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Uppers, Downers and All Arounders

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82% who used steroids took 3 or more different types of steroids ... NCAA uses two drug-testing programs. One for all championships and post season football games ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Uppers, Downers and All Arounders


1
Uppers, Downers and All Arounders
  • Chapter 7
  • Other Drugs, Other Addictions

2
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3
Inhalants
  • Used for their stupefying, intoxicating and
    slight psychedelic effects
  • Most widely abused according to popularity are
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Nitrites
  • Gasoline
  • Glue
  • Spray paint
  • Aerosol spray
  • Lacquer thinner
  • Typewriter correction fluid

4
TYPES OF INHALANTS
5
Inhalants
  • Readily accessible to children
  • Get little attention because of low status of
    inhalant abuse as a drug problem
  • Practice of inhaling substances goes back to
    ancient times
  • Modern version is with abuse began in 1700s with
    the discovery of nitrous oxide, chloroform and
    ether
  • After WWII abuse of glue and metallic paints rose
    dramatically and continues today
  • Responsible for 700 1,200 deaths each year

6
Inhalants
  • Abuse is prevalent among adolescents, although
    adults abuse it too
  • Internationally, abuse afflicts the young, poor,
    and children exposed to chemicals daily,
    especially children of cleaners and shoemakers
  • Inhalant of choice for many countries is gasoline
  • More males and females abuse inhalants
  • High use among Hispanics and Native Americans

7
Inhalants
  • Methods of inhalation
  • Sniffing breathing the substance from a
    container directly into lungs
  • Huffing soaking a rag and inhaling from it
  • Spraying the inhalant into the nose or mouth
  • Balloons or crackers suing a tool to puncture a
    container that releases the inhaler into a
    balloon and then is inhaled
  • By spraying the pressurized solvent directly into
    the mouth, a dangerous amount of pressure is put
    into the lungs and can freeze tissue

8
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9
Inhalants
  • Volatile solvents
  • Mostly carbon hydrocarbon based compounds that
    turn into gas at room temperature
  • Includes, gasoline and its addictives, kerosene,
    paints, especially metallic, paint thinner, nail
    polish remover, spot removers, glues and plastic
    cements, lighter fluid and variety of aerosols
  • Quick acting because they are absorbed almost
    immediately, then moves to heart, brain, liver
    and other tissues

10
Inhalants
  • Short-term Effects
  • Temporary stimulation
  • mood elevation
  • Reduced inhibitions
  • Reward/reinforcement center is affected like
    cocaine does
  • Soon depressive effects takes over
  • Dizziness
  • Slurred speech
  • Unsteady gait
  • Drowsiness
  • High does may cause illusions, delusions and
    hallucinations

11
Inhalants
  • Prolonged inhalation causes
  • Delirium with confusion
  • Psychomotor clumsiness
  • Emotional instability
  • Impaired thinking
  • Coma
  • Long-term Effects
  • Lack of coordination
  • Weakness
  • Disorientation
  • Loss of weight
  • Impaired memory
  • Can cause injury to brain, liver, kidney, bone
    marrow and particularly the lungs

12
Inhalants
  • Toulene (methyl benzene)
  • Most abused solvent
  • Found in glues
  • Drying agents
  • Solvents
  • Thinners,
  • Paints
  • Inks and cleaning agents
  • In one study, 65 of chronic abusers of spray
    paint had neurological damage
  • m

13
Inhalants
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Common solvent found in typewriter corrections
    fluids, paints, metal degreasers and spot
    removers
  • Causes overall depressive effects and some
    hallucinations
  • N-Hexane methyl butyl ketone (MBK)
  • Used in glues and adhesives and diluents for
    plastics and rubber
  • Recovery from brain damage can take three years

14
Inhalants
  • Alkanes
  • Methane, ethane, butane and propane
  • Gasoline sniffing is common on some Native
    American reservations
  • Effects include insomnia, tremors, anorexia, and
    sometimes paralysis
  • When leaded gas is inhaled, symptoms include
    hallucinations, convulsions, and chronic
    irreversible effects of lead poisoning
  • Alcohol inhalants include ethanol, methanol,
    isopropanol

15
Inhalants
  • Warning signs of solvent abuse include
  • Headaches
  • Chemical order on body, clothes or room
  • Red, glassy or watery eyes and dilated pupils
  • Inflamed nose and/or Nosebleed
  • Rashes around the nose and mouth
  • Slow, thick or slurred speech
  • Staggering gait, Disorientation, Lack of
    coordination
  • Pains in chest and stomach
  • Nausea Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
  • Intoxication
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Seizure Coma

16
Inhalants
  • Volatile Nitrites
  • Amyl Nitrate (1857)
  • Dilate blood vessels so heart and brain receive
    more blood
  • Effects start in 7-10 seconds and last 30 seconds
    to 1 minute
  • One inhalation there is
  • a feeling of fullness in head,
  • Rush of mild euphoria
  • Dizziness
  • Giddiness
  • ,

17
Inhalants
  • Effects wear off, user experiences
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Chills
  • Thought to enhance sexual activity
  • Sought by male homosexuals for their euphoric and
    psychological effects
  • Viagra and methamphetamine combination can
    dangerously lower blood pressure
  • Tolerance develops rapidly
  • Variants sold as room odorizer, tape head
    cleaners and sneaker cleaners

18
Inhalants
  • Anesthetics
  • Chloroform, Ether, Oxygen and nitrous oxide
  • Found to have euphoric effects as wells as
    anesthetic effects
  • Abused by young people, middle class, affluent
    groups like doctors, anesthesiologists, hospital
    workers, and healthcare professionals
  • Nitrous Oxide discovered in 1776
  • Immediately used as a recreational drug
  • Common abused form is whipping crème bottles
  • Source container is used to fill a balloon then
    inhaled
  • 7-10 seconds effects begin
  • Dizziness, giddiness and disorientation
  • Lasts 2-3 minutes
  • Long-term exposure can cause central and
    peripheral nerve damage and brain cell damage due
    to lack of oxygen since nitrous oxide replaces
    oxygen in blood

19
Inhalants
  • Halothane
  • Prescription surgical anesthetic gas (Fluothane)
  • Because of limited availability, abuse tends to
    be with anesthesiologists and hospital personnel
  • Dependence
  • DSM-IV-TR classifies inhalant disorders as
    inhalant dependence and abuse, intoxication,
    induced delirium, dementia, psychotic disorder,
    mood disorder and anxiety disorder
  • Breaking habit or treating compulsion difficult
    due to users being young and immature, combined
    with cognitive impairment that hinders
    comprehension and recovery

20
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21
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Three main categories of drugs
  • Therapeutic used for medical problems
  • Performance enhancing (ergogenic drugs) that are
    mostly banned
  • Recreational or mood altering drugs
  • History
  • Greek Olympic athletes ate large amounts of
    mushrooms or meat to improve performance
  • 1800s cyclists, swimmers and other athletes used
    morphine, opium, cocaine, caffeine,
    nitroglycerin, sugar cubes soaked in ether and
    low doses of strychnine
  • Boxers drank water laced with cocaine between
    rounds

22
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • During Cold War era, Soviet weightlifting team
    used steroids in the 1952 Olympics initiating a
    steroid race for medals
  • 1958 steroids were widely abused by athletes
  • Commercialization of sports pressured athletes to
    improve their performance
  • 2001 estimates that 400,000 junior high and high
    school students had tried steroids
  • High school athletes encouraged to use steroids
    to bulk up and then go clean in college
  • Anabolic Steroids stunt bone development and
    disrupt hormonal function in adolescents

23
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Therapeutic Drugs
  • Used for medical problems
  • Four main groups Anesthetics, Muscle relaxants,
    Anti-inflammatory Asthma medications
  • Anesthetics
  • Used to deaden pain
  • Topical anesthetics desensitize nerve endings on
    skin
  • Most common are opioids, including
  • Vicodin (most prescribed), Demerol, Morphine,
    Codeine, Darvon
  • Danger is the drugs block pain without repairing
    damage
  • Compulsive use and dependence and result

24
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Depresses neural activity within skeletal muscles
  • Used to treat muscle and ligament damage
  • Some athletes use relaxants to control anxiety
  • Abused occasionally for mental effects
  • Benzodiazepines are highly addictive, with
    tolerance and tissue dependence

25
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Controls inflammation and lessen pain
  • Nonsteroid aspirin, ibuprofen, butazoliden
  • Corticosteroids cortisone prednisone
  • High doses cause severe psychosis
  • Asthma medications
  • Affects 10 of population
  • Aggravated by heavy exercise
  • Exercise induced asthma found in 11-23 of
    athletes
  • Permission given to use certain asthma
    medications
  • Ephedra is banned due it stimulant quality

26
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Very broad category of drugs
  • Most are banned by Olympic Committee
  • Most abused performance enhancing drugs
  • Derived from male testosterone or are synthesized
  • Anabolic means muscle building
  • Androgenic means producing masculine
    characteristics.
  • Clinically used to treat
  • testosterone deficiency
  • Osteoporosis,
  • Certain types of anemia
  • Breast cancer
  • Endometriosis

27
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Athletes use to
  • Increase body weight
  • Lean muscle mass
  • Muscular strength
  • Increases aggressiveness and confidence
  • Patterns of use
  • Steroid users may take 20-200 times the
    clinically prescribed dose
  • Stacking practice of taking 3 or more kinds of
    inject able or oral steroids and alternating
    cycles of use and non-use
  • ,

28
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Cycling means taking steroids for 4-18 weeks
    during intensive training, then stopping for
    weeks or months to give body a rest
  • 82 who used steroids took 3 or more different
    types of steroids
  • 30 took 7 or more during training

29
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30
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Side Effects
  • Increased masculinization
  • Increased muscle mass and muscle tone
  • Bloated appearance
  • Long-term use causes suppression of bodys own
    natural testosterone
  • Long- term use in men causes feminine
    characteristics
  • Swelling breasts
  • Nipple changes
  • Decreased size of sexual organs
  • Impairment in sexual function

31
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Side Effects Women
  • Gain in muscular development occur with
    masculinizing effects, including
  • Increased facial hair
  • Decreased breast size
  • Lowered voice
  • Clitoral enlargement
  • Mental emotional effects
  • Confidence and aggressiveness
  • Emotional instability
  • Rage
  • Depression
  • psychosis

32
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
  • Compulsive use and addiction
  • Initially feels a sense of euphoria and wellbeing
    that contributes to continued use and compulsive
    use
  • Studies show that steroids increase body mass and
    muscle strength when combined with diet and
    exercise
  • Athletes obtain steroid from
  • Black market through gyms, mail order companies
    or friends
  • From doctors, veterinarians, or pharmacists
  • Serious users spend 200-400 weekly
  • Some professional athletes spend 20,000-30,000
    year

33
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Other drugs used by athletes
  • Stimulants like amphetamines, caffeine,
  • Ephedra and ephedrine (banned by NFL, IOC, and
    NCAA, but not the NBA, NHL or major league
    baseball
  • Chewing tobacco
  • Human growth hormone (HGH)
  • Used by athletes to increase muscle strength and
    growth
  • Reduces fat
  • Increases muscle mass, skin thickness and
    connective tissue
  • Gigantism and abnormal bone growth reported
  • Metabolic and endocrine disorders reported
  • Abuse associated with cardiovascular disease
  • Decreases life span by up to 20 years
  • Banned by U.S. Olympic Committee, NCAA
  • Difficulty to detect because it is found
    naturally in the body

34
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Recreational/mood-altering use of drugs by
    athletes
  • Peer pressure
  • Help to fit in social situations
  • Help cope with heavy schedule
  • Reduce stress
  • Fill up time on long road trips
  • Stimulants
  • Amphetamines, caffeine and tobacco

35
SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • Recreational/mood-altering use of drugs by
    athletes
  • Sedatives-hypnotics
  • Xanax, Barbiturates, Opioids taken as
    self-rewards
  • Used to unwind after competition
  • Counter-act use of stimulants
  • Alcohol
  • Marijuana (NCAA bans use)
  • Testing
  • NCAA uses two drug-testing programs
  • One for all championships and post season
    football games

36
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37
OTHER ADDICTIONS
  • Compulsive behaviors
  • Gambling, overeating, shopping, sexual behavior,
    Internet use and TV watching, compulsive lying,
    hair pulling, fire setting
  • Impulsive control disorders
  • Failure to resist an impulse that is harmful to
    the individual or others
  • Often starts off as being pleasurable
  • Increasing sense of tension or arousal before
    actually committing the act
  • Often followed by gratification, pleasure, relief
  • Then remorse and guilt over the consequences of
    the act

38
OTHER ADDICTIONS
  • Compulsive behaviors
  • Obsessive compulsive disorders
  • Excessive hand washing, checking things,
    ordering, and counting
  • Repetitive activity whose goal is to reduce
    anxiety or distress.not pleasure or
    gratification
  • Addictive behaviors change brain chemistry in
    much the same way as psychoactive drugs
  • People change their behaviors much like those who
    are recovery from alcohol or other drugs
  • Many 12 Step groups are formed around compulsive
    behaviors

39
OTHER ADDICTIONS
  • Compulsive behaviors
  • Can be triggered by
  • Genetic predisposition,
  • Environmental stresses
  • Comfort and reassurance or escape provided by
    repetitive behaviors
  • Increased dopamine levels suggest biochemical
    thread
  • Twin studies show a connection between compulsive
    behaviors and heredity
  • Compulsive over-eating shown to be partly
    hereditary

40
OTHER ADDICTIONS
  • Compulsive behaviors
  • Mid-1990s genetic connections between alcohol,
    drug and compulsive behaviors shown
  • Genetic predisposition indicated a genetic marker
    in the reward deficiency syndrome in severe
    cases of alcohol, drug and compulsive behaviors
  • Researchers propose that carriers of the A1
    allele gene have a deficiency of dopamine
    receptors in the reward/reinforcement center

41
Compulsive Gambling
  • Compulsive Gambling
  • 125 million Americans gamble and of those, 2.2
    million are pathological gamblers, and 5.3
    million are problem gamblers
  • 1.1 million are teenagers
  • Male compulsive gamblers outnumber females 2 or 3
    to 1
  • College students have a higher rate of gambling
  • Gamblers anonymous formed in 1957

42
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43
  • Slide 7-10 List of the four phases that lead to
    compulsive gambling.
  • In the winning phase, gamblers are confident they
    can make a living gambling.
  • In the losing phase, they start to chase their
    losses and gamble poorly.
  • In the desperation phase, their debts mount, they
    gamble foolishly and will do anything to keep
    gambling.
  • In the giving up phase, they feel they can never
    win and all they want to do is stay in action and
    will do anything to stay there. Mania,
    depression, and suicide thoughts are common.

44
Compulsive Shopping (Oniomania)
  • Compulsive Shopping (Oniomania)
  • Inability to handle money in a responsible manner
    is a hall mark of almost any addict
  • Shopping addicts report relief from depression
    and subsequent high when buying similar to a
    cocaine high
  • Both result in a subsequent crash accompanied by
    depression and guilt than felt before buying
  • More than 400 debtors Anonymous groups in U.S.
  • Depression seems a major part of compulsive
    shopping

45
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46
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa addiction to weight loss,
    fasting and control of body size
  • Maintains weight by limiting food intake through
    fasting, dieting, excessive exercise, use of
    amphetamines and other diet pills
  • Bulimia symptoms appear in 30-80 of all
    anorexics
  • Have distorted perceptions of their bodys shape
    and size
  • Often feels overweight even when emaciated
  • Anorexics have a tendency to be concerned with
    following directions and people pleasing
  • May be considered to be good girls, model
    students, academically talented, but lack
    self-esteem.
  • Refusal to eat gives the anorexic sense of
    control over their lives

47
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48
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Semi-starvation strains all the body systems,
    especially the heart, liver brain
  • Death rates are 4-20
  • Most severely ill anorexics have to admitted to
    the hospital due to
  • Extreme weight loss
  • Disturbed heart rhythms
  • Extreme depression
  • Often suicide ideation
  • Loss of menstruation
  • Takes 10-12 weeks for full nutritional recovery
  • Rate for full recovery is 40
  • Prozac and other antidepressants help anorexics
    improve eating behaviors

49
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Characterized by eating large amounts of food in
    one sitting, followed by inappropriate methods of
    ridding self of food
  • Self-induced vomiting
  • Use of diuretics, laxatives, fasting and
    excessive exercise
  • Often are ashamed of their behavior, doing it in
    secret
  • During binge episodes, there may be a feeling of
    frenzy, not feeling in control and sense of being
    disconnected from ones surroundings

50
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Causes include
  • Social pressure to look thin
  • Socialization of girls to look thin
  • Biochemical changes that reward bingeing and
    purging
  • Problems
  • Dental complications and propensity towards
    alcohol and drug abuse
  • High rate of depression
  • Greater risk of suicide
  • Risk of stomach acid burns to esophagus and
    throat resulting in chronic sore throat and risk
    of cancer
  • Heart arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalances and
    irregular or loss of menstruation

51
Binge Eating Disorder
  • Marked by recurrent episodes of binge eating
    without vomiting, laxatives or other compensatory
    activities
  • People eat in response to emotional states rather
    than hunger
  • Used to modify emotions, especially anxiety,
    solitude, stress, and depression
  • Generally overweight
  • May suffer from high cholesterol, diabetes, high
    blood pressure, gall bladder disease, heart
    disease and high rates of depression
  • Allows their self-esteem to suffer

52
Binge Eating Disorder
  • Both physiological and psychological causes
    underlie the disorder
  • Treatment is addressed through counseling,
    psychiatric treatment and behavioral therapy and
    self-help groups
  • Diet pills that contain amphetamines are used for
    short-term periods
  • Diet pills may work initially, but lose their
    effectiveness

53
SEXUAL ADDICTION
  • Sexual behavior which the addict has little
    control over
  • Practiced by males, females, gay, straight, young
    and old
  • Includes masturbation, pornography, serial
    affairs, phone sex, visits to topless bars and
    strip shows
  • Practiced as a way to cope with anxiety,
    solitude, low self-worth
  • Can be the persons all-consuming activity

54
INTERNET ADDICTION
  • Survey of 18,000 people by ABC News found that
    almost 6 of participants met criteria for
    serious compulsive problem
  • Symptoms include
  • Logging in on every chance there is
  • Thinking about the internet constantly
  • Needing progressively more time online to get
    same satisfaction
  • Losing track of time while online
  • Neglecting responsibilities
  • Checking email constantly

55
INTERNET ADDICTION
  • Cybersexual addiction
  • Over 10 million internet users log onto 10
    popular sex sites in 1 month
  • Computer Relationship Addiction
  • Pursuit of online relationships to the neglect of
    real-life relationships
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