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EPSY 251

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Have their time managed wisely (not make-work activities) ... And to the ranks of the programs chronicled in Schorr's book, many new names can now be added. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EPSY 251


1
EPSY 251
  • M. Young, Ph.D.
  • (860) 486-0182
  • Myoung_at_uconn.edu
  • 130 Gentry Bld.

2
Welcome
  • The Online Syllabus
  • From the Virtual Classroom
  • Summary of Requirements
  • WebBoard Discussion 15
  • Writing Assignment 20
  • Final 65
  • Bills of Rights

3
Student Bill of RightsStudents have a right to...
  • An opportunity to learn the basic concepts of
    Learning II in multiple formats (text, lecture,
    online).
  • Have their time managed wisely (not make-work
    activities).
  • Support when expectations exceed current
    understandings.
  • Contact with the instructor beyond the classroom.

4
Instructor Bill of RightsThe instructor has the
right to...
  • Cooperation in establishing a learning forum.
  • Active participation from students.
  • Support when expectations exceed current
    understanding. (note its the same!)

5
Index
  • Smart Kids/ Dumb Kids The nature of
    intelligence.
  • But theyre just not Motivated! The nature of
    motivation, with self assessment.
  • I want hands-on, minds-on engaged learners The
    nature of classroom organization.
  • Its a tough school Conflict resolution in the
    curriculum.

6
Intelligence
  • Consider any class of students you have seen in
    clinic
  • What makes students learn at different rates?
  • What defines a smart student?
  • What defines a smart teacher?
  • What IS intelligence?

7
The Bell Curve
The measurement of intelligence has been the
greatest achievement of twentieth-century
scientific psychology. Psychometricians can make
a numerical estimate of a person's intelligence
that remains surprisingly stable after the age of
five or so, and much convergent evidence suggests
that the variations of this measure of
intelligence in a population are determined
significantly (at least 60 percent) by
inheritable factors.
Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles A. Murray.
(1994). The Bell Curve Intelligence and Class
Structure in American Life. Free Press.
8
The Bell Curve - Social Implications
As they see it, individuals have always differed
in intelligence, at least partly because of
heredity, but these differences have come to
matter more because social status now depends
more on individual achievement.
High IQ parents are choosing voluntary
childlessness while others produce multiple
offspring the fear becomes... a brutal society
in which "the rich and the smart" (who are
increasingly the same folks) band together to
isolate and perhaps even reduce the ranks of
those who besmirch the social fabric.
9
The Bell Curve - an incendiary text
  • Scientists Statement
  • http//www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/Issues/bell-
    curve/support-bell-curve.html

10
Other Thoughts
  • Sternbergs Interview with Skeptic Magazine.

11
Sternbergs Triarchic Process(pg. 114)
  • Analytic Componential
  • Information components
  • Meta components (planning, selecting)
  • Gaining new knowledge components
  • Creative Experiential
  • Insight
  • Automaticity (of problem solving)
  • Practical Contexual
  • Knowing how vs knowing what
  • Everyday knowledge

12
Gardners reaction(to Bell Curve)
  • American Prospect Online

13
What makes for a productive worker?
  • Is it IQ?
  • Correlation with income and supervisor ratings
    yield only 10 variability accounted for by IQ.

14
Gardners reaction
  • Though there are seven appendices, spanning over
    100 pages, and nearly 200 pages of footnotes,
    bibliography, and index, one element is notably
    missing from this tome a report on any program
    of social intervention that works. For
    example,Herrnstein and Murray never mention
    Lisbeth Schorr's Within Our Reach Breaking the
    Cycle of Disadvantage, a book that was prompted
    in part by Losing Ground.
    Schorr chronicles a number of social programs
    that have made a genuine difference in education,
    child health service, family planning, and other
    lightning-rod areas of
    our society. And to the ranks of the programs
    chronicled in Schorr's book, many new names can
    now be added. Those who have launched Interfaith
    Educational Agencies, City Year, Teach for
    America, Jobs for the Future, and hundreds of
    other service agencies have not succumbed to the
    sense of futility and abandonment of the poor
    that the Herrnstein and Murray book promotes.

15
Yeh, but how does he really feel?
  • It is callous to write a work that casts earlier
    attempts to help the disadvantaged in the
    least-favorable light, strongly suggests that
    nothing positive can be done in the present
    climate, contributes to an us-against-them
    mentality, and then posits a miraculous cure.
    High intelligence and high creativity are
    desirable. But unless they are linked to some
    kind of a moral compass, their possessors might
    best be consigned to an island of glass-bead game
    players, with no access to the mainland.

16
Gardners Multiple Intelligences(pg. 110)
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Linguistic
  • Musical
  • Spatial
  • Body-kinesthestic
  • Interpersonal
  • Naturalistic
  • Existential? (ability to ask big questions)

17
Measured IQ
  • Individualized tests (about 2 hours)
  • Stanford Binet, WISC-III, McCarthy... (p. 116)
  • IQ predicts school achievement
  • Mental Age
  • MA/CA 100
  • vs Deviation (from Mean) Scores
  • Mean 100 SD10 or 15 (top p. 116)
  • 50 above Mean
  • 68 within 1 SD

18
End Lecture 1
  • Thanks for coming!

19
Motivation
  • Why dont these darn kids learn!

20
Consider...
  • What does it mean for a student to be engaged
    in learning?
  • Hands-on, minds-on?
  • What does it look like when a student is engaged
    in learning?
  • Is motivation personal (long term) or situational
    (momentary)?

21
What is Motivation - definition
  • internal state or condition that activates
    behavior and gives it direction
  • desire or want that energizes and directs
    goal-oriented behavior
  • influence of needs and desires on the intensity
    and direction of behavior
  • the arousal, direction, and persistence of
    behavior (Franken, 1994).

22
Where IS motivation
  • Trait Theories
  • Motivation is a stable long-term characteristic
  • Need to Achieve, enduring interest
  • State Theories
  • Situational interest
  • Changing goals
  • Sociohistorical
  • Motivation as authentic participation

23
When is Motivation extraordinary?
  • Pokémon Silver?
  • Olympic Athletes?
  • So what are the characteristics of motivation?

24
How do students personal goals affect motivation?
25
Csikszentmihalyis Flow
  • A challenging activity that requires skill
  • Merging of action and awareness
  • Clear goals
  • Feedback
  • Focus of concentration
  • Feeling of control (no dire consequences)
  • Loss of self conciousness
  • Transformation of time

26
Sources of Motivation
  • Internal
  • Humanistic Psych
  • Needs, interests
  • Cognitive Psych
  • thoughts (attributions?)
  • External
  • Behaviorism
  • Rewards, reinforcers, incentives

27
Locating Motivation
28
Epsitomologies related to Motivation
  • Empiricism
  • Behaviorism (Skinner)
  • Rationalism
  • Constructivism (Piaget)
  • Sociohistoricism
  • Social Constructivism (Vygotsky)

29
How do Grades Impact Motivation?
  • If you get good grades
  • Increase motivation or relax
  • If you get average grades
  • If you get low grades?

30
How motivated are you?
  • A game of 16 questions
  • 1 not like me at all
  • 5 very much like me

31
Self Assessment 1 of 6
  • 1. I am aware of the hierarchy of motives in my
    life and which ones are the most important to me.
  • 2. I am instrinsically motivated.
  • 3. I have high expectations and standards for my
    success.
  • 4. My life has many moments of flow.

32
Self Assessment... 2 of 6
  • 5. I am aware of the people in my life who have
    motivated me the most and what it is they did to
    motivate me.
  • 6. I make achievement-related attributions that
    emphasize effort.
  • 7. I have mastery motivation orientation rather
    than helpless or performance orientation.

33
Self Assessment... 3 of 6
  • 8. I am motivated to learn and succeed because of
    my success aspirations, not because I want to
    protect my self-worth or avoid failure.
  • 9. I have high self-efficacy for many things.
  • 10. I have high instructional self-efficacy in
    terms of my ability as a teacher and to manage a
    classroom.

34
Self Assessment... 4 of 6
  • 11. I regularly set goals, plan how to reach
    those goals, and systematically monitor my
    progress toward them.
  • 12. I set specific, proximal, and challenging
    goals.
  • 13. I am a good time manager, regularly doing
    weekly plans, monitoring my use of time and
    creating to do lists.

35
Self Assessment... 5 of 6
  • 14. I am good at learning from my mistakes to
    improve my future success.
  • 15. I dont let anxiety or other emotions get in
    the way of my motivation.
  • 16. I have a good support system for my
    motivation and have positive close relationships
    with people who can help me sustain my motivation.

36
Self Assessment... 6 of 6
  • Any items you answered 3 or less on?
  • These are items you may want to spend some time
    considering.

37
Sources of Needs
  • Maslows hierachy
  • Behavioral External
  • Biological
  • Affective
  • Cognitive
  • Conative
  • Social
  • Spiritual

38
Behavioral Motivation
  • Source is external, selected by environment.
  • elicited by stimulus associated/connected to
    innately connected stimulus.
  • obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards)
    or escape/avoid undesired,unpleasant
    consequences.

39
Behaviorism Motivation
  • Reinforcers
  • Positive Rewards (primary secondary)
  • External (learn to cook for the tastes)
  • Internal reward (learn to read for the
    understanding)
  • Negative
  • Punishment
  • Why is it called empiricism?
  • Assume that what is positive for one student is
    punishing for the next

40
Examples
  • Normative grades
  • Implicit or explicit competition
  • Public displays of achievement
  • Does the existence of external rewards lessen
    intrinsic (internal) motivation?

41
Great Expectations!Expectancy theoriesof
Motivation
42
Teacher Expectations (external/social)
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Student self-perceptions
  • Ego-protecting disengagement from learning

43
Student Expectations
  • Self Efficacy (Bandura)
  • Goal Orientation (Dweck)
  • Performance Goals
  • Learning Goals

44
Affective needs
  • increase/decrease affective dissonance.
  • increase feeling good.
  • decrease feeling bad.
  • increase security of or decrease threats to
    self-esteem.
  • maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm.

45
Bandura
  • Reciprocal Determinism
  • Observational, imitative, self-control,
    self-regulation

46
Cognitive needs
  • maintain attention to something interesting or
    threatening.
  • develop meaning or understanding.
  • increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium
    uncertainty.
  • solve a problem or make a decision.
  • figure something out.
  • eliminate threat or risk.

47
Attributions of Success
  • LOCUS
  • Internal vs. External
  • STABILITY
  • Temporary vs. Permanent
  • CONTROLLABILITY
  • Ability vs. Effort

48
Causal attributions
  • Int-Stable-UnContr
  • Int-Stable-Control
  • Int-UnStable-UnContr
  • Int-UnStable-Control
  • Ext-Stable-UnContr
  • Ext-Stable-Control
  • Ext-Unstable-UnContr
  • Ext-Unstable-Control
  • I have low aptitude.
  • I never study.
  • I was sick on test day.
  • I didnt study for this 1.
  • School it too tough.
  • Instructor is unfair!
  • I had bad luck.
  • My friends didnt help.

49
Student AttributionsValue explanations of
Motivation
  • Interest
  • Personal (Schiefele)
  • Individual (Renninger)
  • Situational (Alexander)
  • Attributions of success

50
Leppers Exp X Value
  • Lepper puts expectancies and Value together
    suggesting
  • Motivation Expectance for success personal
    Value of goal
  • Lepper also describes skill X challenge level.

51
Biological needs
  • increase/decrease stimulation (arousal).
  • activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.)
  • decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.
  • maintain homeostasis, balance.

52
Internal Motivation (Needs)
53
Internal Motivation (cognitions)
  • Self Efficacy Motivation

54
Goals
  • Are video games motivating.. Why?
  • FLOW
  • Setting Goals
  • Environment that afford progress

55
Social Needs
  • imitate positive models
  • be a part of a group or a valued member

56
Social Constructivism
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship as motivation
  • Motivation as Social
  • Identity come from a community of practice
  • Motivation comes from increasing participation
  • Motivation involves membership in a community of
    learners

57
Conative needs
  • Plans associated with why questions
  • what are my intentions and goals
  • what am I going to do
  • what are my plans and commitments?

58
Conative need examples
  • meet individually developed/selected goal.
  • obtain personal dream.
  • develop or maintain self-efficacy.
  • take control of one's life.
  • eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining
    dream.
  • reduce others' control of one's life.

59
Spiritual Needs
  • understand purpose of one's life
  • connect self to ultimate unknowns

60
now, how can school satisfy all these needs?
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