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Failure Investigation A pathway for Railways Safety

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Title: Failure Investigation A pathway for Railways Safety


1
Failure Investigation A pathway for Railways
Safety
  • Corrosion related failure
  • Paint perspective

RDSO Lucknow 5th December 2008 By Vasant
Kelkar Akzo Nobel Coatings India Private Limited
2
Agenda
  • Objective
  • Corrosion theory
  • Various factors governing the same
  • Various methods adopted to check it
  • Importance of painting amongst them
  • Basis of system ISO12944
  • Various options as per RDSO PCN spec
  • What Akzo can / have offered
  • How it can restrict corrosion and protect asset

3
Objective
  • Corrosion in steel and solution through various
    types of coating system
  • RDSO-AKZO partnership to arrest and prevent
    corrosion related failures

4
What is Corrosion?
5
What is Corrosion?
  • Two basic Definitions
  • Corrosion is the deterioration of a material,
    (usually steel), because of a reaction with its
    environment
  • The destruction of steel by an electrochemical
    process that is recognised by the formation of
    rust or pits
  • These two definitions bring together the idea of
    an environment and an electrochemical process
    which are fundamental in understanding corrosion
    in terms of why it occurs and how it can be
    prevented.

6
Summary of Corrosion process
High Energy
STEEL Iron Metal Chemically Unstable Structural
HEAT (By Man)
CORROSION (By Nature)
Chemically the same!
IRON ORE Iron Oxide Chemically Stable Non-Structur
al
RUST Iron Oxide Chemically Stable Non-Structural
Low Energy
7
The Electrochemical Process
RUST FORMATION AT ANODE
ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS
ELECTROLYTE OXYGEN
METALLIC PATHWAY (STEEL)
CATHODE
ANODE
8
The consequences of Corrosion
  • Corrosion (Rust) Steel Metal Loss
  • Steel Metal Loss Maintenance Costs
  • Steel Metal Loss Reduced Structure Design Life
  • Steel Metal Loss Revenue Loss
  • Steel Metal Loss Catastrophic Failure
  • Steel Metal Loss Loss of Life?

STEEL
9
Steel?
...SO WHY USE STEEL?
  • Iron ore is very widely available
  • It is relatively easy to make steel from iron
    ore
  • Steel is strong relative to its weight
  • It is easy to fabricate with steel
  • Steel is cheap!

10
Corrosion How to control
  • Adopting right technology at design stage
  • Adopting suitable methods at fabrication stage
  • Ensure no entrapment of Moisture and dirt
  • Ensure proper insulation between different
    materials
  • Applying metal coatings
  • -Hot dip Galvanizing ( Limited performance )
  • -Electroplating ( Limited performance )
  • -Thermal Metal spraying
  • Adding /changing chemical composition of coating
  • -Weather resistance steel ( Incorporation of
    cu/cr/ni/p )
  • Applying appropriate paint coatings

11
Why Paint ?
  • Protection from Corrosion (Asset protection)
  • Control Fouling
  • Provide good Cosmetic appearance
    (Aesthetics/Image)
  • Prevent Cargo contamination
  • Provide Abrasion resistance
  • Provide anti skid property
  • Superior Anti Graffiti property
  • Provide Fire Protection or fire retarding
    property
  • Provide Heat resistance
  • Provide Radar Attenuation

12
HOW COATINGS WORK ?
  • Galvanic Protection Chemical Inhibition
    Barrier Protection

13
Corrosion Protection
14
Cosmetic Appearance
15
Cargo Contamination Prevention
16
Abrasion Resistance
17
Fouling Control
Acorn Barnacles
18
Skid Prevention
Good grip is essential to land a plane on a deck
19
Radar Attenuation
20
Heat Resistance
21
Fire Protection
22
Low Solar Absorption (LSA) Coatings
  • Coatings protect decks, topsides
    superstructure from the harsh marine environment.
  • These are GREY due to the need for visual
    camouflage.
  • BUT.

23
Solar Absorption
24
Rail Wagon
25
Rail Wagons
26
Rail Wagons
27
Rail Wagons
28
Rail Wagons
29
Rail Wagons
30
Rail Wagons
31
Rail Wagons
32
Rail wagons
33
The Environment Basic Definitions
  • Atmospheric essentially the earths weather
    patterns!
  • Underwater in rivers, oceans and seas
  • Underground within the earths surface
  • Manmade artificial environments such as storage
    tank internals, pipeline internals process
    vessel internals
  • Steel Environment Potential for corrosion
  • (Steel Environment) Coating Potential for
    protection

34
The Environment Impact on Corrosion Rate
  • The electrolyte has a big influence on the rate
    of corrosion
  • It is the environment that supplies the
    electrolyte
  • Therefore, the environment has an influence on
    the rate at which corrosion will occur
  • Fast corrosion fast steel metal loss and vice
    versa
  • Steel structure design life is directly related
    to the speed of steel metal loss
  • An electrolyte with good electrical conductivity
    (i.e. plenty of ions) will provide the conditions
    for a high rate of corrosion
  • i.e. it is MORE CORROSIVE !

35
The Environment Impact on Corrosion Rate
Seawater, which contains the ions sodium and
chloride (salt), has greater conductivity than
drinking water which contains fewer ions.
A HIGHER CONCENTRATION OF IONS SUCH AS SODIUM
AND CHLORIDE INCREASE THE CORROSION RATE
36
The Environment Impact on Corrosion Rate
  • The degree of contact of the electrolyte with the
    steel surface also affects corrosion rate
  • Intermittent electrolyte contact will switch the
    corrosion process on and off
  • This idea of the corrosion process switching on
    and off is controlled by the environment in
    which the steel structure is in, i.e.
    temperature, rainfall, humidity, immersion,
    moisture, pollution and salinity etc
  • Warm temperatures will influence the degree of
    electrolyte contact with the steel surface
  • When the electrolyte evaporates, the corrosion
    process stops

37
The Environment Impact on the Coating
THE COATING MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND THE
ENVIRONMENT
STRESS
COATING
STEEL
38
The Environment Impact on the Coating
Poor coating specification in a specific
environment can lead to early coating failure !
39
Classification of Environments
  • The ISO standard ISO 12944 Part 2
    Classification of Environments provides us with
    some very good guidelines on how to classify the
    corrosivity of a particular environment
  • The idea of corrosion rate and steel metal loss
    is used to categorise the environments
  • The greater the metal loss, the shorter the steel
    structure lifetime and vice versa
  • The environment in which the steel structure is
    in, dictates the level of coating protection
    required
  • Misunderstanding the environment can lead to
    incorrect coating specification and reduced
    coating lifetime due to early degradation and
    breakdown.

40
Classification of Environments
  • The ISO 12944 environment categories are shown
    below

Increasing Metal loss C1 to C5
41
The Environment Examples
Inside an Airport terminal C1 Very Low
Corrosivity
42
The Environment Examples
Inside an unheated warehouse C2 Low Corrosivity
43
The Environment Examples
Stadia in urban atmospheres C3 Medium Corrosivity
44
The Environment Examples
Construction Yards in industrial / coastal
atmospheres C4 High Corrosivity
45
The Environment Examples
Chemical Plants in Industrial atmospheres C5-I
Very High Industrial Corrosivity
46
The Environment Examples
Offshore Structures C5-M Very High Offshore
Corrosivity
Im2 Seawater Immersion
47
System Selection Parameters
  • Corrosion Properties Expected E.g. Salt Spray,
    Humidity
  • Design Life Expectancy. Repaint after how many
    years of running.
  • Dry Film Properties Expected E.g. Impact,
    Flexibility, Hardness, Abrasion resistance,
    Scratch resistance etc.
  • Gloss Retention
  • Overcoatability
  • Ability to be coated Wet on Wet
  • Cost per Sq Mtr/year
  • Track record in similar industries
  • Drying Times
  • Technical service/Online Trouble shooting

48
RDSO Specification coaches and wagons
  • PCN 100 Epoxy primer ,polyester putty,PU
    surfacer and PU top coat
  • Performance requirement - 500 hrs salt spray/750
    hrs QUV resistance
  • Our Counter offer Interfine 878 polysiloxane
    top coat against PU top coat for better
    weathering resistance and better anti graffiti
    property.
  • Advantage to RDSO Better paint life cycle time/
    better appearance
  • PCN 102 specification for epoxy primer
  • Performance requirement 500 hrs salt
    spray/humidity resistance
  • Our Counter offer
  • Intergard 251 High build epoxy primer having
    high DFT built up and
  • Intercure 200 HS High vol. solid, fast drying ,
    high dft built up
  • Advantage to RDSO Better paint life cycle time/
    faster production

49
RDSO Specification coaches and wagons
  • PCN 109 Specification for PU Top coat
  • Performance requirement - 750 hrs QUV resistance
  • Our Counter offer
  • Interthane 990 high vol. solid ,high dft built
    up top coat
  • Interfine 878 polysiloxane top coat against PU
    top coat for better weathering resistance and
    anti graffiti property.
  • Advantage to RDSO Better paint life cycle time/
    better appearance/faster productivity
  • PCN 104 specification for epoxy finishing
    paint
  • Performance requirement 1000 hrs salt
    spray/humidity resistance over primer
  • Our Counter offer
  • Intergard 966 High build epoxy finish coat
  • Intergard 345 High vol. solid, fast drying ,
    high dft built up top primer cum finish coat
  • Advantage to RDSO No requirement of primer
    /faster productivity

50
RDSO Specification coaches and wagons
  • PCN 111 High build epoxy paint
  • Performance requirement - 2000 hrs salt spary
    /humidity resistance
  • Our Counter offer Interseal 670 HS
  • Advantage to RDSO more dft built up/faster
    productivity
  • PCN 123 High performance anticorrosion epoxy
    coating
  • Performance requirement - 2000 hrs salt spary
    /humidity

  • resistance/chemical resistance
  • Our Counter offer Interseal 547
  • Advantage to RDSO better performance /single
    coat solution, Higher volume solids

51
Special Coating
  • Intergard 774 single coat fast curing epoxy
    finish for wagon external
  • Advantage to RDSO single coat solution /faster
    productivity/less Inventory control
  • Intershield 300 Universal abrasion resistance
    epoxy coating
  • Advantage to RDSO Better corrosion protection
    /Prevention of weight loss due to erosion of
    steel owing high abrasion /Prevention of
    contamination of contents of wagons
  • Interzone 954 Two component high solid epoxy
    barrier coat
  • Advantage to RDSO Better corrosion protection
    /Prevention of weight loss due to erosion of
    steel owing high abrasion /Prevention of
    contamination of contents of wagons /Robust
    coating than intershield 300

52
Product information
Interseal 670HS Surface tolerant epoxy mastic
coating Intergard 251 Epoxy zinc phosphate
primer Intergard 200HS Epoxy primer cum
intermediate coat with MIO,Zinc
phosphate Intergard 774 Single coat DTM epoxy
coating Intergard 345 Single coat epoxy primer
cum finish Interthane 990 PU finish Interfine
878 Polysiloxane finish Interfine 979
Polysiloxane finish Interline 399 Epoxy Novolac
tank lining Interline 850 Epoxy phenolic tank
lining Interzone 954 Modified epoxy barrier
coat Interzone 1000 Epoxy with glass flake
lining Intershield 300 Abrasion resistant
aluminium epoxy coating Interprime 741 Hot oil
resistant, weld able, etch PVB
53
Recommended system choice for RDSO
Open wagons External Primer Interseal 670HS,
Intergard 251 Finish Interthane
990 Internal Interline 399, Interline 850,
Intershield 300, Interzone 954, Interzone
1000 Closed wagons External Primer Interseal
670HS, Intergard 251 Finish Interthane
990 Internal Interline 399, Interline 850
54
Recommended system choice for RDSO
Stainless steel as a substrate External Primer
Intergard 251, Intergard 269 Finish Interthane
990 Internal If needed can be recommended We
have a system approval from Siemens (Test report
from Siemens / IIT) over stainless steel
Transformers External and Internal Standard 2
coat, 3 coat system as per classified
environment We have an approval from ABB (Job
being carried out at Cimotec) for transformers to
be used for DMRC
55
Recommended system choice for RDSO
External anti graffiti paint for
coaches External Primer Intergard 251,
Intergard 269, Intergard 200HS Finish Interfine
878, Interfine 979 Internal If needed can be
recommended
56
Partnering Progress
  • We have ROHS compliant products.
  • Ecotech/Low VOC initiative lesser solvent
    emissions.
  • Coal Tar, Chrome and mutagenic solvent free
    products (PU)
  • Isocynate free products
  • Internationally banned solvents are not used.
  • Upgrade systems to increase productivity
  • Upgrade system to increase quality
  • Train people on all aspects related to paint and
    its use
  • Line audit / monitoring to be done
  • Offer PFP (Passive fire proofing) OR fire
    retardant paints

57
Advantages to RDSO
  • Introduction of better paint systems
  • Savings on cost by way of higher life, lower M
    R and increased productivity and better
    protection of asset over a longer period can be
    offered to Indian Railway
  • Ensuring product aesthetics/corrosion protection
    with professional approach.
  • Single point contact for supply, technical help
    for paints.
  • Testing help from local and world wide
    laboratories of ANCIPL
  • Contemporary products and application techniques.
  • Increase visibility / image in market as quality
    manufacturer in this segment.

58
Akzo Nobel RDSO
  • Any Questions?

59
Akzo Nobel RDSO
  • Thank You
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