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OPEN ACCESS: What is it? Why should we have it? Where is it now?

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Novel information-creation using new and advanced technologies. Key Perspectives Ltd ... (Data: Stevan Harnad and co-workers) Open access increases citations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OPEN ACCESS: What is it? Why should we have it? Where is it now?


1
OPEN ACCESS What is it? Why should we have it?
Where is it now?
  • Alma Swan
  • Key Perspectives Ltd
  • Truro, UK

2
Why researchers publish their work
Key Perspectives Ltd
3
Old paradigms
  • Use of proxy measures of an individual
    scientists merit is as good as it gets
  • It is a journals responsibility to disseminate
    your work
  • Printed article is the format of record
  • Other scientists have time to search out what you
    want them to know

Key Perspectives Ltd
4
New paradigms
  • Rich, deep, broad metrics for measuring the
    contributions of individual scientists
  • Effective dissemination of your work is now in
    your hands (at last)
  • The digital format will be the format of record
    (is already in many areas)
  • Unless you routinely publish in Nature or
    Science, getting it out there is up to you

Key Perspectives Ltd
5
Open Access What is it?
  • Online
  • Immediate
  • Free (non-restricted)
  • Free (gratis)
  • To the scholarly literature that authors give
    away
  • Permanent

Key Perspectives Ltd
6
Open Access Who benefits?
  • Benefits to researchers themselves
  • Benefits to institutions
  • Benefits to national economies
  • Benefits to science and society

Key Perspectives Ltd
7
The digital era
  • The potential role of electronic networks in
    scientific publication goes far beyond
    providing searchable archives for electronic
    journals. The whole process of scholarly
    communication is undergoing a revolution
    comparable to the one occasioned by the invention
    of printing.
  • Stevan Harnad, 1990

Key Perspectives Ltd
8
And
  • Still only 15 of research is Open Access

Key Perspectives Ltd
9
New niches
  • Open Access journals (www.doaj.org)
  • Open Access repositories (author self-archiving)

Key Perspectives Ltd
10
Repositories interoperable
  • Show their content in a specific form
  • Harvested by search engines
  • Form a database of global research
  • Freely available
  • Publicly available
  • Permanently available

Key Perspectives Ltd
11
Open Access repositories
  • circa 800 worldwide and growing at an average of
    1 per day
  • 0 in Jordan (only 1 in the whole Middle East)
  • Open source software (e.g. EPrints from
    Southampton University)

Key Perspectives Ltd
12
Using repositories
  • UoCs eScholarship repository logged 2 million
    downloads
  • 2 years - 0.5m
  • 1 year 1m
  • 9mths 2m
  • 10K records at end 2005
  • University of Otago Business School
  • Launched mid-November 2005
  • 220 articles by mid-February 2006
  • 20K downloads

Key Perspectives Ltd
13
And yet .
  • Only 24 of authors have submitted an article to
    an Open Access journal
  • Only 22 have self-archived in their
    institutional repository
  • Natural selection or genetic drift?

Key Perspectives Ltd
14
Why we should have Open Access
  • Greater impact from scientific endeavour
  • More rapid and more efficient progress of science
  • Better assessment, better monitoring, better
    management of science
  • Novel information-creation using new and
    advanced technologies

Key Perspectives Ltd
15
Why researchers publish their work
Key Perspectives Ltd
16
An authors own testimony on open access
visibility
  • Self-archiving in the PhilSci Archive has
    given instant world-wide visibility to my work.
    As a result, I was invited to submit papers to
    refereed international conferences/journals and
    got them accepted.

Key Perspectives Ltd
17
Open Access increases citations
Range 50-200 (Data Stevan Harnad and
co-workers)
Key Perspectives Ltd
18
Open access increases citations (other studies)
  • Lawrence 2001 (computer science)
  • Kurtz 2004 (astronomy)
  • Brody Harnad 2004 (all disciplines)
  • Antelman 2005 (philosophy, politics, electrical
    electronic engineering, mathematics)
  • Eysenbach 2006 (biomedicine)

Key Perspectives Ltd
19
Lost citations, lost impact
  • Only around 15 of research is Open Access.
  • .. so 85 is not
  • .. and we are therefore losing 85 of the 50
    increase in citations (conservative end of the
    range) that Open Access brings ( 42.5)

Key Perspectives Ltd
20
National economies
National economies
  • Jordanian scientists 1708 articles in 2004/5
  • Number of citations 2235
  • If all had been OA, there would have been (42.5
    more) 3185 citations
  • Since the Jordanian Government invested 200
    million in ST in 2004/5 ..
  • This means lost impact worth 85 million to the
    Jordanian economy
  • Jordanian scientists 1708 articles in 2004/5
  • Number of citations 2235
  • If all had been OA, there would have been (42.5
    more) 3185 citations
  • Since the Jordanian Government invested 200
    million in ST in 2004/5 ..
  • This means lost impact worth 85 million to the
    Jordanian economy

Key Perspectives Ltd
21
Science is faster, more efficient
Key Perspectives Ltd
22
Measure, assess, and manage science more
effectively
  • Assess individuals, groups, institutions, on the
    basis of citation analysis
  • Track trends growth, latency, longevity
  • Identify hubs and authorities
  • Identify silent, unsung contributors
  • Predict impact, directions
  • Manage, assess scientific programmes to the
    benefit of our societies

Key Perspectives Ltd
23
Find a researcher ..
Key Perspectives Ltd
24
Track citation history
Key Perspectives Ltd
25
Follow the citing trail
Key Perspectives Ltd
26
Follow the citing trail
Key Perspectives Ltd
27
New knowledge from old
  • Text-mining and data-mining technologies
  • UK National Text-Mining Centre
  • The Grid / e-research / cyberresearch
  • Example NeuroCommons (www.neurocommons.org)

Key Perspectives Ltd
28
Where is Open Access now?
Key Perspectives Ltd
29
Key Perspectives Ltd
30
Average number of articles in an institutional
repository
  • 297!

Key Perspectives Ltd
31
Publisher permissions (by journal)
Key Perspectives Ltd
32
Publisher permissions
  • 92 of journals permit self-archiving
  • SHERPA/RoMEO list at
  • www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php
  • Or at http//romeo.eprints.org/stats.php

Key Perspectives Ltd
33
Other reasons
  • Time
  • Average a few minutes
  • Estimated 40 minutes per year
  • Difficulty
  • Very easy or easy

Key Perspectives Ltd
34
Author readiness to comply with a mandate
5
14
81
Key Perspectives Ltd
35
Institutions with a mandate already
  • University of Southampton School of Electronics
    Computer Science (since 2003) (90 compliance
    already)
  • CERN (2003) (90 compliance already)
  • Queensland University of Technology (2004) (40
    compliance and growing)
  • University of Minho, Portugal (2005)

Key Perspectives Ltd
36
(Data courtesy of Arthur Sale)
Key Perspectives Ltd
37
Developments on mandating
  • Wellcome Trust
  • NIH
  • RCUK
  • CURES Act (USA)
  • FRPAA (USA)
  • National Institute of Technology, India
  • Universities in UK and Australia

Key Perspectives Ltd
38
Why we should have Open Access
  • Greater impact from scientific endeavour
  • More rapid and more efficient progress of science
  • Better assessment, better monitoring, better
    management of science
  • Novel information-creation using new and
    advanced technologies

Key Perspectives Ltd
39
???? Thank you for listening!
Shokran
  • aswan_at_keyperspectives.co.uk
  • www.keyperspectives.co.uk

Key Perspectives Ltd
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