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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
2
Carbohydrates
energymolecules
3
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo -
    hydr - ate
  • CH2O
  • (CH2O)x C6H12O6
  • Function
  • energy u energy storage
  • raw materials u structural materials
  • Monomer sugars
  • ex sugars, starches, cellulose

4
Sugars
  • Most names for sugars end in -ose
  • Classified by number of carbons
  • 6C hexose (glucose)
  • 5C pentose (ribose)
  • 3C triose (glyceraldehyde)

6
5
3
5
Functional groups determine function
carbonyl
aldehyde
carbonyl
ketone
6
Sugar structure
  • 5C 6C sugars form rings in solution

Where do you find solutions? In cells!
Carbons are numbered
7
Numbered carbons
C
6'
C
O
5'
C
C
1'
4'
energy stored in C-C bonds
C
C
2'
3'
8
Simple complex sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • simple 1 monomer sugars
  • glucose
  • Disaccharides
  • 2 monomers
  • sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
  • large polymers
  • starch

9
Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides
disaccharide
glucose
glucose
maltose
glycosidic linkage
10
Building sugars
  • Synthesis

monosaccharides
disaccharide
fructose
glucose
sucrose (table sugar)
Lets go to the videotape!
11
Polysaccharides
  • Polymers of sugars
  • costs little energy to build
  • easily reversible release energy
  • Function
  • energy storage
  • starch (plants)
  • glycogen (animals)
  • structure building materials
  • cellulose (plants)
  • chitin (arthropods fungi)

12
Linear vs. branched polysaccharides
starch (plant)
What doesbranching do?
energystorage
glycogen (animal)
Lets go to the videotape!
13
Polysaccharide diversity
  • Molecular structure determines function

in starch
in cellulose
  • isomers of glucose
  • structure determines function

14
Digesting starch vs. cellulose
starcheasy todigest
cellulosehard todigest
15
Cellulose
  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth
  • herbivores can digest cellulose
  • most carnivores cannot digest cellulose
  • thats why they eat meat to get their energy
    nutrients
  • cellulose roughage

BIG DEAL!Who can liveon this stuff?!
16
  • Cow
  • can digest cellulose well no need to eat other
    sugars
  • Gorilla
  • cant digest cellulose well must add another
    sugar source, like fruit to diet

17
Helpful bacteria
  • How can cows digest cellulose?
  • bacteria live in their gut help digest
    cellulose-rich (grass) meals

18
  • Lets build some
  • Carbohydrates!
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