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Spatial Disorientation

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FUNCTIONS OF THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Indicates Roll, ... Pilot enters a turn stimulating one semicircular canal ... Stimulating a 2nd / 3rd semicircular canal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Spatial Disorientation


1
Spatial
Disorientation
2
OUTLINE
  • Review of Spatial Disorientation Terms
  • Discuss the Role of Vision in Maintaining
    Equilibrium
  • Components of the Vestibular System
  • Types of Vestibular Illusions
  • Mechanisms of Proprioceptive Equilibrium
  • Identify the Classifications of Vestibular
    Illusions
  • Prevention and Treatment of Spatial
    Disorietation

3
REFERENCES
  • FM 1-301, Aeromedical Training for Flight
    Personnel

4
TERMINOLOGY
  • Vertigo
  • Sensory Illusion
  • Spatial Disorientation

5
SENSES OF BALANCE
  • Visual System
  • Vestibular System
  • Proprioceptive System

6
FOCAL VISION
  • Also called Central Vision
  • Done consciously
  • Enables one to determine distance
  • Allows for depth perception
  • Presents us with clear view

USASAM SD NEWS
7
AMBIENT VISION
  • Also called Peripheral Vision
  • Done unconsciously
  • Detects motion and attitude cues
  • Helps to provide balance

8
VISUAL SYSTEM
  • Vision is the most reliable sense used during
    flight
  • 80 of orientation while flying is dependent on
    the visual senses

9
THE CONDITION MOST SUSCEPTIBLE TO SPATIAL
DISORIENTATION IS --
  • During a sudden and unexpected transition from
    VMC to IMC flight conditions

10
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
  • Semicircular Canals
  • Otolith Organs

11
Semicircular Canals
Otolith Organs
Auditory Nerve
Cochlea
Ossicles
Ear Drum
Middle Ear
External Ear
Eustachian Tube
Opening to Throat
12
FUNCTIONS OF THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
  • Triggers reflexes that stabilize the eyes during
    movement of the head or body
  • Assist automatic reflexes
  • Provides orientation information in the absence
    of vision

13
VISUAL TRACKING
  • Maintains focus of the retinal image

14
NYSTAGMUS
A rapid flickering motion of both eyes back and
forth, seriously degrading visual acuity to
20/200 for a few seconds.
15
REFLEX INFORMATION
16
ORIENTATION WITHOUT VISION
17
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
  • Right angles to each other
  • Contains endolymph fluid

18
FUNCTIONS OF THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
  • Indicates Roll, Pitch, and Yaw
  • Change in both speed and direction
  • Responsive to angular acceleration and
    deceleration

19
FUNCTION OF THE OTOLITH ORGANS
  • The Otolith organs are stimulated by gravity and
    linear accelerations
  • Change in speed without a change in direction
  • Sensitive to linear acceleration and
    deceleration (forward and backward/up and down)

20
FUNCTION OF THE OTOLITH ORGANS
FORWARD ACCELERATION CENTRIFUGAL
/CENTIPUAL
FALSE SENSATION OF BACKWARD FALSE SENSATION OF
UPRIGHT
21
VESTIBULAR ILLUSIONS
  • Somatogravic
  • Oculoagravic
  • Elevator
  • Oculogravic
  • Somatogyral
  • The Leans
  • Graveyard Spin
  • Coriolis

22
THE LEANS
Most common form of Spatial Disorientation
23
Motion is usually undetected during a
subthreshold maneuver (less than 2o)
24
Pilot corrects attitude and compensates for the
false sensation of turning in the opposite
direction
25
  • This illusion seldom affects both pilots
    at the same time

26
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27
Graveyard Spiral
28
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29
THE CORIOLIS ILLUSION
  • The most deadly illusion
  • Most likely to occur during an
  • instrument approach

30
CORIOLIS ILLUSION
  • Pilot enters a turn stimulating one semicircular
    canal
  • Pilot makes a head movement in a different
    geometrical plane
  • Stimulating a 2nd / 3rd semicircular canal
  • Results in overwhelming sensation of Yaw, Pitch,
    or Roll

31
SOMATOGRAVIC ILLUSION
  • Illusions created by the Otolith organs as a
    result of linear acceleration

32
OCULOAGRAVIC
  • Upward movement of the eyes during
  • weightlessness, caused by rapid
  • downward motion of the aircraft

33
ELEVATOR ILLUSION
  • Occurs during sudden upward acceleration
  • Pilot perceives a nose up attitude
  • Tendency to nose over aircraft

34
UPRIGHT
UPRIGHT
AFT TILT
EXTREME AFT TILT
OCULOGRAVIC ILLUSION
NOSE HIGH SENSATION

35
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM
36
SEAT OF PANTS FLYING
  • Very unreliable means of orientation
  • Dependent upon gravity
  • Flying without reference to instruments

37
CLASSIFICATION OF DISORIENTATION
  • TYPE I - UNRECOGNIZED
  • TYPE II - RECOGNIZED
  • TYPE III - INCAPACITATING

38
UNRECOGNIZED Type I
  • Pilot does not consciously perceive any
    indication of Spatial Disorientation
  • False inputs from sensory organs or cues
  • Crashes with smile on their face

39
RECOGNIZED Type II
  • Pilot consciously perceives a problem, but may
    not know it is due to spatial disorientation
  • Pilot can correct the situation

40
INCAPACITATING Type III
  • Pilot experiences overwhelming sensations
  • Conflict of sensory inputs
  • Unable to properly orient themselves by use of
    instruments or visual cues

41
SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
  • Prevention techniques

42
SD PREVENTION
  • Instruments-trust your instruments
  • Good cockpit design
  • Training
  • Instrument proficiency
  • Health
  • Aircraft design
  • Never try to fly both VMC and IMC at the same time

43
PREVENTION (cont.)
  • Never fly without visual reference points
  • Trust the instruments
  • Never stare at lights
  • Dark adaptation
  • Avoid self -imposed stresses (DEATH)

44
TREATMENT
  • Refer to instruments
  • Develop and maintain cross-checks
  • Delay intuitive reactions
  • Transfer controls

45
ENSURE THE INSTRUMENTS READ RIGHT !
46
QUESTIONS ?
47
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