Court affirmation Korematsu v. United
    States

30
Map 90
31
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • African-Americans
  • On the home front
  • Accelerated migration to industrial heartland
  • Hostile reception Detroit race riot, hate
    strike
  • Persistence of lynching
  • In the military
  • Scale of service
  • Racial practices
  • Discrimination
  • Blacks and Nazi prisoners on railroad cars
  • Limited GI Bill

32
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • African-Americans
  • Birth of civil rights movement
  • March on Washington (July 1941) initiative
  • A. Philip Randolph equated discrimination with
    Hitler
  • Demands defense employment, end of lynching, end
    to segregation
  • FDRs Executive Order 8802 establishment of Fair
    Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) banned
    discrimination in defense jobs
  • Performance and impact of FEPC no real
    enforcement powers
  • Growth of NAACP 50,000 to 500,000
  • Congress of Racial Equality sit-ins
  • Double-V campaign martial victory and end to
    racial inequality

33
Race and ethnicity in wartime America
  • Broadening opposition to racial inequality
  • Black-Jewish collaboration
  • Organized labor CIO / AFL-
  • Growing dilemma for white southern moderates
  • In government
  • Federal agencies equal pay
  • Supreme Court Smith v. Allright
  • Armed forces integration
  • Landmark publications
  • What the Negro Wants suffrage, desegregation,
    living wage
  • Wendell Willkies One World attack of domestic
    imperialism
  • Gunnar Myrdals An American Dilemma
  • Americas racial history
  • America must live up to its worthy Creed
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