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WHEAT

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Wheat is MILLED to produce flour and ENRICHED to replace lost vitamins ... husk), polenta, cornstarch, cornmeal,masa harina (tortillas) and breakfast cereals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WHEAT


1
WHEAT
Most widely used grain in breadmaking only
grain that contains GLUTEN a protein which
gives bread its structure Wheat is MILLED to
produce flour and ENRICHED to replace lost
vitamins and minerals Types of flour 100
wholewheat (whole grain) WHITE FLOUR made by
sifting out the bran and germ (called
EXTRACTION) Bread flour high protein/gluten
(hard wheat) All purpose flour Cake flour low
protein/protein (soft wheat) Self Raising flour
raising agent/salt added Flour can be BLEACHED or
UNBLEACHED Other wheat products COUSCOUS,
BULGAR, CRACKED WHEAT, SEMOLINA, DURUM
2
BARLEY
Low in fiber, makes it the most easily digested
grains One of oldest cultivated grains, Has low
gluten content making it bad choice for
breadmaking but good for gluten intolerant
diets Also sold as pearl barley, used in soups
and stews Has tripled in production in last few
years, added to many multigrain breads, cereals
and energy bars Also used extensively in brewing
industry
3
CORN
Versatile crop used since Aztec/Inca and native
american civilizations first cultivated it Used
in many forms sweetcorn, dried corn, hominy or
grits (soaked in lye to soften husk), polenta,
cornstarch, cornmeal,masa harina (tortillas) and
breakfast cereals Processed to make HIGH FRUCTOSE
CORN SYRUP which is added as a cheap sweetener to
many packaged/processed foods Also processed as
one of U.S. largest cooking oil crop corn
oil Like most cereals can be puffed by high
heat, creating POPCORN
4
BUCKWHEAT
Grows in large quantities in Eastern Europe Used
to make KASHA, a wholegrain breakfast cereal
(often puffed) Also used to make pancakes (called
BLINI)
5
OATS
Oat Rush on the 1980s changed the face of this
grain once used as horse feed Oat production for
food has tripled over last two decades Scientists
discovered that it had ability to lower LDL and
raise HDL, therefore improving cholesterol levels
since then the US has added oats to the diet in
many forms cereals, oatmeal, oatbran, granola
bars, muesli, cookies and multigrain breads
6
RICE
Eaten by over a third of the worlds population
as a staple food Many types and varieties Brown
rice is any rice that has been hulled but not
lost its bran Polished rice has lost most of the
nutrients but takes much less time to
cook Partially cooked then dried rice is popular
because it saves time (Boil in Bag) Comes in
following forms Brown Rice Enriched white rice
long grain Short grain or arborio rice
(risotto) Fragrant rice basmati, jasmine Wild
rice actually a native grass Ground rice Rice
flour
7
RYE
Strong flavored, hardy grain grown in Eastern
Europe and Scandinavia Used to make rye bread,
pumpernickel, sour dough breads and
crispbreads Tough kernel needs to be cracked,
soaked and ground finely to be digestible Low
gluten content of rye produces dense loaves,
usually blended with wheat flour
8
Ancient Grains
  • Amaranth sacred grain of Aztecs, complete
    protein (contains all 10 EAAs) introduced into
    Africa by Bob Rodale to help famine relief
    because of its ease of growing and nutrition
  • Quinoa ancient grain of the Incas, also
    complete protein. Used in salads and multi grain
    bars and cereals known as the SUPERGRAIN
  • Kamut relative of wheat grown in Egypt in
    ancient times
  • Millet cooked and eaten like rice, cultivated
    since 4000 BC
  • Spelt Grown in Europe over 9000 years ago
  • Teff Ancient grains of Greeks and Ethiopians
    known as lovegrass thought to increase bravery
    and strength
  • Triticale cross between wheat and rye, more
    nutritious than both sweet, nutty taste, one of
    earliest known hybrid grains

9
Breads of the World
  • France baguette, pain, croissant, brioche
  • Germany/Scandinavia rye, pumpernickel,
    pretzels, crispbreads, flatbrod (soft flat bread
    for sandwiches)
  • Russia blini, bagels, rye
  • England muffins, crumpets, teabreads, granary
    breads
  • Middle East pita breads (flatbread)
  • Italy pizza, calzone, breadsticks (grissini)
  • South America/Mexico tortilla, tostadas,
    enchiladas
  • India chapati, poppadum, puri, nan, paratha
  • Israel matza, bagels

10
Grains - Nutrition
  • Around two-thirds of the calories in grains come
    from complex carbohydrates.
  • Current dietary recommendations say that 60 to 65
    percent of daily calories should come from
    carbohydrates. Thats about 6 one ounce servings
    for a 2000 calorie intake.
  • Grains are also a rich source of protein. Yet,
    the body can't live on grains alone. Most are not
    complete proteins, since they are missing one or
    more of the essential amino acids, usually
    lysine.
  • Mixing grains with dairy, legumes, or just about
    any other protein source completes the minimal
    amino acid deficiency of some grains.
  • Grains are great sources of fiber, zinc, iron,
    folic acid, minerals, and B-vitamins.
  • Grains are naturally low in fat.
  • Eating whole or multigrain breads and cereals
    increases dietary fiber and has been associated
    with lowering bad LDLs and raising good HDL
    levels which affect cholesterol levels in the
    blood. High cholesterol has been associated with
    coronary artery and other vascular diseases and
    stroke.

11
Bread Group Serving sizes
  • 1 slice bread
  • 1 oz ready to eat cereal
  • ½ English muffin or bagel
  • ½ cup cooked pasta, rice, grits or cooked cereal
  • 1 tortilla, roll or muffin
  • How much do you consider a serving?
  • How many servings in one double decker sandwich?
  • How many servings in one whole bagel?
  • If your daily calorie requirement determines the
    number of servings you can have, what must you do?
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