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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD

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Mortality from heart disease is decreasing in US but mortality from ... COPD: Labored breathing: 430-720 kcal/day. 700 kcal/day x 7 days = 4900 kcal/week/3500 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD


1
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  • Chapter 38 Pages 945-948

2
Normal Lung Anatomy
3
COPD Factors
  • Mortality from heart disease is decreasing in US
    but mortality from lung disease is increasing
  • up about 3 per decade
  • over 15 Billion/yr is costs
  • Causes for COPD is multifactorial
  • Definition persistent obstruction of air flow
    through the lungs

4
COPD 2 Types
  • Emphysema
  • Atrophy of lungs causing over-distention and
    stretching of lung tissue
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Inflamed Bronchi
  • Primary Risk Factor smoking
  • Other risks environmental pollution, secondary
    smoke, EtOH abuse, fam Hx, repeated respiratory
    tract infections

5
Emphysema
  • Small passages and air sacs (alveoli) lose their
    elasticity
  • Person has difficulty exhaling to remove air
    taken in during inhalation (dyspnea)
  • increased CO2 trapped (hypercapnia)
  • Lung expands to accommodate
  • walls expand and thin out
  • Destruction of elastin?

6
Chronic Bronchitis
  • Excessive mucous production
  • Clogs air passages (bronchioles)
  • These become inflamed and add to the obstruction
  • Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
  • low O2 to tissues and increased CO2 in tissues
    and lungs

7
COPD Treatment
  • No cure
  • Lung transplant may be available for some
  • Treatment aimed at relieving symptoms
  • Nutrition no known nutrition cause
  • Objectives involve achieving good nutritional
    status

8
COPD and Nutrition Status
  • Weight loss, PC Malnutrition, and infection often
    accompany COPD
  • Downward cycle
  • weight loss effort to eat
  • lungs and respiratory muscles loose mass
  • decreased lung capacity
  • decreased nutritional status
  • increased pulmonary infections

9
Breathing and Energy Required
  • Normal pulmonary function 36-72 kcal/day
  • COPD Labored breathing 430-720 kcal/day
  • 700 kcal/day x 7 days 4900 kcal/week/3500/
  • 1.4 weight loss per week

10
Nutrition and Respiratory Failure
  • Often candidates for TPN
  • Use of low R.Q. foods
  • high fat, low CHO diet
  • Push high PUFA and MUFAs in diet
  • To be anabolic may require 45 kcal/kg
  • 30 to 50 Kcal from Fat
  • 15 from PRO
  • 40-45 from CHO
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