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THE RISE OF INDUSTRIAL AMERICA: The Gilded Age

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Title: THE RISE OF INDUSTRIAL AMERICA: The Gilded Age


1
THE RISE OF INDUSTRIAL AMERICA The Gilded Age
  • Mr. Phipps
  • U.S. History

2
California State Standards
  • 11.1.4. Examine the effects of the Civil War and
    Reconstruction and of the industrial revolution,
    including demographic shifts and the emergence in
    the late nineteenth century of the United States
    as a world power.
  • 11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the
    rise of industrialization, large-scale
    rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration
    from Southern and Eastern Europe.
  • 11.2.1. Know the effects of industrialization on
    living and working conditions, including the
    portrayal of working conditions and food safety
    in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
  • 11.2.2. Describe the changing landscape,
    including the growth of cities linked by industry
    and trade, and the development of cities divided
    according to race, ethnicity, and class.
  • 11.2.4. Analyze the effect of urban political
    machines and responses to them by immigrants and
    middle-class reformers.
  • 11.2.5. Discuss corporate mergers that produced
    trusts and cartels and the economic and political
    policies of industrial leaders.
  • 11.2.6. Trace the economic development of the
    United States and its emergence as a major
    industrial power, including its gains from trade
    and the advantages of its physical geography.

3
Era Characteristics
  • Strong and rapid growth of industry, mass
    production, mechanization, and the factory system
  • Consolidation of wealth and creation of an
    American aristocracy
  • Political and corporate corruption and
    laissez-faire/hands off approach to government
    involvement
  • Exploitation of cheap, immigrant labor
  • The creation of the American city and the
    expansion and urbanization of the West
  • Rapid population growth (natural and migratory)
  • Increased social, racial, and labor tension
  • The beginning of social, political, and labor
    reform movements

4
Vocabulary
  • Laissez-faire Hands-off, the idea that
    government should not be involved in business or
    regulation
  • Mechanization The use of factory machines for
    mass production
  • Infrastructure The skeleton of a country,
    referring to transportation (railroads, roads,
    canals), the postal service, tax collection,
    ability to vote, civil protection, sewage
    treatment, etc
  • Free Enterprise a.k.a. Capitalism The idea
    that society benefits from free competition in
    the market price, yielding individual profit, a
    better/cheaper product, and wide availability of
    goods
  • Spoils System Corruption in government, where a
    person in authority (i.e., the President) rewards
    friends with special privileges and political
    positions
  • Political Machines Corrupt mafia-like
    organizations which sold votes for rewards and
    ran the cities corruptly

5
Timeline
  • 1820-1860 Period of Manifest Destiny
  • Territorial expansion, extension of slavery
  • 1861-1865 American Civil War
  • Fought over states rights, control of industry,
    and slavery
  • 1865-1877 Period of Reconstruction
  • Reunify the U.S., aid Freedmen, extend railroad
  • 1866-1898 Period of the Gilded Age
  • Growth of industry, unchecked immigration,
    political corruption

6
The Gilded Age System
URBANIZATION
IMMIGRATION
INDUSTRIALISM
7
Why America?
  • Large tracts of open land
  • Abundance of natural resources
  • Excellent soil
  • Can do attitude
  • Eager population
  • A government that encouraged rugged individualism
    and free enterprise

8
Interpretation of famous Manifest Destiny
9
The Gilded Age?
  • Termed by Mark Twain satirizing the period
  • Claimed that the period was not as wealthy as it
    looked
  • Political parties were the same laissez-faire
    and corrupt
  • Political offices given through spoils system
  • Local government run by political bosses

10
Political Scandal
  • Federal government known for constant scandal
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal
  • Pres. Grant ignored a private contract to a
    railroad company, V.P. made a ton of money
  • Whiskey Ring
  • Cabinet stole money from whiskey excise tax
  • Sec. of War sold junk to Indians for profit
  • Panic of 1873
  • Economic depression due to over-speculation in
    industry and inflation
  • Pres. Garfield assassinated by office-seeker

Cartoon from Puck Bosses of the Senate
11
The Influence of Business
  • Powerful individuals forced and intimidated
    Americans and politicians
  • Used tactics similar to mafia
  • Targeted immigrants for labor exploitation and
    votes
  • Used bribery, violence, and extortion to get job
    done

12
Political Bosses
  • Ran local business and politics
  • Forced immigrants to vote for specific candidates
    in exchange for citizenship
  • Forced lower class to pay protection money
  • Stole money from city coffers through extortion,
    graft, bribes, private contracts, and
    misallocation of funds
  • Most famous political bosses were in the biggest
    cities (i.e., Boss) William Tweed of NYC

Political bosses cartoon by Thomas Nast
13
Tweed Ring by Thomas Nast
14
The New York Solar System Boss Richard Croker
of NYC. Croker organized NYC politics for nearly
twenty years. It was nearly impossible to win an
election without his support local or national.
15
The Titans of Business
  • Private investors and businessmen contributed
    money to elections and campaigns in exchange for
    a hands off approach
  • Emphasis on business and making money over reform

16
The Men
  • The Titans
  • J.D. Rockefellar--Standard Oil
  • J.P. Morgan--Investment banking and financier
  • Andrew Carnegie--U.S. Steel
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, and Jay
    Fiske--Railroads

17
In Sum
  • Local and federal politics were influenced by
    business leaders and political bosses
  • Few Americans believed that the federal
    government would positively affect their lives
    and improve their future
  • The democratic process did not reflect the
    diversity of beliefs, peoples, and classes in the
    U.S.
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