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Chapter%2012%20GASTROINTESTINAL%20SYSTEM

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The gastrointestinal (GI) system converts food into products used to nourish body cells ... Lipase Breaks down fats. WELLNESS & ILLNESS. General assessment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%2012%20GASTROINTESTINAL%20SYSTEM


1
Chapter 12GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
  • To carry out all of its vital functions, the body
    requires a constant supply of nutrients.
  • The gastrointestinal (GI) system converts food
    into products used to nourish body cells

2
GI FACTS
  • Practitioners
  • Gastroenterologist
  • Gastr/o stomach
  • Enter/o small intestine
  • Proctologist (proct/o rectum, anus)
  • Specializes in lower GI tract
  • GI tract is a continuous tube beginning with the
    mouth and ending at the anus
  • Also known as the alimentary canal
  • Alimentum nourishment
  • Measures about 30 feet in adults

3
MAJOR PROCESSES (3)
  • Digestion
  • Food is broken down as it moves through the GI
    tract
  • Absorption
  • Nutrient material is taken into the bloodstream
  • Elimination
  • Waste products are excreted from the body

4
STRUCTURES
5
DIGESTIVE PROCESS
  • Mouth process begins
  • Breaks food apart by action of teeth
  • Dent/o teeth
  • Odont/o tooth
  • Moistens and lubricates food with saliva
  • Gingiv/o gums
  • Gloss/o tongue
  • Uvula structure at back of throat
  • Frenulum attaches tongue to floor of the mouth

6
MOUTH CAVITY
7
SALIVARY GLANDS
  • Three pairs of glands
  • Called accessory structures of GI tract.
  • Secrete about 1 liter per day of saliva
  • Saliva sial/o
  • Secretes salivary amylase
  • Digestive enzyme begins chemical digestion of
    starches and sugars.

8
DIGESTION (cont)
  • Pharynx
  • Common passageway for both air and food
  • Muscular contractions move food along
  • Esophagus
  • Food pipe (esophag/o)
  • About 10 inches long
  • Peristalsis moves food along
  • Involuntary wave-like contractions
  • Cardiac sphincter
  • Muscular tissue (ring) at end of esophagus
  • Prevents food from going back up the esophagus

9
DIGESTION (cont)
  • Stomach
  • Pouch lying under diaphragm
  • 3 sections
  • Fundus upper
  • Body center
  • Pylorus bottom (pylor/o)
  • Pyloric sphincter
  • Holds food in stomach during digestion
  • Secretes gastric juices and hydrochloric acid
  • Chyme final mixture after stomach breakdown of
    food

10
STOMACH
11
DIGESTION (cont)
  • Small intestine
  • About 20 feet in length 1 inch in diameter
  • 3 sections
  • Duodenum (duoden/o)
  • Jejunum (jejun/o)
  • Ileum (ile/o)
  • Digestion and absorption takes place here
  • Nutrients absorbed into tiny capillaries in the
    walls of the small intestine
  • Villi fingerlike projections
  • Increase absorption area

12
SMALL INTESTINE
13
DIGESTION (cont)
  • Accessory organs
  • Pancreas (pancreat/o)
  • Behind the stomach
  • Secretes pancreatic juice into small intestine
  • Breaks down proteins, fats and carbohydrates
  • Liver (hepat/o)
  • Largest glandular organ in the body, about 3
    pounds
  • Secretions breakdown all three food sources
  • Gall bladder (gall bile) (bladder
    receptacle)
  • Secretes bile (chol/o)
  • Through common bile duct - into duodenum
  • Breaks down (emulsifies) fats

14
GALLBLADDER BILE DUCTS
15
DIGESTION (cont)
  • Large intestine
  • Also called colon (col/o)
  • 5 feet in length, wider than small intestine
  • 3 parts
  • Ascending
  • Transverse (across)
  • Descending
  • Removes water from fecal material
  • Stores and eliminates waste from body via
  • Rectum (rect/o)
  • Anus (an/o)
  • Cecum
  • Blind pouch at beginning of large intestine
  • Appendix attached composed of lymphatic tissue

16
LARGE INTESTINE
17
TYPES OF NUTRIENT DIGESTION
  • Proteins
  • Stomach
  • Chemical breakdown of proteins
  • Rennin and pepsin
  • Breakdown into amino acids-bodys building blocks
  • Carbohydrates
  • Small intestine
  • Amylase
  • Changed into simple sugars, such as glucose
  • Fats (lip/o)
  • Small intestine
  • Broken down by bile
  • Changed into fatty acids and glycerol

18
ADDITIONAL GI INFORMATION
  • Peritoneum
  • Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
  • Abdomen lapar/o
  • Enzymes (ase is a suffix)
  • Protein substance capable of causing chemical
    changes in other substances without being changed
    itself
  • Amylase breaks down starch
  • Lipase Breaks down fats

19
WELLNESS ILLNESS
  • General assessment
  • Auscultate abdomen for bowel sounds
  • Divided into four quadrants
  • Right and left upper and lower
  • Umbilicus in center (navel, belly button)
  • RUQ
  • RLQ
  • LUQ
  • LLQ
  • Percussion and palpation
  • Indicates sizes and shapes of organs

20
INFANTS
  • Premature infant
  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
  • Death of tissue of ileum and colon
  • Cause bacteria and decreased blood flow
  • Newborn
  • Abdominal wall thin
  • Hernia Rupture
  • Portion of intestine is pushed out through a
    weakened area
  • Umbilical
  • Inguinal groin
  • Imperforate anus
  • No anal opening
  • Meconium
  • First stool
  • Within 24 hours of birth
  • Greenish-black, sticky

21
INFANTS (cont)
  • Cleft lip or palate (cleft opening)
  • Incomplete closure
  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Narrowing of pyloric sphincter
  • Most commonly seen in 6-week-old male
  • Projectile vomiting

22
CHILDREN
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF)
  • Pancreatic insufficiency causes lack of these
    enzymes
  • Must take replacements entire life
  • Intussusception
  • Telescoping (enfolding) of one part of intestine
    into another blockage
  • Crohns disease (regional enteritis)
  • Chronic disorder of ileum
  • Diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, weight loss
  • Causes ulcers, fibrosis of bowel, fistulas

23
CHILDREN (con t)
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Chronic condition
  • Anemia, pain, rectal bleeding, electrolyte
    imbalance
  • Causes ulceration of colon and rectum
  • Causes inflammatory changes in bowel

24
ADULTS
  • Ulcer
  • Hole (erosion) in mucosa (lining) of GI tract
  • Occur where high concentration of HCL
  • In stomach peptic ulcer
  • In duodenum also
  • Caused by a bacteria - H. Pylori
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Painful outpouching of veins in the anal area
  • Varicosity

25
SENIORS
  • Diverticula (osis, itis)
  • Pouches that develop in GI tract
  • Causes bleeding and inflammation
  • Polyps
  • Masses of tissue or projections from the surface
    of the intestine
  • May be pre-cancerous
  • Hiatal hernia
  • Portion of the stomach pushes out near the
    esophagus and diaphragm
  • Causes indigestion, pain and discomfort,
    especially when person lies down

26
GI DISEASES/LOCATION
27
GENERAL GI PROGBLEMS
  • Hepatitis
  • Inflammation of liver caused by viruses
  • Causes jaundice
  • Heartburn (GERD)
  • Caused by irritation of esophagus due to
    re-gurgitation (reflux) of stomach contents
  • Causes discomfort, burping, pain in chest
  • May cause emesis (vomiting)
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Lactose sugar cannot be ingested properly
  • Causes gassiness and diarrhea

28
GENERAL GI PROBLEMS (cont)
  • Constipation
  • Fecal material becomes hardened and difficult to
    pass
  • Feces body waste expelled from bowels
  • Stool, excreta
  • Diarrhea (dia through rrhea flow)
  • Opposite problem
  • Frequent passage of unformed water stools
  • Ileus
  • No peristaltic movement in GI tract
  • Causes obstruction

29
GENERAL GI PROBLEMS (cont)
  • Gall bladder
  • Cholecystitis
  • Occurs when fatty foods are ingested
  • Bile cannot digest them
  • Cholelithiasis (lith stone)
  • Gallstone formation
  • Occurs in gallbladder or bile ducts
  • Cancers of GI tract
  • Carcinomas
  • Head and neck, pancreas, stomach
  • Colorectal
  • Two major risk factors age and low fiber diet

30
PROCEDURES
  • Imaging procedures
  • GI series procedures done with barium as
    contract medium
  • Visualize flow of barium through GI tract
  • Barium swallow, barium enema
  • Cholangiography
  • To visualize gallbladder and ducts
  • Lithotripsy procedure to crush stones
  • Endoscopic procedures (endo within)
  • Flexible tube with fiberoptics forceps for
    tissue removal
  • Surgical procedures (ectomy removal)
  • Appendectomy
  • Gastrectomy
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Ostomy - surgical creation of artificial opening
  • Colostomy

31
COMMON DRUGS
  • Antacids and antiflatulents
  • Decrease acidity and gas
  • Maalox, Mylanta, Mylicon
  • Antidiarrheals
  • Lomotil, Imodium
  • Antiemetics
  • Antivert, Compazine, Transderm Scop
  • Laxatives
  • Stimulate the GI tract to produce stool
  • Metamucil, Colace, Fleets enema, Dulcolax
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