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Classification%20and%20ID,%20Ch%202,%20-33

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Title: Classification%20and%20ID,%20Ch%202,%20-33


1
Classification and ID, Ch 2, -33
  • With the trends toward globalization, and the
    world getting smaller a uniform system of
    naming plants is needed.
  • Carl Linnaeus is recognized as the person who
    initiated the scientific botanical, or binomial
    system of classification

2
The binomial system -34
  • Genus, species, classifier
  • Example Vigna unguiculata, Walp.
  • Or Vigna unguiculata, Wallp
  • When you write scientific names of plants, you
    will be expected to italicize, or underline the
    genus and species terms (!)

3
Botanical Classification -33
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Division Magnoliophyta
  • Class !
  • Lilliopsida (Monocots) !
  • Magnoliopsida (Dicots) !
  • Subclass
  • Order

4
Bot. Classification, cont. -33
  • This is where it gets practical know
  • Family !
  • Poaceae (Gramineae)
  • Fabaceae (Leguminoseae)
  • Genus !
  • Species !
  • Subspecies
  • Variety

5
Important Crop Families -34
  • 1. Fabaceae - legumes
  • 2. Poaceae - grasses
  • 3 Brassicaceae mustards
  • 4. Solanaceae nightshade, potato
  • 9. Malvaceae mallow family (e.g. cotton)
  • 12. Convovulaceae morning glory family

6
Scientific names of crops we need to know, first
the cereals -35
  • Barley Hordeum vulgare L.
  • Maize Zea mays L.
  • Oats Avena sativa L.
  • Rice Oryza sativa L.
  • Rye Secale cereale L.
  • Sorghum Sorghum bicolor (Moench)
  • Wheat, bread Triticum aestivum L.

7
Sci. names of crops to know, oil and protein -35
  • Bean, com./field Phaseolus vulgaris L.
  • Cowpea Vigna spp.
  • Peanut Arachis hypogaea L.
  • Pigeonpea Cajanus cajan Millsp.
  • Soybean Glycine max Merr.
  • Sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

8
Sci. names of crops to know - 35
  • Root and Tuber
  • Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz
  • Potato Solanum tuberosum L.
  • Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L.
  • Yams Dioscorea spp.
  • Sugar
  • Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L.
  • Sugarbeet Beta vulgaris L.

9
Sci. names of crops to know -35
  • Fiber
  • Cotton, upland Gossypium hirsutum L.
  • Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L.
  • Drug/Medicinal
  • Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L.
  • Hemp Cannabis sativa L.

10
Forages - 36
  • Very important for feed, crop rotations, erosion
    control, environmental enhancements (landscaping)
    . . .
  • But not a focus of this course

11
Other Categories of Life -36
  • Taxonomists proposing five kingdoms
  • Monera bacteria
  • Protista protozoa and algae
  • Fungi true fungi
  • Plantae Plants
  • Animalia multicellular animals
    (insects/worms/mammals)
  • (more)

12
Monera -37
  • Unicellular
  • Reproduce by cell division (binary fission)
  • Most abundant organism, most environments
  • Include Ps and non-Ps bacteria
  • Usually saprophytes or parasites

13
Monera, in agriculture -37
  • Breakdown of residues, pesticides,wastes
  • Nutrient recycling
  • Causative agents for plant diseases
  • Improvement of soil structure via decomp.
  • Nitrogen Fixation
  • Biological control (diseases of pests)

14
Protista -37
  • Unicellular and multicellular (e.g. algae)
  • Ps and non-Ps, in moist environments
  • (Includes marine plankton)
  • Algae is seen as basis of food chains and health
    of aquatic ecosystems

15
Fungi - 37
  • No Ps
  • Saprophytes and parasites
  • Reproduce by fission, budding, spores
  • Includes molds, yeasts, mushrooms and pathogens
  • (More)

16
Fungi, agriculturally -37
  • Breakdown of residues, pesticides, wastes
  • Nutrient recycling
  • Causative agent for many diseases
  • Improves soil structure, via decomp.
  • Biological control of pests
  • Improves absorption of nutrients (mycorrhizae)

17
Viruses -38
  • Only reproduce in living cells
  • (Non-living)
  • Agriculturally important
  • Causative agent for diseases
  • Biological control of pests

18
Place of Origin -38
  • Origin of species defined as geographic area with
    greatest diversity of that species
  • Nikolai Vavilov credited with concept
  • Important to plant breeders who are seeking rare
    genetic traits
  • Jack Harlan did more recent classifications and
    reclassifications

19
Vavilovs Centers of Origin
  • Center Impt Species
  • Chinese Soybean
  • Indian Rice
  • Central Asia Wheat
  • Mediterranean White Clover
  • Ethiopia Sorghum
  • Central America Maize
  • South America Potato, Peanuts

20
Broad categories, based on origin
  • Indigenous natives
  • Exotic introduced to area, intentionally or
    unintentionally (e.g., kudzu, cogongrass)
  • Problem of invasives costing millions

21
Species Native Western Hem.-39
  • Prairie grasses many
  • Common Bean Maize
  • Papaya Peanut
  • Potato Sunflower
  • Sweet Potato Switchgrass
  • Tobacco Tomato

22
Classification Agronomic Use -39
  • Grain any crop grown for its seed for animal
    feed or human food
  • Cereal grass grown for its edible seed !
  • Small Grain small-seeded species of grain crops
  • Pulse legume grown for its edible seed !
  • Forages Haycut, cured Silageforage
    preserved in succulent condition via
    fermentation Greenchop cut, fed fresh
    (soilage)

23
Specific Agronomic Use/1 ! -40
  • Catch replaces failed crops
  • Nurse sown to help establish another
  • Companion crops grown in association
  • Cover protects soil, conserves nutrients
  • Supplementary crops grown to increase
    production in unfavorable periods
  • Green manure crop incorporated to improve soil
    fertility

24
Specific Agronomic Use/2 ! 40
  • Seed any crop grown to produce seed for
    planting
  • Trap crop used to attract insects or parasites
  • Oil crops grown for oil content
  • Fiber crops grown for paper or textiles

25
Terms in Cropping Systems -40
  • Crop Rotation ! yearly succession of crops
    opposite of monocropping
  • Fallow two types
  • Summer to conserve moisture
  • Bush to restore nutrients

26
Sole cropping vs monocropping
  • Clarification Sole crop means only one species
    in a field at one time e.g. most US grown row
    crops are sole cropped. Not so in limited
    input farming where farmers will intercrop
    (consorcio) as a risk reduction practice.
    Opposite of intercropping.
  • Monocropping is over time, opposite of rotation

27
Life Cycle/1 - 41
  • Annuals complete entire life cycle and die in
    one year
  • Spring annuals grow and mature in spring (e.g.,
    oats, spring wheat)
  • Summer annuals plant in spring, harvest in fall
    (e.g., soybeans, peanuts)
  • Winter annuals planted in fall, vernalized,
    harvest following spring (winter wheat, winter
    barley, winter rye)

28
Life Cycle/2 (cont.) - 41
  • Biennials typically require two growing seasons
    to complete life cycle, requiring vernalization
    (e.g., sweetclover, carrot, turnip, sugarbeet)
  • Perennials indefinite life period, do not die
    after reproduction

29
ID of common plants -42
30
Vernation, impt in grass ID -43
31
Inflorescence types -45
32
Three most common -45
33
Inflorescence types -45
  • Spike (e.g. wheat, rye, barley)
  • Raceme (pearl millet)
  • Panicle (rice, oats)
  • Head (red clover, white clover)

34
Common Field Crops, Cereals -45
  • Maize (corn), Zea mays
  • Annual
  • Flower type imperfect (monoecious) a major
    problem in marginal and unpredictable ppt
    environments
  • Types Dent, Flint, Flour, Pop, Pod, Sweet
  • Grain about 9 protein
  • Ethanol (now)

35
Grain Sorghum, -46
  • There are several types of sorghum, however
    Sorghum bicolor is Grain Forage grown in US.
  • Life cycle KLB believes it to be short-lived
    perennial it behaves like a perennial it
    rattoons and it has a dormancy mechanism
    (note!)
  • Quite drought-tolerant (perfect flowers)
  • Efficient user of moisture TR of about 325
  • Protein is not well balanced, and only 8, with
    feeding value of 85-90 of corn

36
Small Grains -46
  • All germinate under cool temps, can be grown
    where ppt is limited
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare), primarily malt and feed
    uses
  • Oats (Avena sativa), among highest quality
    grains, 14 and proven cholesterol reducer
    (Cheerios) also, primary nurse crop to est.
    forages
  • Rye (Secale cereale), most winter hardy of group
  • Wheat, most important and valued (see next)

37
Wheat, (½) -47
  • Common wheat is Triticum aestivum and is
    hexaploid (6N) bread and pastries 14 protein
  • Durum wheat is Triticum durum and is known as
    semolina or spaghetti wheat and is highest
    protein of cereals 17, it is tetraploid (4N)
  • Winter wheat requires vernalization

38
Wheat (2/2) -47
  • Market classes of wheat
  • Hard red winter bread -highest yielder (req.
    vern)
  • Hard red spring - bread
  • Soft red winter (req. vernalization)
  • White pastry and biscuit (lowest protein)
  • Durum semolina (highest protein)
  • Mixed
  • Note spring wheats are the Green Revolution
    wheats

39
Barley - 48
  • Two major types
  • Six-row Hordeum vulgare
  • Two-row Hordeum distichum
  • There are hulled (lemma and palea attached to
    caryopsis after harvest) and hull-less types

40
Rye -49
  • Winter and spring types
  • Hardiest and most tolerant of small grains
  • Grain may contain fungus (Ergot) which can be
    recognized gives meal fishy smell
  • Cover crop in SE, protects soil and conserves
    nutrients (environmental!)

41
Oats -49
  • Excellent food and feed high protein
  • Typically, dairy operations will have oats in
    program, as feed and to establish forages
  • Forage seed develop slowly, permitting weeds to
    get jump on them
  • Oats germinate under cool temps and grow quickly,
    shading out the weeds, but permitting the forage
    to get started
  • Straw value can be substantial

42
Rice - 50
  • Several types (polished rice 8 protein)
  • japonica paddy (irrigated) Green Revolution
    rice short, sticky kernels/cooked
  • indica upland slender, dry kernels/cooked
  • javanica
  • African (Nerica) recent yield breakthrough
  • Oryzae glabberima Floating rice
  • Note that wild rice is not Oryzae, but Zizania

43
Pulse Crops - 50
  • Fix their own nitrogen!
  • Are high protein, typically 17-25
  • Tend to be susceptible to pests
  • None have had jumps in yield and many had acreage
    losses to Green Revolution crops

44
Soybeans (Glycine max) -50
  • Highest in protein 38
  • Also an oil crop 18-20
  • Vegetable types known as Edamame
  • Healthy food, among other benefits, contains
    lecithin an emulsifier or lubricant in foods
    and pharmaceuticals
  • Currently, candidate for biofuel
  • When used in crop rotation, contributes about one
    lb. nitrogen per bushel produced, to next crop

45
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
  • Also known as groundnut
  • Here in FL, most data indicates no response to
    fertilization
  • Oil content (biofuel!) is 40
  • Protein is 20
  • US Farmers grow as quota crop, or additionals

46
Other pulses 51
  • Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) grows well in hot,
    humid environments
  • Field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) prefers cool
    environments, lots of pests
  • Field peas (Pisum sativum) grows well under
    cool temps
  • Lentils (Lens culinaris)

47
Oil crops 52
  • Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), native US
  • Unlikely to see GMO sunflower in near future
  • Major restriction in SE Alternaria
  • Sesame
  • Safflower
  • Canola
  • (Soybeans and peanuts)

48
Sugar crops 53
  • Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris)
  • Biennial
  • Sugar and feed
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Perennial, rattoons
  • Sugar and ethanol

49
Fiber -54
  • Cotton, several types (Gossypium hirsutum) is
    upland cotton grown in US
  • Seed contains anti-metabolite Gossypol
  • Probably most tolerant common crop to saline
    soils (an increasing problem)
  • Historically, more pesticides used than any other
    crop, per acre

50
Text pages not in quiz
  • The forages, while very important, are not the
    focus of this course. The forage information
    starting on page 54, thru 64, will not be on the
    quizzes or final exam.
  • The following questions from the Self-Evaluation
    Test are not candidates for quizzes Items 10,
    11, 18, 19, 20, 25. This info is posted in
    corridor outside 2196

51
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54
Specific Agronomic Use/3 ! -40
  • Sugar crops producing sucrose
  • Drug/Medicinal/Stimulant
  • Biofuel crops grown to produce fuel, to be used
    directly or thru conversion to liquid

55
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