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The Late Middle Ages And the Renaissance

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Title: The Late Middle Ages And the Renaissance


1
The Late Middle Ages And the Renaissance
2
The Black Death
  • loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in
    cities)
  • Causes bubonic plague carried by fleas on Asian
    black rats poor sanitation, overcrowded homes,
    poor health, poor hygiene, poor housing
  • Results Severe impact on European economy in
    some areas workers enjoyed higher wages
  • Best of clergy died (staying behind to help the
    sick) Jews blamed serfdom ended in many areas
    first enclosure of fields in Britain

3
Crisis in the Catholic Church
  • Early Criticisms of the church
  • Marsiglio de Padua Defender of Peace Church
    should be subordinate to the state Church should
    be governed by a council of laity and priests
    superior to pope.
  • John Wyclif (1320-1384) church should only
    follow Scripture English translation of Bible
    his later followers were Lollards
  • John Huss (1369-1415) ideas similar to Wyclif
    nationalist party in Czech (Bohemia)
  • Hussites followers of Huss who staged large
    rebellions in 14th century.

4
Crisis in the Catholic Church
  • Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378) 7 successive
    popes resided at Avignon, France. Damaged papal
    prestige (esp. in England Germany) Romes
    economy damaged
  • Great Schism (c. 1378-1417) Further conflict led
    to election of two popesone in Rome, one in
    France further hurt prestige of church.
  • Conciliar Movement (1409-1418) Council of Pisa
    and Council of Constance, ended schism failed as
    movement to put power in a church council popes
    power still supreme

5
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
  • CauseEnglish lays claim to large areas of French
    land.
  • Three phases
  • Early English Victories Crecy (1346) and
    Poitiers (1356)
  • French reclaim territory and stalemate
  • English victories Agincourt (1415), French
    regain lands
  • Joan of Arc led French army to victory at
    Orleans during crucial stage of the war
  • Results France kicks England out creation of
    modern nation states begin (New Monarchs).
    Innovations in war technology longbow, cannon,
    infantry. Decimation of landed nobles.

6
Northern Italian Economy
  • Cities developed international trade Genoa,
    Venice, Milan.
  • popolo (middle class) took power in 13th century
    republican govt short-lived
  • signori (despots) or oligarchies (rule of
    merchant aristocracies) by 1300
  • commenda Contract between merchant and
    merchant-adventurer who agreed to take goods to
    distant locations and return with the proceeds
    (for 1/3 of profits)

7
Italian City States, 1454
8
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Republic of Florence (Included Republic of Genoa)
    Medici family
  • Cosimo DeMedici (1389-1464) allied with other
    powerful families of Florence and became
    unofficial ruler of the republic
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492)
    lavish patron
  • of the arts

9
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) theocracy in
    Florence 1494-98 (predicted French invasion due
    to paganism and moral decay of Italian
    city-states) burned at the stake Charles VIII
    (1483-1498), French invasions of Italy Italy
    became battleground for international ambitions

10
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Duchy of Milan -- Sforza family (Caterina Sforza
    (1463-1509), great art patron)
  • Rome, the Papal States papacy (Renaissance
    popes)
  • Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Venice,
    Venetian Republic
  • Isabella dEste (1474-1539) most famous
    Renaissance female ruler (ruled Mantua)
  • condottieri leaders of private armies hired by
    cities for military purposes

11
Humanism
  • Humanism -- Revival of antiquity (Greece and
    Rome) in literature
  • Individualism/ secularism man is the measure of
    all things
  • virtú the quality of being a great man in
    whatever noble pursuit
  • Education (emphasis on Latin and Greek)

12
Humanism
  • Petrarch(1304-1374) Dark Ages metaphor
    father of humanism and
  • 1st modern writer, literature no longer
    subordinate to religion
  • Dante Divine Comedy
  • Boccacio Decameron aimed to impart wisdom of
    human character and behavior.
  • Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Oration on the
    Dignity of Man Platonic academy
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) The Book of
    the Courtier

13
Humanism
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) wrote history of
    Florence division of historical periods
    narrative form civic humanist first to use term
    humanism
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)On the False Donation
    of
  • Constantine (1444) study of Latin
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • (1469-1527) -- The Prince
  • (1513) Cesare Borgia

14
New Artistic Styles
  • Look to Roman and Greek influences.
  • Use of realistic perspective in depicting scenes.
  • Portrait painting becomes popular.
  • Depiction of Renaissance ideals.
  • New dignity of the individual

15
Early Renaissance
  • Florence the leader in Renaissance art esp. in
    quattrocento (1400s)
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) architect of
    cathedrals (il duomo in Florence)
  • Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), architect of
    cathedrals.
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) -- sculptor bronze
    doors for Florentine baptistry
  • Donatello (1386-1466 sculptor David (in
    bronze)
  • Masaccio (1401-1428) painter nude human figures
  • Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516) Portrait of a
    Condottiere
  • Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1574) goldsmith and
    sculptor

16
Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)
  • Considered to be the Father of the Italian
    Renaissance
  • Broke with linear style of Middle Ages.
  • First to us chiaroscuro.
  • Reputed to be a shrewd and witty character.
  • Praised by the poet Dante.

17
Giotto - The Mourning of Christ
18
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510)
  • Spent almost his entire life in Florence.
  • Only significant journey was to Rome to work on
    Sistine Chapel.
  • Died in obscurity and his fame was not
    reestablished until the 19th century.

19
Botticelli-Primavera
20
Botticelli- Birth of Venus
21
High Renaissance
  • High Renaissance centered in Rome (1500-1527)
    cinquecento (1500s)
  • Most worldly of Renaissance popes Alexander VI
    (1492-1503) Julius II (1503-1513) and Leo X
    (1513-1521), funded great art projects
  • Characteristics classical balance, harmony,
    restraint

22
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Painter, sculptor, architect and engineer.
  • Often left work unfinished.
  • Conducted extensive scientific studies.
  • Invented the armored tank and designed aircraft.

23
Da Vinci The Last Supper
24
Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564)
  • Sculptor, painter, architect, and poet.
  • Tormented genius who was rarely satisfied with
    his talents.
  • In painting and sculpture his work focused mainly
    on the nude human form.

25
Michelangelo La Pieta
26
Michelangelo Sistine Chapel
27
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
  • Child prodigy in the world of art.
  • Patronized by the popes and named Papal Architect
    in 1514.
  • Died of fever at age 37.

28
Raphael Three Graces
29
Raphael School of Athens
30
Printing Press (c. 1456)
  • Johann Gutenberg spread of humanistic
    literature to rest of Europe.
  • By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by
    1500)

31
Christian Humanism
  • Attempted to find a balance between religious and
    secular concerns
  • Rejected the otherworldliness of the Middle
    Ages.
  • Emphasis on early church writings for answers to
    improve society.

32
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam)
    (1466-1536) In Praise of Folly most famous
    intellectual of his times, criticized the church
    Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched
  • Thomas More (1478-1536) Utopia creates ideal
    society on an island but to achieve harmony and
    order people have to sacrifice individual rights

33
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Jacques Lefevre dEtables (1454-1536) leading
    French humanist produced 5 versions of the
    Psalms that challenged a single authoritative
    Bible.
  • Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517)
    reformed Spanish clergy and church, Grand
    Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition

34
Northern Renaissance Arts
  • Low Countries (Dutch Republic, Flanders and parts
    of Germany, etc) produced especially important
    artists.
  • Jan and Hubert Van Eyck
  • First successful use of oil painting
  • Worked mainly in Ghent, Belgium.

35
Peter Brueghel (1520-1569)
  • Focused on lives of ordinary people.
  • Painted great landscapes
  • Also worked on religious subjects
  • Completed most of his work in Antwerp and Brussels

36
Peter Brueghel Peasant Wedding
37
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
  • German foremost northern Renaissance artist
  • Famous for woodcuts and engravings.
  • Paintings include a number of self protraits

38
Albrecht Durer The Last Supper
39
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543)
  • Son of Gothic artist.
  • German painter who studied in Italy
  • Painted portraits of Erasmus, Thomas More, King
    Henry VIII, his wives, and Mary Tudor

40
Hans Holbein The Ambassadors
41
Domenikos El Greco (1541-1614) painter mannerism
  • Painter in Spain (of Greek nationality)
  • Famous for unique style known as mannerism.
  • Subjects depict religious mysticism of the period
    in Spain

42
El Greco Death of Duke of Orgaz
43
Vernacular Writers
  • France
  • Francois Rabelais (1494-1553) Gargantua and
    Pantagruel
  • Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays relativist
    in religion and morality

44
Vernacular Writers
  • England
  • Edmund Spenser (1552 1599) composed romantic
    epic Faerie Queen
  • Christopher Marlowe (1564 1593) skilled
    playwright and poet
  • William Shakespeare (1564 1616) poet and
    playwright. Wrote plays that best exemplfied the
    varieties of human experience.
  • Ben Jonson (1572 1673) poet and dramatist who
    created plays in the Greek style.

45
Vernacular Writers
  • Spain
  • Miguel de Cervantes (1547 1615) Wrote Don
    Quixote. Regarded as one of the great novels of
    the period.
  • Felix Lope de Vega (1562-1635) wrote in every
    major literary style. Created over 1500 plays,
    of which 500 survive.
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