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Improving soil quality

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Title: Improving soil quality


1
Improving soil quality
Rafiq Islam and Bruce Clevenger OSU Extension
2
quality is the capacity of the
soil to perform functions related to
Plant growth and production Air and water
quality Animal and human health and nutrition
Ecosystem processes and properties
in response to management practices Isla
m and Weil (2000)
3
For our food supply, security, and survival
Soil biological properties
Soil physical properties
Soil chemical properties
Soil quality
4
Evaluation of soil quality
Based on growth and yield of crops
5
Based on smell, feel, color, texture, structure,
and presence of organisms
6
NRCS soil quality test kit Based on quantitative
measurement of several soil properties such as
Reaction (pH) Respiration rates
Earthworms Electrical conductivity
Nitrate-Nitrogen Organic matter Bulk
density Aggregate stability
7
OSU soil quality color chart
Light pink color of the solution, better the
soil quality
8
Management practices affect soil
quality by temporal loss or accumulation
of SOM
9
Conventional tillage is related to soil, air and
water quality degradation
A 2 loss of SOM is equal to 2400-lbs
N/a availability in soil
10
CO2
Subsoil tillage
Mold bold tillage
Chisel tillage
Subsoil tillage
Mold bold plow
Chisel plow
Different tillage Different rates of SOM loss
11
Soil organic matter is probably the most
acknowledged indicator of soil quality
Biological properties
Disease control
Chemical properties
Physical properties
Crop yield
12
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13
NT agriculture
14
N fertilization
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
SOM accumalation C N stoichiometry
15
Wheat
Cow peas /winter peas
Corn
Rye
Soybean
NT and suitable crop rotation system
with supplemental N fertilization
16
NT and cover crops
17
Significant at plt0.05
18
Stage 4 January, 2006
Stage 1 October 21, 2005
Winter-killed cowpeas in NT soil
Stage 3 December, 2005
Stage 2 November, 2005
19
No-till with cover crops
20
P effects on cover crops biomass production and N
contribution
21
Organic amendments Animal manure Biosolids Comp
osts Chemical amendments Gypsum Calcium oxide
22
Experimental Results
23
NT vs. CT
Soil microorganisms
Soil aggregate associated C
24
Biological loss of SOM
25
In NT system
Fungi-dominated food web
Nematode and fungi relationship. C-use
efficiency Fungi (40 to 55) vs. bacteria (15 to
25)
26
Soil macroaggregation
Soil quality
27
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28
Gypsum effects on soil quality properties
Microbial biomass and aggregate stability
29
Total C
Active C
30
Soil quality vs. Crop yields
Significant
31
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