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Water Quality Monitoring and Sampling

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Title: Water Quality Monitoring and Sampling


1
Water Quality Monitoring and Sampling
Watershed Academy University of Georgia Athens,
GA March 28, 2006
2
Water Quality Monitoring and Sampling
  • Categories and sources of water pollutants
  • Water quality parameters and monitoring
  • Water quality sampling and analyses
  • Sampling and monitoring can be complex!

3
Categories of Water Pollution
  • Organic Matter
  • Nutrients
  • Pathogens
  • Sediment
  • Toxic Contaminants
  • Debris
  • Thermal Stress

4
Types of Pollutants
  • Organic Matter
  • Nutrients Pathogens Sediment Toxic
    Contaminants Debris Thermal Stress

Sources yard waste, food waste, animal waste,
septic systems, wastewater
5
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
  • Nutrients Pathogens Sediment Toxic
    Contaminants Debris Thermal Stress

Sources fertilizers, septic systems, animal
waste, wastewater
6
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
Sources septic systems, animal and pet waste,
wastewater
7
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
Nutrients Pathogens
  • Sediment Toxic Contaminants Debris Thermal Stress

Sources construction sites, agricultural
fields, timber harvesting, disturbed areas
8
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
Nutrients Pathogens Sediment
  • Toxic Contaminants Debris Thermal Stress

Sources auto emissions, industrial, commercial,
household and agricultural chemicals
9
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
Sources street litter, boating waste, organic
(yard) waste
10
Types of Pollutants
Organic Matter
Sources runoff from heat-absorbing impervious
surfaces, removal of natural vegetative buffers,
shallow water impoundments, decreased base flow
11
Impaired Waters Section 303(d) List
  • Impairments listed by EPA or state water
    quality regulatory agencies standards
    exceedance
  • Based on designated uses recreational,
    aquatic life, fishing, drinking, shellfish
    harvesting
  • Low dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms,
    nutrients, metals
  • Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

12
Impaired Waters Section 303(d) List
Action to alleviate
  • Impairment will be addressed by implementing a
    locally developed plan that includes the remedial
    actions necessary for problem resolution.

13
Water Quality Parameters In situ Monitoring
  • Temperature
  • Dissolved oxygen
  • pH
  • Specific conductance
  • Redox potential (ORP)
  • Turbidity
  • Chl A

14
Dissolved oxygen
  • Units mg/L (ppm) or
  • percent saturation
  • Natural versus anthropogenic
  • causes
  • Membrane probe
  • measurement
  • Procedural considerations
  • Temperature-dependent

15
Water Quality Parameters Sampling
  • Organic matter
  • Solids
  • Nutrients
  • Fecal coliforms
  • Metals
  • PAHs
  • Pesticides

Bottom photo credit Bill Hunt, NCSU
16
Sampling
  • Grab vs. automated
  • Composite or sequenced
  • Timed vs. event-based
  • Procedural considerations
  • Safety concerns

17
Lab Analyses
  • Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
  • Solids
  • Nutrients
  • Fecal coliforms
  • Metals
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Pesticides

18
Organic Matter
  • Sources many!
  • Direct versus indirect
  • measures
  • Biochemical oxygen
  • demand (BOD) 5-day
  • Chemical oxygen demand
  • Total organic carbon(TOC)

5-day BOD analysis
19
Solids
  • All units mg/L
  • Total solids (TS) all dry weight (gt 105 C)
    solids per unit volume
  • Total suspended solids (TSS) an indicator of
    sediment
  • Volatile solids (VS) an indicator of organic
    solid fraction

20
Filterable Solids
Total Solids (TS)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
( 0.45 micron filter)
21
Volatile Solids
Total Solids (TS)
Non-volatile Solids (NVS)
Volatile Solids (VS)
( after 550 C)
22
Nutrients
  • Units mg/L (ppm)
  • Sources fertilizer, wastewater, septic
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus, but also others
  • Organic versus inorganic
  • Various forms

23
Nutrients
  • Nitrogen
  • Ammonium-Nitrogen
  • Nitrate-Nitrogen
  • Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
  • Phosphorus
  • Orthophosphate
  • Total Phosphorus (TP)

TRAACS 2000 for nutrient analyses
24
Nutrient Dynamics (Inorganic Nitrogen) Nitrificat
ion Denitrification Plant Uptake
1. Nitrification
Modified from Reddy and Graetz, 1988
2. Denitrification
/release to air
3. Plant Uptake
25
Wetland Ammonium-Nitrogen Concentrations by Month
NH4-N (mg L-1)
Month
26
Wetland Nitrate-Nitrogen Concentrations by Month
NO3-N (mg L-1)
Month
27
Phosphorus Dynamics in Wetland and Aquatic
Systems (Modified from Emsley, 1980 and Vymazal,
1995)
1. Sediment adsorption
2. Biological uptake
28
Correlation Coefficients for Nutrient
Concentrations and Water Quality Parameters
4
29
Fecal coliforms
  • Units colony forming units (cfu) / 100 mL
  • Indicator of pathogenic bacteria
  • Human versus pet versus wildlife
  • Presence/absence test
  • Membrane filtration
  • Time-sensitive sampling (lt 6 hr)

30
Fecal coliforms (cfu per 100 mL) at Boat Basin in
Debidue Creek (downstream of Debordieu Colony)
(From EPA Storet SCDHEC)
31
Water Quality Monitoring and Sampling
  • Categories and sources of water pollutants
  • Water quality parameters and monitoring
  • Water quality sampling and analyses
  • Sampling and monitoring can be complex!

32
(No Transcript)
33
For more info, please contact Dr. Dan
Hitchcock SC Sea Grant / Clemson
Extension dhitchc_at_clemson.edu
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