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Periodic Trends

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Periodic Trends. The Periodic Table. Atomic Radius. the distance ... 736 kJ. 2nd I.E. 1,445 kJ. Core e- 3rd I.E. 7,730 kJ. Successive Ionization Energies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Periodic Trends


1
Periodic Trends
  • The Periodic Table

2
Periodic Properties
  • Atomic Radius
  • ½ the distance between
  • two identical atoms
  • bonded together
  • Ionization Energy
  • Energy required to
  • remove one e- from a
  • neutral atom.

3
Periodic Properties
  • Electron Affinity
  • Attraction for additional electrons
  • Electronegativity
  • Pull an atom has on electrons when bonded to
    another atom

4
A. Atomic Radius
  • Atomic Radius
  • Increases to the LEFT and DOWN

5
A. Atomic Radius
  • Why larger going down?
  • Adding energy levels
  • Shielding - core e- block the attraction between
    the nucleus and the valence e-

6
A. Atomic Radius
  • Why smaller to the right?
  • Increased nuclear charge (i.e. more protons in
    nucleus) without more shielding pulls e- in
    tighter

7
A. Atomic Radius
Nucleus not strong enough to pull valence e- in
tight
Stronger nucleus pulls valence e- in tight
8
A. Atomic Radius
  • Atomic Radius

K
Na
Li
Ar
Ne
9
B. Ionic Radius
  • Ionic Radius
  • Cations ()
  • lose e-
  • smaller
  • Anions ()
  • gain e-
  • larger

10
B. Ionic Radius
  • Ionic Radius
  • Tug of War between positive nucleus and
    negative electrons.
  • Cations nucleus is stronger
  • Anions electrons are stronger

11
Examples
  • Which atom has the larger radius?
  • Be or Ba
  • Ca or Br

Ba Ca
12
Examples
  • Which particle has the larger radius?
  • S or S2-
  • Al or Al3

S2- Al
13
C. Ionization Energy
  • First Ionization Energy energy needed to remove
    ONE electron.

He
Ne
Ar
Na
Li
K
14
C. Ionization Energy
  • First Ionization Energy
  • Increases UP and to the RIGHT

15
C. Ionization Energy
  • Why opposite of atomic radius?
  • In small atoms, e- are close to the nucleus where
    the attraction is stronger it takes a lot of
    energy to strip an e- away!
  • Why small jumps within each group?
  • Stable e- configurations dont want to lose e-

16
C. Ionization Energy
  • Successive Ionization Energies
  • Large jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e- is
    removed after all valence e- have been removed.
  • Mg 1st I.E. 736 kJ
  • 2nd I.E. 1,445 kJ
  • Core e- 3rd I.E. 7,730 kJ

17
C. Ionization Energy
  • Successive Ionization Energies
  • Large jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e- is
    removed after all valence e- have been removed.
  • Al 1st I.E. 577 kJ
  • 2nd I.E. 1,815 kJ
  • 3rd I.E. 2,740 kJ
  • Core e- 4th I.E. 11,600 kJ

18
Examples
  • Which atom has the higher 1st I.E.?
  • N or Bi
  • Ba or Ne

N Ne
19
D. Electron Affinity
  • Electron Affinity
  • Increases UP and to the RIGHT

20
D. Electron Affinity
  • Why smaller going down?
  • e- further from the nucleus
  • Greater shielding additional e- feel the
    attraction from the nucleus less.
  • Why greater to the right?
  • Higher nuclear charge without greater shielding
    stronger nucleus has a greater attraction for e-
    (atoms tend to make anions)

21
Examples
  • Which atom has the higher e- affinity?
  • K or Br
  • F or I

Br F
22
E. Electronegativity
  • Electronegativity
  • Increases UP and to the RIGHT

23
Examples
  • If the following atoms were bonded together,
    which would have the higher electronegativity?
  • P or S
  • Se or O

S O
24
F. Melting/Boiling Point
  • Melting/Boiling Point
  • Highest in the middle of a period.
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