Future Combat Systems Communications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Future Combat Systems Communications PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 25b62b-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Future Combat Systems Communications

Description:

Future Combat Systems Communications – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:86
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: pkol5
Learn more at: http://www.darpa.mil
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Future Combat Systems Communications


1
Future Combat SystemsCommunications
  • Industry Day 26 September 2000
  • Dr. James A. Freebersyser
  • Program Manager, DARPA/ATO

2
Briefing Outline
  • Relationship to FCS Program
  • FCS Communications Vision
  • Technical Interest Areas
  • Related DARPA/DoD/Service Programs
  • Acquisition Strategy and Program Schedule

3
Relationship to FCS Program
  • Phase 1 Awards to Study FCS System Integration
    Concepts
  • Boeing
  • Team Full Spectrum
  • Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC)
    and United Defense LP
  • Team FoCuS Vision Consortium
  • General Dynamics Land Systems and Raytheon
  • Team Gladiator Consortium
  • TRW and Lockheed-Martin
  • DARPA/Army Collaborative Technology Programs
  • Robotics
  • Maneuver BLOS and Network Fires Weapon
  • Mobile C3 (Communications and C2)
  • Organic All-Weather Targeting Vehicle
  • Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle
  • All-Weather Surveillance and Targeting Sensor
  • DARPA FCS Studies

4
FCS Way Ahead - System FUE FY12
FY10
FY06
FY05
FY04
FY03
FY02
FY00
FY08
FY07
FY09
FY11
FY01
FY12
Tech Readiness Decision
EMD Readiness Decision
FUE
DARPA ST Programs
Technology
Technology
  • Concepts
  • Experiments

DARPA Lead Joint ST Program
  • Network Fires
  • Robotics
  • Organic 3D Targeting
  • Mobile C3 (Comms/C2)

Prelim Design
Tech Demos (3 functions)
Army ST Programs
FCS EMD
FCS Technologies
Production
Block 1 Upgrades EMD
Block 1 Upgrades ATDs
5
DARPA Vision for FCSA Distributed, Network
Centric System of Systems
Other Layered Sensors
Small Unit UAV
Robotic Sensor
Distributed Fire Mechanisms
Robotic Direct Fire
Robotic Indirect Fire
C2/Troop Carrier
6
FCS Communications Challenges
  • High Data Rates
  • Low Latency Real-Time Traffic (Robotic and Fire
    Control)
  • Low Probability of Detection
  • Sensor to Decision Maker
  • Anti-Jamming
  • Decision Maker to Shooter
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networking
  • Dynamic, Sporadic, Communications-on-the-Move
  • Seamless Multi-Band Operation
  • RF Information Assurance
  • Network Layer and Below

7
Future Combat SystemsNotional Unit Cell
Communications Traffic Attributes
  • Reverse Link (LPD)
  • Sensor Data
  • UAV MTI, Imaging
  • Dismounted Voice, SA Reports
  • UGS Reports, Images
  • FCS - RS, I/DF Target Reports/Images, BDA, SA
    Reports, DTED, Video

FCS Becomes a Target without Assured
Communications
Tactical UAVs (2)
25 km
C2 Platform
Direct Fire (2)
Unattended Sensors (100)
10 km
10 km
Indirect Fire (2)
Robotic Sensors (2)
Troop Carriers (2)
  • Forward Link (A/J)
  • Command and Control
  • Way Points, Commands
  • Target Folder Coordinates and Templates
  • SA Updates
  • Tele-operation
  • Fire Control

25 km
8
Estimated Communications LoadC2 Vehicle
Simple Technology Scenario with Tele-operation
and Minimal Processing On-Board the UAV.
  • UGS
  • Kbps

RV Mbps
TC Kbps
UAV Mbps
IF Mbps
Total Mbps
DF Mbps
3.0
3.0
9.0
0.08
3.0
8.0
19.0
Deployment
(MTI)
(MTI)
9.0
0.08
(SAR)
(SAR)
20.0
27.0
4.3
4.3
11.0
77.0
0.08
Reconnaissance
(MTI)
(MTI)
17.0
8.3
(SAR)
(SAR)
18.0
430.0
3.2
3.2
77.0
Engagement
0.08
11.0
(MTI)
(MTI)
138.0
(SAR)
131.0
(SAR)
9
Estimated Communications LoadC2 Vehicle
Sophisticated Technology Scenario with Autonomous
Operation and Processing On-Board the UAV.
  • UGS
  • Kbps

RV Mbps
TC Kbps
UAV Mbps
IF Mbps
Total Mbps
DF Mbps
0.08
0.33
19.0
0.08
8.0
0.08
0.08
(MTI)
Deployment
(MTI)
0.33
0.08
(SAR)
(SAR)
1.1
0.08
77.0
0.08
27.0
0.43
0.43
(MTI)
Reconnaissance
(MTI)
1.8
0.08
(SAR)
(SAR)
1.2
0.08
77.0
0.08
430
0.27
0.27
(MTI)
Engagement
(MTI)
12.0
(SAR)
11.0
(SAR)
10
Notional LPD Scenario
UHF Band
Receiver 10 dB Gain
10 dB Partial Obscuration
7 km
Interceptor 20 dB Gain
1 km
Transmitter 10 dB Gain
  • Interceptor has a 49 dB advantage if spreading
    sequence is unknown (59 dB advantage if spreading
    sequence is known).
  • Transmitter has 10 dBi antenna and is
    disadvantaged 10 dB due to partial obscuration by
    foliage.
  • Receiver is 7 km from transmitter with 10 dBi
    antenna.
  • Interceptor has 20 dBi antenna, is 1 km from the
    transmitter, and only has to detect (5 dB vs 10
    dB).
  • Data rate of 1 Mbps with 10 dB spreading and r4
    path loss exponent.
  • Need Improvement of 49 dB in LPD or 13 dB in
    Intercept Range Ratio

11
Notional Jamming Scenario
C2
15 km
200 m
  • A Jammer Power of lt 10 mW Will Successfully Block
    Transmission.
  • C2 vehicle transmits 50 W at UHF Band at 15 km
    from receiver.
  • Expendable broadband (100 MHz) jammer (brute
    force noise) at 200 m.
  • Omni-directional antennas on all
    vehicles/jammers.
  • Data rate of 100 bps spread over 100 MHz (60 dB
    spreading).
  • Path loss exponent of r4 and S/J 3 dB.

12
FCS Comms Challenges
  • To Simultaneously and Reliably Achieve
  • High Data Rates for Collaborative C4ISR
    (Network-Centric Operations)
  • Low Probability of Detection
  • Robustness to Jamming
  • Communication-on-the-Move in Highly Dynamic
    Environments
  • Necessitates Directional Antennas on FCS
    Platforms
  • High Band for High Data Rates, LPD, and A/J
  • Microwave frequencies and above
  • High carrier frequency results from spectrum and
    platform space restrictions
  • Improved Data Rates, LPD, and A/J Performance at
    Low Band
  • Propagation/foliage penetration allows
    connectivity between terrestrial platforms
    without UAV
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networking with Directional
    Antennas
  • Most previous work assumes omni-directional
    antennas directional antennas will affect
    channel access, routing, link establishment,
    network dynamics, etc.
  • Mix of real-time and non real-time traffic on a
    single network
  • Highly volatile physical layer (rapid
    fluctuations in signal strength)

13
Networking with Directional Antennas
C2
RV
DF
14
Notional FCS Platform Connectivity
  • Leverage ACN for Low Band Payload for UAVs
  • Leverage SUO-SAS for Dismounted (Manpack/Handheld)

15
FCS Comms Technical Interest Areas
  • Assured Communications
  • High Band (Microwave and Higher)
  • Low Profile, Conformal, Highly Directional
    Antennas
  • Transmitters/Receivers
  • Low Band (JTRS Bands)
  • Low Profile, Conformal Directional Antennas
  • Transmitters/Receivers (Software Radio Concepts)
  • Advanced Modulation/Coding/Signal Processing
  • RF Information Assurance
  • Covert Waveforms
  • Network Survivability
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
  • Utilizing Directional Antennas
  • QoS for Real-Time Traffic
  • Content Based Networking

16
Assured CommunicationsAtmospheric Attenuation
Atmospheric Attenuation
  • Air-Ground
  • Exploit Highly Directional Beams
  • Minimize Probability of Detection
  • Dynamically Exploit Resonant Attenuation
  • Weather Sensitive
  • Air-Air
  • Operate Within Fine Structure of Oxygen
    Absorption
  • Difficult to Detect from Ground

Oxygen Absorption
Water Vapor
Attenuation (dB/km)
3
7.5 g/m
Sea Level
Frequency (GHz)
Total Atmospheric Attenuation
Altitude of Low Node
200
100
50
0 km
20
1 km
10
5 km
5
Attenuation (dB)
10 km
2
15 km
1
20 km
.5
.2
Vertical Link
.1
.05
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
Frequency (GHz)
17
Assured CommunicationsHigh Band Technology
  • Nominal Carrier Frequency
  • 35 GHz
  • 60 GHz
  • 94 GHz
  • ???
  • Low-Cost, Low Profile Antennas for FCS Platforms
  • Mechanical, Beam Switching, Passive/Active Arrays
  • Transmitters
  • High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Sources
  • Receivers
  • Fast Acquisition Burst Modems

Leverage DARPA RECAP Program
18
Assured CommunicationsLow Band Technology
Leverage DARPA RECAP Program
  • Directional Antenna Technology
  • 9 - 18 dBi Gain with Sectored Antenna
  • Adaptive (Multi-Element) Smart Antennas
  • 40 - 50 dB Nulls Toward Jammers Reduce Signature
    to Interceptor
  • Advanced Modulation/Coding/Signal Processing
  • Space-Time Processing to Increase Data Rate
  • Multiuser Detection to Improves Multiple Access
    Performance
  • Interference Excision Techniques
  • Spatial Diversity
  • Reduces Fading Performance Loss (Must Allow lt
    0.5? Element Spacing)
  • Receivers
  • Frequency Agile Front Ends to Allow Simultaneous
    Multi-Channel Capability
  • Enable Opportunistic Use of Available Spectrum

Technology Must Consider Transition to a Software
Radio (JTRS) Framework
19
Assured CommunicationsRF Information Assurance
Network Layer and Below
  • Covert Waveforms
  • High data rate, LPD, and A/J
  • RF Watermarking
  • An additional layer of IA beyond traditional
    TRANSEC and COMSEC
  • Key Management/Distribution
  • Secure and Survivable
  • Jammer Detection and Adaptation
  • Rudimentary SIGINT capability
  • Indirect Routing and Dynamic Load Balancing
  • Spoof traffic analysis by flattening traffic
    load across all nodes to hide the critical nodes
    (no center, no edges)
  • Protect/Eliminate MAC/Routing Layer
    Vulnerabilities
  • Ex. Periodic Hellos

20
Mobile Ad Hoc NetworksUtilizing Highly
Directional Antennas
  • Integrate Network Protocols and Directional
    Antennas
  • Network Initialization
  • Resource Allocation (MAC/Antenna/Routing/etc.)
  • Use of Location Information
  • Mobility Management and Handoff

Interceptor/ Jammer
21
Mobile Ad Hoc NetworksQoS for Real-Time Traffic
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Network with Smooth Blending of
    Heterogeneous Physical Layers
  • Dynamic and Reconfigurable with Low Latency
  • Merge Real-Time and Non-Real Time on Single
    Mobile Wireless Network
  • Topology Control and Predictive Routing for
    Mobile LOS backbones (Robotic Relays)
  • Survivable Networks that Degrade Gracefully
    (Sporadic, Volatile Communications Links)
  • Modeling and Simulation with Realistic Fidelity
    and Scale

22
Mobile Ad Hoc NetworksContent Based Networking
  • Anycasting
  • Messages that are intended for at least one
    member in a class of users, for example, a sensor
    that detects a target could send a message to any
    C2 vehicle for a decision.
  • Time-Space Multicast
  • Multicast messages that are relevant to users
    based upon time, location, and mobility, for
    example, a warning that a platoon of T-80 tanks
    is moving toward friendly units.

Novel Multicast Techniques with Unknown Group
Membership
23
Related DARPA ProgramsCommunications Technology
  • Current Programs
  • Small Unit Operations Situational Awareness
    System (SUO/SAS)
  • Reconfigurable Apertures (RECAP)
  • Airborne Communications Node (ACN)
  • Next Generation Internet (NGI)
  • Sensor Information Technology (SensIT)
  • Integrated Unmanned Ground Sensors (IUGS)
  • Previous Programs
  • Global Mobile Information Systems (GloMo)
  • Advanced Network Technology (ANT)/On-Board Switch
    (OBS)
  • UltraComm

24
Related DoD/Service ProgramsCommunications
Technology
  • DoD
  • Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
  • Multi-Disciplinary University Research
    Initiatives (MURIs)
  • Army
  • Enroute Mission Planning and Rehearsal System
    (EMPRS)
  • Multifunctional On-the-move Secure Adaptive
    Integrated Communications (MOSAIC) ATD
  • Army Science and Technology Objectives (STOs)
  • Army Research Laboratory Federated Laboratory in
    Advance Telecommunications and Information
    Distribution
  • Naval
  • Extending the Littoral Battlespace (ELB) ACTD
  • Information Distribution Future Naval Capability
  • Air Force
  • Air Force Expeditionary Concepts

25
FCS Communications
  • Technology BAA
  • 1) High Band Technology
  • Highly Directional Antennas, Transmitters,
    Receivers, etc.
  • 2) Low Band Technology
  • Directional Antennas, Transmitters, Receivers,
    etc.
  • Advanced Modulation/Coding/Signal Processing
  • Software Radio Framework
  • 3) RF Information Assurance
  • Network Layer and Below
  • 4) Mobile Ad Hoc Networking
  • Using Directional Antennas
  • QoS for Real-Time Traffic
  • 5) Novel Concepts
  • To Include Modeling and Simulation

Each Proposal Should Address Only One of the Five
Topic Areas
26
FCS Comms Acquisition Schedule
  • Technology BAA (Planning Purposes Only)
  • Industry Day 26 Sep 00
  • BAA Released 3 Oct 00
  • Proposals Due 21 Nov 00
  • Awards Placed 30 Jan 01
  • Kick-Off Meeting 13-15 Feb 01
  • Sub-Systems/Systems Solicitation for OT (Planning
    Purposes Only)
  • Announcement Released 1 Feb 01
  • White Papers Due 15 Mar 01
  • Proposals Due 24 May 01
  • Awards Placed 23 Aug 01
  • Kick-Off Meeting 28-30 Aug 01

27
FCS Comms Acquisition Schedule
28
FCS Comms Acquisition Strategy
  • Technology BAA (Planning Purposes Only)
  • 12 Month Base Award with Three Options (10/4/6)
    for 32 Months Total
  • Limited Feasibility Demonstrations During Base
    Award
  • Demonstrate technology maturity for possible
    insertion into Sub-System/System phase
  • Down Selections to Occur After Base Award and
    Options
  • Down selection occurs by not exercising
    subsequent options
  • Down selection based on technical maturity,
    teaming, cost, etc.
  • Up to 3 Awards per Topic Up to 12 Awards Total
  • 5.0M in FY01 10M total in FY02-03 (Average
    Base Award - 750K)
  • At a Minimum, Government Purpose Rights for
    Intellectual Property
  • Sub-Systems/Systems Solicitation for OT (Planning
    Purposes Only)
  • 6 Month Base Award with Three Options (10/4/6)
    for 26 Months Total
  • Down Selections to Occur After Base Award and
    Options

Demonstrate TRL-5 for PDR 15 Apr 2003
29
FCS Comms Program Schedule
Demo/PDR
Program Reviews
Tech Readiness Decision
30
FCS Communications
  • Questions?
  • Questions submitted at this meeting and to
    BAA01-01_at_darpa.mil after the BAA is released will
    be published with answers on the DARPA Web site
    at
  • http//www.darpa.mil - Solicitations, ATO, BAA
    01-01
  • The source of questions submitted will remain
    anonymous.
  • DARPA may consolidate questions to the extent
    practical.
  • Questions sent to BAA01-01_at_darpa.mil after this
    meeting but before the BAA is released will be
    answered privately.
About PowerShow.com