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The Wonderful, Weird and Whacky Things we use everyday that come from Trees

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Title: The Wonderful, Weird and Whacky Things we use everyday that come from Trees


1
The Wonderful, Weird and Whacky Things we use
everyday that come from Trees?
Michael C. Bondi, Extension Agent Forestry,
Christmas Trees Staff Chair Oregon State
UniversityClackamas County Extension
Office Oregon City, OR
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Todays Outline
  • The obvious, everyday things we use that come
    from trees
  • The oh, yeaI knew that group of products
  • The thats crazyI never have heard that! list
    of weird and whacky, but also wonderful things
    that come from trees

5
Lets start here
The obvious, everyday things we use that come
from trees
6
Oregons Timber is King
7
Lumber Products
From 2X4s to joists, sidings, and roofing
8
Engineered Wood Products
Laminated beams, oriented strand board (OSB), and
laminated beams all help extend the forest
resource
9
Paper Products
Wood pulp ready for paper manufacturing
  • Newspaper
  • Toilet paper
  • Books
  • Magazines
  • Computer paper
  • Stationary
  • Food product wrappers
  • Cardboards packing
  • Grocery bags

10
Quiz More wood is used for ___________________
____________ than any other use in the entire
world?
11
The Answer is Firewood!
12
Charcoal
13
OK, now
lets look at a few items you probably remember
that come from trees
14
Quinines Influence on World History
The original cure for malaria Chinchona tree
bark extract used to produce quinine
15
Where in the world?
  • Quinine discovered in 1630s in Peru. Peru
    remained sole source until 1865 when smuggled
    plants were cultivated in Java
  • Quinine not synthesized until 1944. Other
    synthetic and antimalarials now dominate the
    market

Malaria risk areas
  • Natural quinine is still used today as
    an herbal medicine and in tonic bitters

16
Chinchona Bark Extract
  • Is hard to ascertain the importance of quinine to
    the advancement of modern society
  • Could the British and Dutch have created empires
    without the the aid of quinine?
  • Could the Panama Canal have been completed
    without quinine? (And, at what cost?)
  • How many soldiers would have died in WWII from
    malaria without daily quinine tablets?

17
  • The Cinnamon Tree
  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Cinnamon is made from ground bark
  • Sri Lanka (Ceylon) produces 80 of the worlds
    supply of cinnamon
  • Used since antiquity as a
  • medicinal and spice

18
The Coffee Tree
Coffea arabica is an evergreen tree growing to
about 20 feet tall.
Originally from the mountains of Ethiopia,
became established in the southern Arabian
peninsula. Eventually established in India,
Java, South Central America, Caribbean,
Mexico, Brazil, Kenya and Tanzania.
19
The mature coffee fruit on the tree
The roasted coffee bean.
20
The Story of Chocolate
The Aztecs and Mayans of Central America
cultivated cocoa trees long before the arrival of
the Europeans.
Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, was said to
drink up to 50 goblets of chocolate every day!
Cortez visits Montezuma
The invading Spaniards learned about cocoa in the
1500s. They brought this fascinating new food
back to Europe.
21
The Cocoa Tree
Found in the tropical regions of the world near
the equator in Africa, Asia, South and Central
America. Grows to 50 feet tall. Grows as
understory tree in the Amazon forest. Produces
cocoa beans for up to 75-100 years.
22
Cocoa fruits develop following the successful
pollination of their flowers.
Beautiful tropical flowers found along the trees
trunk and branches.
Mature cocoa fruit ready for harvest.
23
Cocoa bean are really the seeds of the cocoa
fruit.
Dried cocoa beans.
Most cocoa is grown as an important cash crop by
small farmers with 10-15 acres each.
24
Fruit and Nut Trees
25
Alright
Lets try a few items you probably dont think
about everyday!
26
Cascara Buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana)
Cascara Chittam Bark Sacred Bark
Common small native tree in the Pacific Northwest
forest once widely harvested for the barkthe
active ingredient in a well-known laxative!
27
Juniper Berries
  • Used as spice in Germany France
  • Used as diuretic
  • Used as a flavoring agent in the production of gin

28
Some Common Tree Exudates
  • Latex
  • rubber, chicle
  • Oleoresins
  • turpentine and rosin
  • Gums
  • gum arabic

29
Pine tree exudates
30
Living Pine Tree
Wound
Oleoresin
Steam Distillation
Gum Turpentine
Gum Rosin
Terpenes
31
Turpentine Production
Major industry in the Southern U.S. during the
past century.
32
Some Historical Tree Resins
  • Amber
  • ancient fossilized resins
  • Copals
  • various regions of the world including the famous
    New Zealand Kauri
  • Frankincense
  • Middle East, over 2000 years of commerce
  • Myrrh
  • ancient connections
  • Damars
  • Southeast Asia

33
Essential oils from both cedar wood and
eucalyptus leaves are common ingredients in
personal care products such as soaps,
fragrances, mouth rinses, and cough drops.
34
Aspirin
Father of Medicine, Hippocrates, first prescribed
the bark of the willow tree as a remedy for
aches and fever in the 5th century, BC The
active ingredient in willow bark is salicinfirst
synthesized in 1897.
35
Taxol (paclitaxel)
  • Initially isolated from Taxus brevifolia (Pacific
    yew) bark
  • Produced semi-synthetically now
  • Used in treatment of breast, ovarian
  • and non-small-cell lung cancers,
  • and Kaposis sarcoma

36
Now
Youre ready for a few weird and whacky, but very
important products we rely on everydaythats
come from trees.
37
Pharmaceuticals
Foods and Flavorings
Dietary Supplements
Personal Hygiene Products
Dental Hygiene
Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods
Clothing
Food Additives
Cellulose and extractive chemicals (natural
products) from trees are used to make many
personal use consumer items that enrich our
lives. A few are shown here.
38
Gum arabic is an exudate from Acacia senegal and
is used in many confectionary and baking
products.
Ground gum arabic ready for processing.
Exudate forming on a wounded tree.
39
Rayon, Tencel, and acetate fibers for modern
clothing are derived from wood cellulose.
40
Tencel is the latest in fabric
  • Tencel is known for its drape
  • Is a natural, man-made fiber
  • manufactured from cellulose or
  • wood pulp

Tencel is the trade name for the generic fiber
called lyocell
41
A variety of products use cellulose gum or
microcrystalline cellulose for thickening,
texture or viscosity control.
42
Fat free products use cellulose derivatives to
restore mouthfeel when fat is removed. Since
people cannot digest the cellulose, calories are
not added.
43
Hydroxy ethyl or propyl cellulose is used in
personal care products to give body and in
tablets as a binder or time release agent.
44
Wood rosin is extracted from pine stumps and used
in these products
Density increaser for citrus soda drinks.
Chewing gum base
45
Dietary supplements and herbal remedies
Pine bark extract used as dietary supplement for
anti-oxidant properties
Extract of Hawthorn berries or leaves used for
control of blood pressure
46
Phytosterols from pines and birch trees are used
in medicines and functional foods to reduce
cholesterol.Phytosterols can be directly
extracted from the wood or bark, or they can be
recovered from the tall oil fraction of a wood
pulping process.
47
Cholesterol reducing productsderived from tall
oil during pulping
Phytosterol food additive
Phytosterol dietary supplement
48
Xylitol is a sugar free sweetener derived from
birch trees. Xylitol has been found to help
prevent dental caries and to inhibit plaque
bacteria. It is used in many dental hygiene
products including chewing gum and toothpaste.
49
Other medical uses for xylitol
  • Ideal sweetener for
  • diabetics since its
  • metabolized
  • independently of insulin
  • Help prevent acute
  • otitis mediaa common childhood ear infection
  • Helps prevent sinus infections used as a nasal
    spray, too.

50
Now a Quiz...
  • Question
  • How many tree products are used in this chewing
    gum?
  • Answer 4
  • xylitol birch tree, Finland
  • gumbase chicle (latex of sapodilla tree) Mexico
  • gum arabic Acacia senegal -- Africa
  • carnauba wax palm tree (Copernica cerifera)
    Brazil

51
The moral of our Tree story
  • We use a huge number of products in our everyday
    lives that come from trees.
  • Thank a tree, hug a tree, or be nice to a tree
    today.
  • Dont be afraid to harvest a treethats how we
    get what we need.
  • Plant more trees and care for the land. Trees
    are THE answer!
  • Read your labels.you might be surprised!

52
Acknowledgements
  • Professor Joe Karchesy, Department of Wood
    Science and Engineering, College of Forestry at
    Oregon State University, provided much of the
    technical information contained within this
    program. His assistance is gratefully
    acknowledged and his work is unlocking new
    opportunities for tree uses in our lives everyday.
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