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Successful Reading Instruction Strategies for English Language Learners

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Title: Successful Reading Instruction Strategies for English Language Learners


1
Successful Reading Instruction Strategies for
English Language Learners
  • Alejandra Rodríguez-Galindo
  • Lee Wright
  • 3rd National Reading First Conference
  • Reno, Nevada
  • July 2006

2
Reading and ELLs
  • Lack of achievement NAEP statistics from 1992 to
    the present indicate that more than 60 of
    Hispanic students scored below the national
    normative standards for grades 4, 8, and 12
  • Knowledge of Reading Instruction we know a lot!
  • We need to put this knowledge to practice

3
Language Issues
  • Lack of comprehension of the English language
  • ELLs might not understand directions used in the
    classroom
  • ELLs might not hear or understand certain English
    sounds
  • ELLs might not understand common idioms such as
    make up your mind, lets hit the books, etc.
  • ELLs might not understand the language used for
    instruction

4
Language Issues (cont.)
  • and lack of proficiency in the English language
  • ELLs might have mispronunciations
  • ELLs might be at different levels of English
    proficiency
  • ELLs might not be able to produce English
    language in a way that allows them to fully
    participate in the learning process

5
Instructional Delivery Issues
  • ELLs can learn, and will learn, if the
    instruction we provide them is carefully
    designed, delivered, and monitored, and addresses
    specific language development needs
  • Language issue is not a
    potential issue

We can learn!
6
ELLs Learning to Read
  • reading is essentially the same process
    whether reading English as a first or a second
    language. In other words, both first and second
    language readers look at the page and the print
    and use their knowledge of sound/symbol
    relationships, word order, grammar, and knowledge
    about the texts topic and structure along with
    their linguistic knowledge and reading strategies
    to arrive at an interpretation and to achieve
    their purpose for reading.
  • (Peregoy Boyle, 1999, p. 259)

7
ELLs Learning to Read (cont.)
Both first- and second-language readers require
  • alphabetic understanding
  • decoding skills
  • automaticity of sight vocabulary
  • overall fluency
  • development of metacognitive strategies to foster
    fluency and comprehension
  • text matched to reading level and interests
  • engagement in extensive reading

(Adapted from Lenters, 2004 )
8
ELLs Learning to Read (cont.)
Second-language readers face unique challenges
  • Sound/symbol dissimilarity or interference
  • Vocabulary constraints
  • Limitations due to background knowledge
  • Difficulties with text structure

(Adapted from Lenters, 2004)
9
General Principles forELL Instruction
Be sensitive to levels of English development.
  • Provide think-alouds and modeling
  • Set clear goals for learning and provide
    immediate feedback
  • Provide opportunities to speak
  • Tap students prior knowledge

(August Hakuta, 1997 Cary, 1997 Gersten
Baker, 2000 Gersten Geva, 2003 Gunderson,
1991 Lenters, 2004 Lira, 2000 Peregoy Boyle,
2005 Roit, 2006)
10
General Principles forELL Instruction (cont.)
  • Use visuals, manipulatives, and non-verbal cues
  • Teach key vocabulary
  • Adjust speech
  • Provide practice and application
  • Explicitly teach new skills, concepts, and
    English language structures

(August Hakuta, 1997 Cary, 1997 Gersten
Baker, 2000 Gersten Geva, 2003 Gunderson,
1991 Lenters, 2004 Lira, 2000 Peregoy Boyle,
2005 Roit, 2006)
11
Essential Reading ComponentsandEnglish Language
Learners
12
Developing Phonemic Awareness in English Language
Learners
13
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs
  • Awareness of and ability to manipulate sounds is
    an excellent predictor of later reading success
  • ELLs need to develop phonemic awareness skills
    that can later be translated into reading success

14
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Capitalize on native oral language ability
  • ELLs might have developed phonemic awareness
    (PA) skills in their native languages that can be
    transferred across alphabetic languages
  • Help ELLs transfer the PA skills they have
    developed in their native languages to English
  • Listen to the sounds that ELLs can produce and
    identify

15
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Accept oral approximations
  • Be aware of differences in pronunciation
  • ELLs may apply knowledge of their native
    languages to produce English sounds

16
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Provide instruction to develop elements that are
    unique to English
  • Learn about students native languages
  • Begin with commonalities
  • Listen carefully to the sounds that ELLs can
    produce and identify easily, and the ones that
    seem to be more problematic
  • Be explicit when teaching letter combinations and
    sounds that do not occur in ELLs native languages

17
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Provide instruction to develop elements that are
    unique to English
  • English language learners might have to learn new
    phonemes

(Fry, Kress, Fountoukidis, 2000)
18
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Scaffold English language development when
    developing PA
  • Embed PA practice within familiar material that
    is meaningful to ELLs
  • Make sure students know the meanings of the
    wordsphonological tasks with unknown words are
    more difficult
  • Make sure students know function words such as
    stretch, blend, identify, segment, separate

19
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Scaffold English language development when
    developing PA
  • Sounds are very abstract concepts
  • Use manipulatives (chips, coins, beans)
  • Clap, stomp, and move things around to make
    sounds less abstract

20
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • Scaffold English language development when
    developing PA

stretch
blend
21
Phonemic Awareness and ELLs (cont.)
  • PA instruction helps all students
  • ELLs do not have to be proficient in English to
    benefit from developing PA skills
  • Teach them how to blend sounds into words,
    segment words into sounds, isolate sounds and
    syllables, and manipulate phonemes
  • Provide them with many opportunities to listen to
    models and practice

22
Teaching Phonics Word Study to English
Language Learners
23
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs
Systematic phonics instruction can enable
second-language learners to acquire word
recognition and decoding skills in their second
language to a relatively high level, despite the
fact that their knowledge of the second language
is still limited. Cummins, 2003, pg. 10
24
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Capitalize on students native language reading
    ability
  • ELLs may have letter knowledge and an
    understanding of the alphabetic principle in
    their native language
  • Informally assess what they know about letters
    and sounds

25
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Capitalize on students native language reading
    ability
  • Teach them how to transfer what they know from
    one language to another
  • However, there are differences!
  • Decoding in Spanish is quite clear
  • Decoding in English is not that clearstudents
    need to be more flexible

26
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Explicitly teach English-specific structures and
    rules
  • Ensure that ELLs have English print awareness
  • Focus on the specific decoding rules in English
  • Explicitly teach English letter-sound
    correspondences and word patterns
  • Take advantage of consistent spelling patterns so
    students can learn to read words by analogy

27
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Do not identify inability to pronounce a word or
    non-native pronunciation of a word as a reading
    error or lack of phonics knowledge.

28
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • English consonant blends not present in Spanish
  • st, sp, sk/sc, sm, sl, sn, sw, tw, qu (kw), scr,
    spr, str, squ
  • English vowels sounds not present in Spanish
  • man, pen, tip, up
  • -r controlled vowels
  • schwa sound
  • caught, could, use
  • Challenging final English sounds
  • rd, st, ng, sk, ng, z, oil, mp, dg
  • English consonant sounds that also exist in
    Spanish
  • /n/, /p/, /k/, /f/, /y/, /b/, /g/, /s/, /ch/,
    /t/, /m/, /w/, /l/, /h/
  • Shared consonant blends
  • pl, pr, bl, br, tr ,dr, cl, cr, gl, gr, fl, fr
  • Difficult consonant English sounds
  • /d/ can be pronounced as /th/
  • /j/ juice, /r/ rope, /v/ van, /z/ zipper, /sh/
    shell, /zh/ treasure, /th/ thin

Adapted from Helman, 2004
29
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Take advantage of more regular phonograms
  • -an, -ap, -at, -aw, -in, -ip, -op, -or
  • -ake, -ale, -ame, -ate, -ice, -ide, -ine, -oke
  • -ain, -ail, -eat, -eek, -een, -oot, -eem
  • -unk, -ump, -uck, -ick, -ill, -ock, -uck, -ink

30
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
-ock
  • flock mock clock smock
  • dock rock crock stock
  • hock sock shock
  • knock tock frock
  • lock block

31
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Always teach phonics within a meaningful context
  • Ensure that children understand the words they
    are learning to decodeuse words that children
    have heard many times before
  • Build up your phonics instruction with vocabulary
    instruction
  • Provide language supportuse visuals

32
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
ail
m
Combine phonics instruction with English language
development by using visuals.
p
n
s
33
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
ail
m
Remove the visuals once ELLs know the meanings of
words.
p
n
s
34
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
-i_e
-ie
-igh
35
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
-i_e
-ie
-igh
pie
high
pine
tie
light
mice
36
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
stump
Use pictures to show the meanings of words.
skate
Remove the scaffold as soon as possible.
37
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
Make the reading experience as concrete as
possible.
38
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
o
b
l
k
c
Elkonin Boxes
39
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
a
Making Words
i
k
g
s
i
n
e
n
f
t
d
40
Phonics, Word Study, and ELLs (cont.)
  • Discuss word parts students will encounter often
  • /t/ /d/ /id/
  • passed rubbed tasted
  • walked pulled padded
  • hoped lived
  • raced fanned

-ed
41
Developing Fluency in English Language Learners
42
Fluency and ELLs
  • Model, model, model how fluent reading should
    sound
  • Teacher reading out loudshort passages
  • Listening to audiotapesin a center, at home
  • Computer-basedmodel of proper phrasing and speed
    of fluent reading
  • Modeling provides examples of pronunciation,
    prosody, and fluent reading that students can
    imitate when they read
  • Dont forget to model non-examples

43
Fluency and ELLs (cont.)
  • Provide multiple opportunities for practice since
    ELLs often have less opportunity to read aloud in
    English with feedback
  • Partner readingpurposefully partnering students
    to provide ample opportunities for practice
    (Klinger Vaughn, 1996)
  • Echo choral reading
  • Readers theater
  • Repeated reading

44
Fluency and ELLs (cont.)
  • Keep the fluency activities meaningful.
  • Make sure the text you are using is at the
    independent or instructional level
  • Review passages before fluency activities to
    ensure ELLs understand the selections

45
Fluency and ELLs (cont.)
  • Focus on English prosody and intonation of words
    and sentences.
  • catholic, canary, analogy
  • Do YOU want to go to the movies tonight?
  • Do you WANT to go to the movies tonight?
  • Do you want to go to the MOVIES tonight?
  • Do you want to go to the movies TONIGHT?

46
Fluency and ELLs (cont.)
  • Fluency should not be confused with accent.
  • Many ELLs will read and speak English with an
    accent as they are beginning to learn English,
    and others will have one throughout their lives.
  • Students can read fluently in English with a
    native language accent.

47
Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners
48
Vocabulary and ELLs
  • Vocabulary development is one of the greatest
    challenges of reading instruction for ELLs
  • Systematic, explicit, and effectively implemented
    vocabulary instruction is a MUST for English
    language learners
  • Effective reading teachers of ELLs infuse lessons
    with vocabulary development

(August, Carlo, Dressler, Snow, 2005 Gersten
Geva, 2003)
49
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Although ELLs might have an extensive vocabulary
    in their native language, they might know fewer
    words in English (breadth).
  • ELLs know less about the meaning of words
    (depth).

50
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Practices that are effective with monolingual
    English speaking children are effective with ELLs
  • Have children say the word
  • Discuss what is known of the word
  • Provide examples and non-examples
  • Provide definitions using student-friendly
    explanations
  • Engage in deep-processing activities by asking
    questions and having students act out words
  • Scaffold students to create powerful sentences
    with the new words

51
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
deteriorate
I would like you to raise your hand if you have
ever heard of the word deteriorate. Some of you
have heard the word, and some of you have not.
Now, how many of you have some idea what
deteriorate means? Now lets look at some
pictures that can help us understand what
deteriorate means. Now, I am going to show you
a sentence with the word deteriorate in it. We
will work on our understanding of the word
deteriorate.
The pages of my grandfathers old book
deteriorated with time.
52
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
Deteriorate means when something is not new
anymore but old and in worse shape than
before. For example, the boat has deteriorated
and is not new anymore. It is in worse shape than
it was when it was new. For example, the salt
water and wind have deteriorated the
lighthouse. However, a plant that is growing tall
is not deteriorating.
deteriorate
53
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
Tell me three things (different than the
pictures) that can deteriorate.
deteriorate
To lose its new condition and get in worse shape
Synonyms weaken decline get worse
Antonyms improve get better
deteriorate
  • My grandmas health has deteriorated in the last
    year.
  • It seems that Joes friendship with Miguel has
    deteriorated since they dont speak to each other
    anymore.

54
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Student-Friendly Definitions
  • Describe the meaning of the word in everyday
    language
  • Include words like something, someone, or
    describes
  • Explain how the word is used regularly

55
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • reluctant
  • feeling or showing aversion, hesitation, or
    unwillingness
  • this word describes when we do not want to do
    something or we are not sure about doing
    something
  • Lisa was reluctant to eat the beets and liver
    that her grandmother had cooked for her.
  • Which one would you be reluctant to hold a
    kitten or a rattlesnake?
  • What would you be reluctant to do? I would be
    reluctant to

56
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Questions to make us think
  • Have you ever eaten something gruesome?
  • Have you ever felt dread?
  • How much energy does it take to flex your little
    finger?
  • How much energy does it take to beckon to someone
    for five straight hours?
  • Can someone recover from a fatal injury?

57
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Make your body
  • Wiggle, wriggle, squirm, stretch, twist, shake,
    contract, uncurl, rise, slouch
  • Make your face
  • Frown, sneer, pout, leer, wink, gape, scowl,
    yawn, chew, stare, wince, grimace, blink
  • Make your hands
  • Open, close, clench, grab, stroke, poke, beckon,
    point, pluck, knead, wring
  • Deepen understanding by making sentences, using
    diagrams, and asking questions

58
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Some practices are very important for ELLs
  • Take advantage of a students first language,
    especially if the students first language shares
    cognates with English
  • Ensure ELLs know the meanings of basic words
  • Provide a meaningful context and guided
    discussions to learn and review new vocabulary

59
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Take advantage of the students first language,
    especially if the students native language
    shares cognates with English
  • Take advantage of many words in school texts that
    have a Latin origin and that are common words in
    Spanish insect, excavate, sufficient, signify,
    lunar, vendor (Calderón et al., 2005 Carlo et
    al., 2005)
  • Teach students how to look for associations
    between cognates
  • 10,000 to 15,000 SpanishEnglish cognates (Nagy,
    1997)
  • For elementary students focus on easier to
    recognize cognates

60
Vocabulary and ELLs (cont.)
  • Ensure that ELLs know the meanings of basic words
  • Abstract words
  • Functional words (this, there, over, here,
    though)
  • Basic words
  • Provide them with abstract academic vocabulary
  • However, nevertheless, as a result, in addition

61
Developing Reading Comprehension in English
Language Learners
62
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Teaching reading comprehension can be a dual
    language opportunity
  • ELLs learn to derive meaning from text but also
    learn how to talk about text and what they are
    learning
  • Their challenge is to put language to use in
    talking about text
  • ELLs can do this comprehension work in different
    ways that reflect their different levels of
    English development

63
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Instructional strategies for teaching
    comprehension
  • Using instructional routinesbefore reading,
    during reading, after reading
  • Direct explanation
  • Modeling and thinking aloud
  • Teaching useful linguistic structures
  • Scaffolding learning

(Roit, 2006)
64
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Before reading prepare students for linguistic,
    cultural, and conceptual difficulties
  • Teachers can analyze texts to try to predict what
    will be unfamiliar content or language for ELLs
  • A visit to the beach, a visit to the zoo, a
    barbecue or a picnic, an overnight stay with
    friends, birthday parties, going to a disco, etc.
  • Auxiliary verbs, tenses, long sentences, idioms

(Gibbons, 2002)
65
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Before reading activate prior knowledge
  • Connect what students already know to what they
    are going to read
  • Extend prior knowledge
  • Build key concepts and vocabulary
  • Relate text to students lives
  • Text preview an idea or question that piques
    students interest, a brief description of the
    story organization, and a student and
    teacher-generated question to guide reading

(Vaughn Linan-Thompson, 2004)
66
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Before reading preteaching
  • Preview new vocabulary and new concepts
  • Preteach important vocabulary and linguistic
    structures

(Gibbons, 2002)
67
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Before reading pre-teaching
  • Title Animal Camouflage
  • Concepts to pre-teach camouflage, hide,
    patterns, enemies
  • Linguistic structures to pre-teach
  • can hide by
  • changes to hide from other animals

(Gibbons, 2002)
68
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Teach useful linguistic structures
  • Language issue provide ELLs the language
    necessary to effectively engage in the learning
    experience
  • First, after, then, finally (temporal order
    words)
  • The cause is, the effect is
  • The main idea of the paragraph is, and one
    detail in the paragraph is
  • is similar to because
  • is different from because

(Roit, 2006)
69
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • During reading direct explanation of strategies
    to make sense of text
  • Telling or describing how a strategy or skill can
    be used during reading
  • The why is clearly explained
  • The how is made explicit
  • Direct explanation should be enhanced using
    charts, graphic organizers, pictures, and realia

70
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • During reading direct explanation of strategies
    to make sense of text
  • Introduce one strategy at a time
  • Clearly explain what the strategy is about
  • Summarizing is a strategy to use when reading.
    Summarizing helps us check and makes sure we
    understood what we read. Summarizing also helps
    us remember what we read. We summarize by telling
    only the most important information from the
    story.

71
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
? Asking Questions ? Hacer Preguntas
Summarizing Resumir
Visualizing Visualizar
Predicting Predecir
72
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
Making Connections Asociaciones
Clarifying Aclarar
73
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • During reading modeling and thinking aloud
  • Think-alouds are particularly beneficial to ELLs
  • Think-alouds make public what strategic readers
    do when they apply comprehension strategies

74
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
Jill was running up the street with her mom. She
was crying and looking everywhere. She loved Fila
so much. Jill wondered if they would ever find
her.
What happened? Jill is crying. That means that
she is sad. It says that she is looking
everywhere. I wonder what she is looking for. It
says Jill loves Fila, and she wonders if theyll
find her. Somebody is missing, but I am not sure
if Fila is a persons name. Jill might have lost
her pet.
75
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • During reading summarize, discuss text, and
    monitor comprehension frequently
  • When reading aloud or discussing a story read by
    students, the linguistic load and the cognitive
    work are large
  • Stop oftenmake sure students are with you
  • Point out language in text with features that can
    make text difficult to understand

76
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • During reading summarize and monitor
    comprehension frequently
  • Completing charts or graphic organizers as
    teachers read texts allows for deeper
    comprehension
  • Engaging students in identifying big ideas in a
    text and in graphically depicting the
    relationships among these ideas improves student
    recall and comprehension of text (RAND 2002)

77
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • After reading scaffold thinking about what was
    read
  • Ensure ELLs understand common question concepts
    detail questions
  • when, where, who, what, why, how, which
  • After modeling what when and where mean, the
    teacher says Ill say a phrase. You tell me if
    it tells when or where.
  • In the backyard
  • After breakfast
  • Tomorrow morning
  • On the sofa
  • At the pool

(Marzola, 2005 Pilgreen, 2006)
78
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • After reading scaffold thinking about what was
    read
  • Types of questioning
  • Right Herequestions involve responses that can
    be found word-for-word in the text
  • Here and Therequestions can be answered by
    looking in the text (often in more than one
    place), but the answers are more complex and
    require a response of one or more sentences
  • What I Knowquestions cannot be answered by
    looking in the text they require students to
    think about what they have read, think about what
    they already know, and think about how it all
    fits together
  • Help ELLs understand what they are asked

(Raphael, 1986)
79
Comprehension and ELLs (cont.)
  • Teach ELLs about expository text structures in
    English
  • Explicitly discuss the different types of texts
    and their characteristics
  • Use graphic organizers to expose the structure
    of expository text
  • Teach ELLs the linguistic clues they can use to
    identify and deal with different expository texts

(Roit, 2006)
80
Expository Texts
81
References
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., Snow, C.
(2005). The critical role of vocabulary
development for English language learners.
Learning Disabilities Research Practice, 20(1),
5057. August, D., Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1997).
Improving schooling for language-minority
children A research agenda. Washington, DC
National Academy Press. Berzins, M. E., Lopez,
A. E. (2001). Starting off right Planting the
seeds for biliteracy. In M. Reyes J. Halcon
(Eds.), The best for our children Critical
perspectives in literacy for Latino students (pp.
8195). New York Teachers College
Press. Biemiller, A., Slonim, N. (2001).
Estimating root word vocabulary growth in
normative and advantaged populations Evidence
for a common sequence of vocabulary acquisition.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3),
498520. Blachowicz, C. L. Z. (1986). Making
connections Alternatives to the vocabulary
notebook. Journal of Reading, 29,
643-649. Calderon, M., August, D., Slavin, R.,
Duran, D., Malden, N., Cheung, A. (2005).
Bringing words to life in classrooms with
English-language learners. In E. Hiebert M.
Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary
Bringing research to practice (pp. 115136).
Mahwah, New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum.
82
References (cont.)
  • Carlo, M., August, D., Snow, C. (2005).
    Sustained vocabulary-learning strategy
    instruction for English-language learners. In E.
    Hiebert M. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning
    vocabulary Bringing research to practice (pp.
    137154). Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum.
  • Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J.
    (1997). Direct reading instruction (2nd ed.).
    Upper Saddle River, NJ Merrill.
  • Cary, S. (1997). Second language learners. York,
    ME Stenhouse.
  • Cummins, J. (2003). Reading and the bilingual
    student Fact and friction. In G. Garcia (Ed.),
    English learners Reaching the highest level of
    English literacy (pp. 233). Newark, DE
    International Reading Association.
  • Denton, C., Anthony, J. L., Parker, R.,
    Hasbrouck, J. (2004). Effects of two tutoring
    programs on the English reading development of
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