Starting Over: Pasture Establishment and Renovation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Starting Over: Pasture Establishment and Renovation PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 25c973-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Starting Over: Pasture Establishment and Renovation

Description:

Starting Over: Pasture Establishment and Renovation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:175
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 89
Provided by: grad117
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Starting Over: Pasture Establishment and Renovation


1
Starting Over Pasture Establishment and
Renovation
Developed by Rhonda Miller Utah State
University
USDA
USDA
2
What well be covering
  • Introduction
  • Forage establishment
  • Factors to consider prior to renovation
  • Plant characteristics
  • Characteristics of individual grasses and legumes

UNCE, Reno, NV
www.freefoto.com
3
Does your pasture need help?
  • Fertilization
  • Weed control
  • Proper management
  • Renovation

USU, Logan, UT
4
Definitions
  • Establishment - planting a pasture where there is
    no existing pasture
  • Renovation - series of actions that lead to a
    long-term change in the botanical composition of
    a pasture
  • Partial renovation
  • Total renovation

5
Type of renovation
  • Partial renovation
  • Rejuvenation or enhancement of existing pasture
  • Generally done when poor forage stands result
    from winter injury, drought, flooding, or other
    stresses
  • Total renovation
  • Destruction followed by reestablishment of either
    the same species or another species

6
Definitions
  • Species - refers to the type of plant such as
    alfalfa, sweet clover, smooth bromegrass, etc.
  • Cultivar - refers to a specific variety within a
    specie. York, Saratoga, and Bravo are all
    improved varieties of smooth bromegrass.

7
Benefits of renovation
  • Replaces old or diseased pasture species with
    healthy improved varieties
  • Extends or increases productivity of pasture
  • Improves quality of forage
  • Increases animal productivity
  • Reduces soil erosion
  • Reduces pollution potential

www.farmphoto.com
www.farmphoto.com
8
When to renovate?
  • Renovate when
  • Pasture is in poor condition and even proper
    management techniques will not improve pasture to
    desired level
  • You want to grow a different forage specie or
    variety

UNCE, Reno, NV
9
Forage establishment
www.farmphoto.com
10
Forage establishment
  • Seedbed preparation
  • Seeding methods
  • Seeding guidelines
  • Seeding rates
  • Costs

USU, Logan, UT
11
Forage establishment
  • Seedbed preparation
  • Seed requirements
  • Tillage
  • Other forms of seedbed preparation
  • Fertility pH

USU, Logan, UT
12
Seedbed preparation
  • Goal - Control weeds and provide a firm seedbed
    with just enough loose surface soil for shallow
    seed placement and good seed-to-soil contact

www.farmphoto.com
13
Seedbed preparation
  • Seed requirements
  • Minimal soil temperature
  • Moisture
  • Oxygen
  • Seed-to-soil contact
  • Accomplish by creating a firm, moist seedbed

14
Seedbed preparation
  • Importance of a firm, moist seedbed
  • Essential for
  • Proper seed placement
  • Good soil-seed contact
  • Successful establishment

www.farmphoto.com
15
Seedbed preparation
Creating a firm seedbed takes proper tillage
  • Deep tillage (plow)
  • Disc
  • Roller harrow or cultipacker

www.farmphoto.com
16
Seedbed preparation
  • Purpose of tillage
  • Eliminate existing vegetation
  • Turn under surface weed seeds
  • Loosen soil
  • Incorporate fertilizer and lime
  • Provide firm seedbed for seeding

www.freefoto.com
17
Seedbed preparation
  • Other forms of seedbed preparation
  • Close clipping or grazing
  • Burning
  • Non-selective herbicide

USU, Logan, UT
18
Seedbed preparation
  • Fertility pH
  • Base on soil test
  • Add lime if pH is low
  • Determine reasonable yield
  • Add appropriate nutrients
  • Phosphorus and potassium
  • Nitrogen

www.efma.org
19
Forage establishment
  • Seeding guidelines
  • Planting dates
  • Seeding depth
  • Inoculation of legumes
  • Why forage seedings fail

www.farmphoto.com
20
Seeding guidelines
  • Planting dates
  • Late winter - early spring
  • Late summer - early fall

21
Planting dates
  • Late winter- early spring seeding
  • Late February to early May
  • More common in northern U.S.
  • Soil moisture usually good
  • If too early soil can be cold, resulting in
    fungal diseases
  • If too late, soil can be dry and seedlings
    desiccate

22
Planting dates
  • Late summer - early fall seeding
  • August to mid-October
  • Less competition from weeds
  • Liming, fertilization, and tillage done during
    drier weather thereby reducing compaction
  • Fungal diseases reduced
  • Note Seedlings need to have at least six weeks
    of growth before killing frost

23
Seeding guidelines
  • Seeding depth
  • Approximately ¼ inch
  • Varies with
  • Soil type
  • Soil moisture
  • Time of seeding
  • Firmness of seedbed

clay.agr.okstate.edu
24
Seeding guidelines
  • Inoculation of legumes
  • All legumes should be inoculated with the proper
    strains of N-fixing bacteria prior to seeding
  • Ensures that proper bacteria will be present for
    nitrogen fixation

www.clay.agr.okstate.edu
25
Forage establishment
  • Why forage seedings fail
  • Germination through emergence
  • After emergence

26
Why forage seedings fail
  • Germination through emergence
  • Hard seed
  • Temperature
  • Improper planting depth
  • Seed dries out
  • Crusted soil surface
  • Toxicity - allelopathic effects, herbicide
    carryover

clay.agr.okstate.edu
27
Why forage seedings fail
  • After emergence
  • Undesirable pH
  • Low fertility
  • Poor drainage
  • Drought
  • Inadequate legume inoculation
  • Competition from weeds/companion crops
  • Insects
  • Diseases, winterkilling

clay.agr.okstate.edu
clay.agr.okstate.edu
28
Forage establishment
  • Seeding methods
  • Broadcast
  • Cultipacker
  • Drilled
  • No-Till
  • Frost seeding
  • Companion crop

USU
29
Broadcast seeding
  • Cheapest and easiest method of seeding
  • Typically drag or pack the soil after
    broadcasting the seed
  • Tilled seedbed
  • Seed placement not uniform

www.modernforage.com
30
Cultipacker seeding
  • Consists of 2 sets of rollers with seed boxes
    between them
  • Commonly used on tilled seedbeds
  • Dont use on heavy soils

www.faivre.com
www.faivre.com
31
Drill seeding
  • Directly plants each seed into tilled soil at the
    proper depth
  • Need to use a forage drill
  • Grain drills will have poor seed placement for
    small forage seeds

UNCE, Reno, NV
32
No-till seeding
  • Plants seed directly into existing sod or
    vegetation
  • Solid planting
  • Band planting
  • Requires a no-till planter
  • Reduces erosion
  • Conserves soil moisture
  • Reduced fuel, labor, and time requirements

www.usda.gov
33
Frost seeding
  • Seed broadcast in late winter on soil surface
  • Freezing thawing action plus rain will cover
    seed

www.freefoto.com
www.freefoto.com
  • Works well with Red Clover

UNCE
34
Companion crop seeding
  • A companion crop is a small grain crop (i.e.
    oats) planted with spring-seeded grasses and
    legumes.
  • Advantages
  • Can be cut or grazed for feed
  • Provides a quick ground cover
  • Helps control soil erosion
  • Reduces invasion of weeds
  • Disadvantages
  • Competes for nutrients, light, moisture
  • Good management essential

USDA
35
Forage establishment
  • Seeding rates
  • Desired stand
  • Pure live seed
  • Other factors to consider

www.ca.wvu.edu
36
Seeding rates
  • Desired Stand
  • Varies based on
  • Forage species planted
  • Ability to fill in (rhizomes, etc.)
  • Hard seed
  • Mixture, pure-stand, companion crop
  • Availability of water

clay.agr.okstate.edu
www.forages.orst.edu
NRCS
37
Seeding rates
  • Pure live seed percent (PLS)
  • PLS Purity x Germination
  • Purity of seed that is the desired
    forage seed
  • Germination of seed that germinates
    when planted

38
Seeding rates
  • Other factors to consider
  • Seeding method used
  • Seeding rate affected by uniformity of seed
    placement
  • Condition of seedbed
  • Allelopathic toxins

39
Forage establishment
  • Costs
  • Tillage
  • Seed
  • Reduced yield in first year

40
Costs
  • Tillage
  • Plowing
  • Moldboard 10.00 to 15.00/acre
  • Chisel 8.00 to 12.00/acre
  • Disc/Harrow
  • Tandem disc 6.00 to 10.00/acre
  • Harrow/Cultipacker 4.50 to 6.00/acre
  • Planting
  • Conventional 7.00 to 10.00/acre
  • No-till 10.00 to 16.00/acre

41
Costs
  • Seed Varies by species and variety
  • Grasses
  • Orchardgrass 1.40 - 1.60/lb. (15 lb/ac)
  • Smooth Bromegrass 3.50/lb. (15 lb/ac)
  • Timothy .95 - 1.45/lb. (12
    lb/ac)
  • Tall Fescue 1.60 - 1.75/lb. (35
    lb/ac)
  • Legumes
  • White Clover 3.25 - 3.85/lb. (2-3 lb/ac)
  • Birdsfoot Trefoil 4.30/lb. (8
    lb/ac)
  • Alfalfa 3.25/lb
    (12-15 lb/ac)

42
Costs
  • Reduced yield in first year
  • Spring-seeding
  • Reduced number of cuttings first year
  • Reduced yield per cutting
  • Fall-seeding
  • No harvest of new crop during year of
  • establishment
  • Reduced yield (of previous crop) during year of
    establishment
  • Ground preparation
  • Time for establishment

43
Factors to consider prior to establishment or
renovation
www.usda.gov
44
Factors to consider
  • Pasture inventory
  • Land wvailable
  • Climate
  • Soil fharacteristics
  • Forage use
  • Livestock
  • Grazing vs. hay production
  • Continuous grazing vs. rotational grazing

USDA
45
Pasture inventory
  • Land available
  • Grazing land
  • Water source(s)
  • Sacrifice Area
  • Hay production

www.farmphoto.com
46
Pasture inventory
  • Climate
  • Growing season
  • Frost-free days
  • Growing degree days (GDD)
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation

USDA
47
Pasture inventory
  • Soil characteristics
  • Drainage
  • Water holding capacity (droughtiness)

OSU Extension Service
48
Forage use
  • Livestock
  • Different animals have different nutritional
    requirements and forage preferences
  • Horses (timothy grass)
  • Dairy cattle (perennial ryegrass
  • Beef cattle (tall fescue)

www.farmphoto.com
49
Forage use
  • Grazing vs. hay production
  • Determine primary use
  • Many forages that are good for hay production are
    not good for grazing, and vice-versa.
  • Upright growth habit - better for hay production
  • Trampling effects

www.farmphoto.com
50
Forage use Continuous grazing vs. rotational
grazing
  • Continuous grazing
  • Easy
  • Reduced yields
  • Rotational grazing
  • More management
  • Higher yields
  • More infrastructure required

UNCE, Reno, NV
51
Plant characteristics
52
Plant characteristics
  • Grasses
  • Legumes
  • Seasonal growth patterns
  • Disease resistance
  • Forage quality
  • Pure stands or Mixtures

53
Grasses
  • Growth habit
  • Bunchgrass
  • Sod-forming grass
  • Stolon
  • Rhizome
  • Re-growth
  • Jointing
  • Non-jointing

NRCS
  • Grasses are more tolerant of poor soil conditions
  • Require nitrogen fertilizer

54
Legumes
  • Legumes fix nitrogen from the air
  • Growth habit
  • Upright (Sainfoin)
  • Prostrate (Birdsfoot Trefoil)
  • New Growth
  • Axillary (Sweet Clover)
  • Crown (Red Clover)
  • Axillary crown (Alfalfa)

clay.agr.okstate.edu
55
Seasonal growth distribution
  • Forages have different growth patterns
  • Grasses
  • Cool Season
  • Warm Season
  • Forages

ISU
56
Insect disease resistance winter hardiness
  • Disease resistance/
  • winter hardiness
  • Genetically inherited traits
  • Select disease resistant
  • varieties
  • Select varieties with good winter hardiness if in
    cold climate
  • Intended years of use

clay.agr.okstate.edu
57
Forage quality
  • Quality
  • Forage intake
  • Palatability
  • Nutritive value
  • Digestibility
  • Chemical composition

www.farmphoto.com
58
Plant characteristics
  • Pure stands or mixtures
  • Pure stands
  • Mixtures
  • Principles for composing mixtures

59
Should I plant a pure stand?
  • Advantages
  • Management is easier
  • Weed control easier
  • Disadvantages
  • Lower yield

www.forages.css.orst.edu
60
Should I plant a mixture?
  • Advantages
  • Higher yields
  • Legumes fix nitrogen, reducing the need for
    nitrogen fertilizer in grasses
  • Tolerate wider differences in soil conditions
  • More competitive against weeds

61
Should I plant a mixture?
  • Disadvantages
  • Grazing management more difficult, especially if
    growth habits not similar
  • If not managed properly grasses will dominate
  • Weeds more difficult to control

clay.agr.okstate.edu
62
Principles for composing mixtures
  • Keep the mixture simple
  • Similar maturity date
  • Similar palatability
  • Similar growth habit

63
Characteristics of individual grasses legumes
64
Cool season grass cultivars
  • Most productive in the spring and fall
  • Poor summer production

NRCS
NRCS
NRCS
65
Kentucky Bluegrass
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Withstands animal traffic
  • Good tolerance to close grazing
  • Disadvantages
  • Low yield potential
  • Poor drought heat tolerance
  • Likes well-drained soil

NRCS
66
Basin Wildrye
  • Advantages
  • Good forage for wildlife
  • Hardy, long-lived
  • Tolerates salt and alkali areas
  • Disadvantages
  • Easily damaged by over-grazing

NRCS
67
Garrison Creeping Foxtail
  • Advantages
  • Likes wet soils
  • Highly palatable
  • High yield
  • Disadvantages
  • May invade canals, ditches, etc.

www.aginfonet.com
68
Meadow Bromegrass
  • Advantages
  • Good yield potential
  • Good re-growth
  • Tolerant of close grazing
  • Disadvantages
  • Not tolerant of acidic and poorly-drained soils

www.agric.gov.ab.ca
69
Orchard Grass
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Good re-growth
  • Shade tolerant
  • Disadvantages
  • Suffers when grazed continually

NRCS
NRCS
NRCS
70
Perennial Ryegrass
  • Advantages
  • Very good quality
  • Easy to establish
  • Good tolerance to close grazing
  • Disadvantages
  • Poor drought heat tolerance
  • Poor shade tolerance
  • Likes well-drained soils

www.forages.css.orst.edu
71
Reed Canary Grass
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Good re-growth
  • Adapted to wide range of conditions, including
    wet soils

NRCS
  • Disadvantages
  • Lack of palatability
  • Produces best when intensely grazed
  • Poor drought heat tolerance

NRCS
72
Smooth Brome
  • Advantages
  • Usually grown with a legume
  • Graze after stem elongation
  • Provides good mid-summer grazing
  • High quality
  • Disadvantages
  • Aggressive and can take over a pasture

NRCS
NRCS
73
Tall Fescue
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Tillering stimulated through frequent grazing
  • Moderately winter hardy
  • Active fall growth
  • Disadvantages
  • Must be endophyte free

NRCS
74
Timothy
  • Advantages
  • High quality
  • Easy to establish
  • Winter hardy
  • Disadvantages
  • Sensitive to frequent defoliation
  • Poor re-growth
  • Poor summer production
  • Not suited to droughty soils

NRCS
NRCS
NRCS
75
Crested Wheatgrass
  • Advantages
  • Drought resistant
  • Winter-hardy
  • Vigorous seedlings
  • Disadvantages
  • Needs to be grazed throughout season to maintain
    palatability
  • Goes dormant during hot summer

www.aginfonet.com
76
Tall Wheatgrass
  • Advantages
  • Tolerant of salty and alkali soils
  • Good winter forage
  • Disadvantages
  • Does not tolerate continuous, close grazing
  • Low forage value

www.usask.ca
77
Warm season grasses
  • Productive during summer months
  • Must be suitable for your area

NRCS
78
Switchgrass
  • Advantages
  • Productive during hot summer months
  • Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions
  • Disadvantages
  • Not suited for cool climates
  • May be difficult to establish

NRCS
79
Legumes
  • Fix nitrogen from atmosphere
  • May cause bloat

clay.agr.state.edu
80
Alfalfa
  • Advantages
  • Excellent quality
  • Drought tolerant
  • Disadvantages
  • Causes bloat
  • Potential for heaving

NRCS
clay.agr.okstate.edu
81
Alsike Clover
  • Advantages
  • Excellent quality
  • Grows in variety of soils and conditions
  • Disadvantages
  • Can graze frequently, but not closely
  • Much lower yielding than alfalfa

www.agry.purdue.edu
82
Birdsfoot Trefoil
  • Advantages
  • Excellent quality
  • Grows in variety of soils and conditions
  • Non-bloat legume
  • Disadvantages
  • Can graze frequently, but not closely
  • Slow to establish

NRCS
83
Cicer Milkvetch
  • Advantages
  • Non-bloat legume
  • Good forage quality
  • Disadvantages
  • Slow to establish
  • Slow re-growth

clay.agr.okstate.edu
84
Red Clover
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Easy to establish
  • Works well with frost seeding
  • Disadvantages
  • Generally does not persist after two growing
    seasons

NRCS
85
Strawberry Clover
  • Advantages
  • Suited for grazing
  • Suited for semi-wet and salty soils
  • Disadvantages
  • Not suited for hay production
  • Not as productive as white clover

86
Sainfoin
  • Advantages
  • Good quality
  • Well adapted to soils of the Rocky Mountain
    Region
  • Good drought tolerance
  • Non-bloat legume
  • Disadvantages
  • Intolerant of frequent defoliation

clay.agr.okstate.edu
87
White Clover
  • Advantages
  • Excellent quality
  • Good tolerance to close grazing
  • Withstands continuous grazing
  • Grows best during cool moist seasons on well
    drained soils
  • Disadvantages
  • Low yielding
  • May cause bloat

NRCS
88
What to do next
  • Determine if your pasture requires improvement
  • Determine your goals for the improvement or
    renovation
  • Determine the best and most cost effective method
    to achieve your goals
  • Determine the best plants to use for your area
    and for your goals
About PowerShow.com