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Instructional%20Design%20Selecting%20and%20Ordering%20Content%20As%20You%20Design%20the%20Learning%20Event%20(s)%20%20(EDER%20673%20L.91%20)%20From%20Calgary%20With%20Asst.%20Professor%20Eugene%20G.%20Kowch%20%20March%206%20to%20March%2013%20Week%20(An%20Asynchronous%20Meeting%20using%20WebCT%20discussion%20Thread%20and%20WWW

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Title: Instructional%20Design%20Selecting%20and%20Ordering%20Content%20As%20You%20Design%20the%20Learning%20Event%20(s)%20%20(EDER%20673%20L.91%20)%20From%20Calgary%20With%20Asst.%20Professor%20Eugene%20G.%20Kowch%20%20March%206%20to%20March%2013%20Week%20(An%20Asynchronous%20Meeting%20using%20WebCT%20discussion%20Thread%20and%20WWW


1
Instructional Design Selecting and Ordering
Content As You Design the Learning Event (s)
(EDER 673 L.91 ) From Calgary With Asst.
Professor Eugene G. Kowch March 6 to March 13
Week (An Asynchronous Meeting using WebCT
discussion Thread and WWW Course Home Page
Material)
2
We are here
Gagne/Briggs
Rossett/ Tessmer/ SmithRagan/ Reigeluth/ Kazanas/
Shaumbagh Magliaro/ Dick Carey/
Needs / tasks
Kazanas/Rothwell Leshin, Pollock Reigeluth/
Scope/Sequence Reigeluth(macro) Gagne
(micro) Dick Carey
Analyzing Learners Contexts
Jonassen/ Gardner/ Gagne/Briggs
3
Update EDER 673
History of ID
ID Terminology
Instructional Design Philosophies
SMCR/Feedback Communication Model
Learners and Learning Theories
Context based designs
ID Models A peek
Needs Analysis
Media Selection
Task Analysis
Selecting and Ordering Content (elaboration)
Evaluation
Motivation
4
This information / reading package has been
created to extend your understanding about how to
design a learning environment that will allow the
learner to achieve the learning objectives
gleaned from your needs or task analysis. As you
learn this particular material, I suggest that
you do not think from the perspective of a
student, or from the perspective of a teacher or
instructor -) For this lesson, think as a
(course, lesson or training) designer of an
instructional environment. The precise contents
in this package are based on your readings, and
created from the interests and design
inclinations you have exhibited in class so far.
The content here references, but asks you to
think beyond the readings.
5
Agenda
  • Elaboration Theory A Guide for Scope and
    Sequence Decisions (selecting and ordering
    content)
  • A. Overview of micro/macro approaches to ID
  • B. An analogy for Elaboration Theory
  • B.1 Sequencing
  • Sequencing Decisions
  • Sequencing Strategies
  • Topical
  • Spiral
  • B.2 Scoping
  • Scoping Decisions
  • C. What is an Elaboration Sequence?
  • C.1 Task Expertise
  • C.2 Domain Expertise
  • C.3 The Conceptual Elaboration Sequence
  • C.4 The Theoretical Elaboration Sequence
  • C.5 The Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM)
  • How to design an SCM sequence
  • D. Blueprinting Epitomizing and Elaborating

6
Sources
  • The following resources were adapted for this
    class, to fit the time frame of EDER 673 for the
    2003 Winter Class
  • Riegeluth, C. (Ed.), (1999). The Elaboration
    Theory. In Instructional design theories and
    models - A new paradigm of instructional theory.
    Volume II. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
  • Reigeluth, C. (Ed.), (1983). The Elaboration
    Theory of Instruction. In Instructional design
    theories and models - An Overview of their
    current status. Volume I. Lawrence Earlbaum
    Associates.
  • Smith, P. L., Ragan, T. J. (1999).
    Instructional Design (2nd Ed.). New York Wiley.
  • These are all excellent sources for your future
    professional education technology library.

7
A. An overview of Micro and Macro level ID
Approaches Designing instruction to achieve a
learning/skill objective (to fill a gap)
Overview
  • Recall that Gagne wrote about the executive
    processes that an individual uses when learning
    (memory processes). These are micro level
    processes. At the micro level of instructional
    design, we design learning/instruction events so
    that the learners micro level cognitive
    processes to fit the conditions of learning - to
    assure the best learning chance for the student.
  • There are macro level approaches, that place the
    learner in the learning environment context,
    instead of focussing on the hierarchy
    instructional events suited for different types
    of learning.
  • Elaboration theory is a macro approach to the
    design of instruction. It is a model that
    presupposes that there is relevant content that
    can be taught, and that with good design and a
    careful collection of topical matter, a learning
    environment can be created. It is still a systems
    approach, but there is flexibility for scope and
    sequencing instruction by careful consideration
    of the topics (content) to be studied.

8
A. An Overview Broad Overview of the Elaboration
Theory of Instruction
Overview
  • As creators of a learning event or environment,
    once we know the learners knowledge/performance
    needs, we then create the learning objectives or
    tasks to achieve the ideal learning/doing
    outcomes. We do this for the learner by designing
    instruction.
  • So then we need next to consider what
    instructional strategies we may use to help the
    learner reach the objectives. This strategy
    informs BOTH the instructor and the learner.
    Think of this as an instructor while you learn
    this theory.
  • Micro level instructional strategies are
    concerned with teaching a single idea. Micro
    level instruction strategies employ examples of
    that idea. (example Use the I before E except
    after C rule to spell the following words
    correctly).
  • Macro level instructional strategies relate to
    several ideas, and to sequencing those ideas to
    maximize learning. (Example Some spelling rules
    are tricky, and they change depending on the
    word. Read the story and find some of the words
    with an IE or EI before a C. What have you
    learned about spelling these kinds of words?

9
Overview
  • A. Some Macro Approaches to Designing
    Instruction
  • The Hierarchical approach to task analysis Gagne
    (1968, 1977) introduced the idea of the learning
    prerequisite (some knowledge must be acquired
    before other knowledge can be acquired). This
    gave rise to the hierarchical approach to task
    analysis (learn this, before you can learn that)
    Such complexity inherent to hierarchical design
    (too many if-then-elses) makes the hierarchical
    approach difficult for some design situations.
  • The Information Processing approach to task
    analysis described the procedure or order in
    which tasks should be performed, as opposed to
    the order in which they must be learned.
    (Merrill, 1971 Landa, 1974).
  • Instructional sequences were discovered that
    helped learners see relevance in learning
    (Ausubel, 1968). Ausubel said to start
    instruction with general level knowledge that
    subsumes the content that is to follow the
    remainder of instruction is then a process of
    gradually introducing more detailed specific
    knowledge about general ideas, like in Bruners
    (1960) spiral curriculum.
  • Elaboration theory is a macro approach to
    instructional design too.

10
A. Elaboration Theory A Flexible Macro Approach
to Instructional Design
Overview
  • The simple-to-complex sequence of instruction and
    learning prescribed by the Elaboration approach
    helps to ensure that the learner is always aware
    of
  • The importance of the different ideas that are
    being taught
  • The ability to learn at a level of complexity
    that is most meaningful to him
  • The ability to choose complexity that is
    comfortable, rather than plodding through levels
    of too-high or too-low complexity first.
  • The model is more learner centred and less
    teacher or content centred. The role of the
    designer is critical, however.
  • More holistic approaches to instruction can be
    accommodated by this method, as this method
    allows the proper scope (content) and sequence
    (ing) (ordering) of connected chunks of
    instruction within simulation, PBL (problem based
    learning), situated learning designs.
  • Because one can identify real-world version of
    the task or content domain.

11
B. An Analogy to help introduce you to the
theory
Overview
  • This method of instruction is, for the learner,
    like studying subject matter through a zoom
    lens.
  • For the designer, this design model allows you to
    create the content environment so that teachers
    and learners can fit in with time (sequence)
    and space (content) variability.
  • The learners starts with a wide-angle view, which
    allows him/her to see the the major parts fo the
    picture and the major relationships among those
    parts, with little detail (macro view).
  • The learner then zooms in on a part of the
    picture. More sub parts can then be seen. After
    studying all the parts here, the person can zoom
    back out and study other parts, in context.
  • This is not unlike the foundations of contextual
    or constructivist instruction design - both
    approaches depend on designing the contexts for
    learning, and on learner cognitive processes.
  • The person could be forced to learn all parts
    at various zoom levels, or to skip to another
    part of the picture following their own
    interests. Or the learner can control the zoom
    level and the teacher can then be ready to teach
    at that level.
  • However, there are no prerequisite learnings
    required - like in Bruners spiral curriculum,
    learners work to deeper levels of complexity. As
    they go deeper, increasingly complex
    prerequisites exist, but they will already have
    been taught as part of the previous steps.

12
B. Sequencing Content
13
B.1 Sequencing
  • Sequencing requires the designer to make
    decisions about how to group and order content.
  • So the designer must also decide what content
    should be in each grouping.
  • Factors affecting sequencing
  • 1. The size of each group of content (the size of
    the learning event)
  • 2. The contents of each group of content
    (learning event)
  • 3. The order of components within each group of
    content (learning event)
  • 4. The order of the each group of content
    (learning events).

14
B.1 Sequencing depends on
1. The size of each group of content (learning
event)
2. The components (content pieces) of each
learning event
15
B.1 Sequencing depends on
3. The order of components (content pieces)
within each learning event
A B C
D E F
4. And the order of the learning event itself
(all the pieces) the order does not have to be
linear
16
B.1 When Sequencing makes a difference to the
success of your instructional design
  • The difference that your sequencing makes to
    instruction depends on 2 factors
  • 1. The strength of the relationships between the
    topics
  • - if the course is about a bunch of unrelated
    topics (Software, Financing, Training, Planning),
    the order for teaching these topics will not
    matter as much.
  • - if the course is about a bunch of closely
    related topics (Software, hardware, platforms,
    networks, usability), the order for teaching
    these topics matters.
  • 2. the size of the learning event.
  • Usually when topics are closely related, as the
    size of the course increases, so does the
    importance of sequencing because most learners
    will have a tough time organizing improperly
    sequenced topics. More than a couple of hours to
    learn each topic means that sequencing is
    critical, then.

17
B.1 Sequencing Strategies
  • The Importance of (topic) relationships to
    designing a sequenced learning event
  • 1. No relationship between topics no importance
    for careful sequencing of the modules
  • 2. Good relationship between topics a need for
    care and attention to module sequencing. Certain
    types of topics have single types of relations
    and should be sequenced as follows
  • a. historical topic sequences work when
    instruction sequencing can is based on a series
    of events (teaching plant growth or tectonics).
  • b. procedural topic sequences work when tasks
    or learning depends on a specific order of
    performance (filling a tooth cavity).
  • c. hierarchical sequences work when a keen
    relationship between the learning prerequisites
    among various skills and sub skills that comprise
    a task exist (building a house)

18
B.1 Sequencing Strategies Two patterns exist
Topical and Spiral
  • 1. Topical sequencing
  • A topic is taught to whatever level of competency
    or understanding is required (to reach the
    learning goal you set) BEFORE teaching moves to
    the next topic.
  • Advantages Learners can focus on one topic and
    learn it deeply without skipping to another
    topic. All materials are used at one time.
  • Disadvantages After the learner moves on to the
    next topic, they can forget the previous one.
    Learners dont get an idea of the whole subject
    area until they finish the curriculum or course.

19
The Topical Sequencing Strategy
The trick to good design today is to group
elements into topics effectively - the student in
topical sequencing can skip content in a topic
that is already known. This is good for just in
time designs in education. In Training, use the
needs analysis to tell you how to group the topics
Start
End
  • I created an example on the following page to
    help you understand this.
  • It is also a model for content/sequencing in your
    instructional blueprint
  • for your learning event (next assignment)

20
Example
The Topical Sequencing Strategy for Developing a
One Hour Class with this learning objective The
1st Year Education student will be prepared to
introduce the subject Values Education to High
School Students in a one hour class
Topic B Key Elements
Topic C Classroom Methods
Topic A Relevance
Higher Education Example Depending on the
prerequisite Learning that learners hold Coming
into this spiral, they Can almost skip steps
and Pick intensify where they need To gain
learning / competency. The Designer can also add
components to This model depending on student
needs And interests, as long as the
overall Objectives are achieved. This is a great
process for rapid Prototype designs, where you
dont have The time or information to do an
entire Design cycle, and you might have to
Elaborate on certain topics and not on others
to Get the best learning outcome in short order!
Parent Pressure Finding Your own values
Opening Motivator (clip)
Self Actualization assessment
Professional Association Coda Your values
in context
PeerValues assessment
Lesson Planning/ For student comfort
Professional Liability You, the Profession and
Civil Law
Community Culture assessment
Group Discussion Journalling / samples
Duty of Care / the pressure On youth in an
e-world / Our duty to prepare youth
Institutional Culture assessment
Self Evaluation Reflection methods And
feedback methodology
21
B.1 Sequencing Strategies Two patterns exist
Topical and Spiral
  • 1. Spiral sequencing
  • Learners master a topic (or task) gradually in
    several passes. The learner learns the basis of
    one topic (or task) and then another, and
    another (they can even choose topics).. And
    moves on to another topic. The movement continues
    until mastery is reached (at your designed level
    of mastery) for all topics.
  • Advantages There is a built-in synthesis and
    review process. Interrelationships between topics
    may help the learner learn similar approaches
    within different topics in quick sequence
    (studying topics like how to drywall interior,
    exterior, wet and dusty rooms, for example as
    Topics A, B, C, then moving on to studying how
    to paint interior, exterior, wet and dusty rooms,
    for example as Topics A, B, C...). Cycling back
    to an earlier topic provides a review.
  • Disadvantages this is not a sequence for ADHD
    learners. Disruption occurs as topics switch
    frequently, and the efficient management of
    resources is tough. This is like teaching 8 CTS
    modules at once. But it can work very well.
  • I created an example on the following page to
    help you understand this. It is also a model for
    content/sequencing in your instructional
    blueprint for your learning event (next
    assignment)

22
The Spiral Sequencing Strategy for Developing a
One Hour Class with this learning objective
) The 1st Year Education Administration Masters
student will learn the basics of Educational
Technology Leadership over the term of this course
Example
Topic A Human Resources
Topic B Education Finance
Topic C Governance and Policy
K-12 Education Example
Salary Scales In/out scope ET support budgeting
Job Descriptions / tech Skill capacities
Board/Teacher negotiation Protocols for ET and
IT Purchasing, Maintenance and Hiring / Support
Advertising in Small markets Compensation
Hiring Practices And the Law Credentials
Education Technology staff leadership Leadership
Ethics, Service Law Codes of Conduct and
operational Planning/implementation policies
Managing Planning ET staff Development
Hardware renewal
Professional Development Supervision Planning
Leading and Forecasting with all stakeholders
Principals, schools and Boards. Organization
Theory
Succession Planning, short And long term
forecasts, Developing supporting
policy Evaluation policy and Contingency
planning. Policy Theory
HR Performance Planning renewal planning
Tax/Revenue Consultation with Stakeholders/ Partne
rs/ fund development
23
B.2 Scoping Strategies
  • Scoping is concerned with WHAT to teach, not WHEN
    to teach it. It focuses on the nature of the
    content to be taught/learned. Scoping requires
    decisions about what the learner needs and / or
    wants to learn.
  • If you dont teach the right content in your
    design, you miss the point of the needs and goal
    analysis and learners will not achieve the right
    learning outcome (in either training or education
    settings)
  • In training, scoping is easier - needs assessment
    will identify the performance gaps, task analysis
    can help you decide what tasks need process or
    transfer improvement, and you select the content
    and order the steps logically.
  • In K-12, learning needs are vague and can be
    culture context dependent - the benefits of
    instruction are harder to measure/see. Still WHAT
    is taught is important, and it should fill a gap
    in student knowledge or performance, based on
    your needs assessment and goal analysis.
  • TRAINING Context Content Considerations
  • Organizational goals should match the content
  • Organizational and work / job requirements should
    match content
  • EDUCATION Context Content Considerations
  • Needs are less clear, are culture dependent,
    students have their own interests and benefits
    may take years to realize. Curriculum is the
    guide but multimedia constructivist praxis
    cause new scoping rules to be developed.

24
PART C
  • Elaboration Sequences
  • C.1 Task Expertise
  • C.2 Domain Expertise
  • C.3 The Conceptual Elaboration Sequence
  • C.4 The Theoretical Elaboration Sequence
  • C.5 The Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM)
  • How to design an SCM sequence

25
C. Elaboration Sequences
  • The concept of Elaboration sequences was founded
    on the idea that different sequencing strategies
    should be designed for different kinds of content
    (topics), and that different kinds of
    relationships with the content. (we can spiral
    lessons about the exploration (and comparison) of
    various European Governments, for example). For
    high expertise in this, systematic travel to
    similar (Education) departments in each country
    might occur, followed by another round of travel
    to the same countries to study a different
    department (Finance).
  • So the kind and level of expertise you expect
    from the lesson(s) or course (s) will vary
    depending on the kind of expertise you want to
    develop. (IE are you training tax collectors the
    case above, or are you educating Federal
    Economists?).
  • Elaboration theorists define 2 kinds of expertise
    in elaboration
  • 1. Task Expertise (learner becomes an expert in
    one task(tax collector)
  • 2. Domain Expertise (learner is an expert in a
    body of subject matter not tied to any one task
    (economics).

26
C.1 Elaboration Sequence Types Task Expertise
  • Task Expertise
  • The learner becomes an expert in a specific task.
  • Example managing a project, writing an annual
    plan, selling a product, designing a module.
  • Elaboration theory only works to instruct complex
    tasks (Reigeluth, 1999). The simple-to-complex
    model (SCM) works well to train tax collectors or
    to educate PERL programmers.
  • As complex cognitive and psychomotor tasks are
    done well under different conditions, each set of
    conditions defines a different version of the
    task - and some versions are much more complex
    than others. So the SCM model starts with a
    simple (real world) version of the task and
    instruction leads to a complex version by
    progressing through more increasingly complex
    versions of the task.
  • Example Solving equations with one unknown is
    easier to learn than solving with two unknowns
    for most learners. We try to start such
    instruction within the zone of development as
    designers.
  • Problems tackled should be within Vygotskys zone
    of proximal development - then the learner pushes
    beyond that.
  • Cause-effect relationships are established so the
    learner can understand and learn elements and
    combined element concepts, backing in and out of
    these relations offers abstract learning
    opportunity, analysis and synthesis.

27
C.2 Elaboration Sequences the 2 kinds of
Domain Expertise
  • Domain Expertise
  • The learner becomes an expert in a body of
    subject matter not tied to any specific task
  • Examples Economics, electronics, educational
    technology, law
  • Domain expertise ranges from simple to complex.
    Tax collectors can walk door to door, or help
    develop new GST systems. The idea is to design
    learning and teaching that goes from simple to
    complex. Start with the broadest, most inclusive
    ideas (social service exists because of tax
    collection and distribution). Gradually progress
    to more complex ideas (tax collection should not
    target the poor as much as the wealthy, then..).
    There are 2 types of domain expertise to consider
    in your sequencing of this kind of instruction
  • Conceptual Domain Expertise (understanding
    what). In simple form, these are concepts and
    principles (tax fuels the state for quality civil
    life). In complex form, these are concept maps
    (of tax, welfare and GDP).
  • Theoretical Domain Expertise (understanding
    why). In simple form, these are models for
    understanding (no tax, no hospitals). In complex
    form, these are intellectual models that explain
    real phenomena. General to specific sequencing is
    still recommended for this type of learning /
    mastery.

28
C. 3 The Conceptual Elaboration Sequence
  • Concepts are groupings or classes of objects,
    events, or ideas and can be broken down into
    narrower, less inclusive concepts. The
    classification of groupings is key to the design.
    People tend to store a new concept under broader,
    more inclusive terms until they get into it and
    learn the new concept well.
  • So a conceptual elaboration sequence is really
    created by a designer to give the learner
    (cognitive) scaffolding - to stage learning to
    progress from simple to complex events.
  • Using this model, your instructional design leads
    to a teaching event where learning occurs first
    from the (most inclusive) to narrow (less
    inclusive but more detailed) concepts.
  • Example Teach finder skills in Windows before
    teaching Word application skills. If the
    student wishes to mine down and do more
    detailed learning, they can mine until they
    need instruction to proceed toward success or
    mastery. Your (elaboration) design can have
    branches to accommodate this self-directed
    study.
  • Does not violate the notion of learning
    prerequisites because higher level concepts
    contain prerequisites for concepts below them.
  • (hint how do you find the most broad and most
    narrow concepts s that you can create a
    conceptual structure or hierarchy? Use
    Inspiration software and youll find that the
    bigger categories have many more lines emanating
    out from them).

29
C. 4 The Theoretical Elaboration Sequence
  • Intended for courses that focus on interrelated
    sets of principles which are elaborations on each
    other (e.g., how why something works not how it
    works).
  • Example A course on why audio conference
    software works, as opposed to a course on how
    audio conference software works.
  • A model intended for courses that start with the
    broadest, most general principles (usually the
    simplest) with gradual progression to narrower,
    more precise principles (usually more complex).
  • Example
  • Broad concept Oil and gas reservoir simulation
    can greatly improve profit.
  • 1st design course Principles of Oil and Gas
    Reservoir Simulation
  • 2nd design course Oil and Gas Reservoir
    Simulation/Production Optimization.
  • 3rd design seminar Maximizing Oil Well
    productivity using Simulation Results - How to
    produce the most oil when the price is highest.

To TOPIC Start
30
C. 5 The Simplifying Conditions Method
  • The SCM method (simplifying conditions method) of
    elaboration offers guidance for analyzing,
    selecting and sequencing the what to learn
    content.
  • This approach is considered more holistic - the
    instruction process begins with a simple task
    that is rather representative of the whole, and
    teaches progressively more complex versions -
    making sure the learner is aware of the other
    versions.
  • (This is the exact opposite of the hierarchical
    approach to sequencing, where all prerequisites
    are taught first and the real-world task is
    taught at the end of the process).
  • How to Design an SCM Method
  • Phase I Prepare for Analysis Design
  • Phase II Identify the First Learning Episode
  • Phase III Identify the next Learning Episode

31
A Recipe for designing an SCM sequence (detail)
  • Preparation for analysis and Design
  • Establish rapport with the SME (subject matter
    expert)
  • Identify the characteristics of the task in
    general
  • Identify the characteristics of the learners in
    general
  • Identify the delivery constraints of the
    instruction in general
  • Identify the First Learning Event
  • Help the SME to outline the simplest version of
    the task for you, this might be the simplest task
    process or simplest way of learning the task.
  • Organize the content for this version of the task
  • If this is a procedural task, do a task analysis
    to determine entry level steps and substeps.
  • If this is a not a procedural task,
  • set the goals for the task (what must be done or
    learned in this task)
  • Outline the constraints for attaining each goal
    (time, money, strength, patience)
  • Identify subcategories containing causes for the
    constraints
  • (the amount of time, the amount of money,
    weakness caused by worker fatigue)
  • Identify guidelines an expert uses to perform
    this version of the task, so the cause of the
    limitation is overcome and performance happens.

32
A Recipe for designing an SCM sequence
(summary) (my examples are in red)
  1. Create a model that describes all learning
    objectives involved in performing the task
  2. Waxing a car well means that you must prepare the
    car, know the weather, and have good materials to
    leave the car shiny and protected.
  3. Identify the learning goals for this version of
    the task under these conditions
  4. The student will be able to wax and protect a
    care well.
  5. Identify all important considerations or
    limitations / helping factors for attaining each
    goal (in the instructional world).
  6. The student will need equipment Water, Wax, two
    soft seamless rags, Turtle 432 Wax, light, a
    sunny day or a garage, and temperature of between
    10C and 30C. The student must have good arm
    mobility and vision.
  7. Identify the causal factors for each limitation /
    helping factor in (3).
  8. Equipment is essential to the task for without
    good equipment and weather, and a flexibly body,
    the wax cannot set and the car cannot be polished
    well.
  9. Analyze the causal factors to identify guidelines
    or prescriptive principles that an expert uses
    for this version of the task. Also identify all
    decision rules an expert uses to combine the
    guidelines into a (top) performance model.
  10. You must have a flexible body to do this task.
    Wash the car well, and let it dry well. No dust
    should be in the air. 2. Get use only Turtle 432
    Wax, and do not apply wax in the direct sun. 3.
    Apply wax to rag, not to car, and rub in circles
    with the seamless rag so as not to scratch the
    new wax on the car. 4. If the temperature outside
    is below 10C or higher than 40C, stop waxing as
    the wax will smear and not shine. 5. Allow was
    to dry for exactly 15 minutes. 6. Wipe with
    another similar clean rag until there is no swirl
    on the car left from the circular wiping motion.
  11. Identify explanations as to why each of the
    guidelines works and combine the explanations
    into explanatory models.
  12. An able body lets the person apply wax in smooth
    motions, to all areas of the car. Turtle wax is
    the best wax to use because it allows work in
    most temperatures, even in some sun. The car must
    be clean and dry for the seamless rag and
    polishing motions to leave no streaks on the car.
    Black cars look better in the shade.

33
Hierarchical Task Analysis and Sequencing from
Reigeluth See the animated slides I sent you to
notice the top-down analysis (Epitomizing) and
bottom-up sequencing (Elaboration) process in
action.
CONCEPTUAL MAP
Hierarchical Analysis Hierarchical Sequencing
Complexity of SUB SKILLS
Diversity of SUB SKILLS
34
Task Analysis and Sequencing with SCM
CONCEPTUAL MAP
Complexity of TASK
Diversity of TASK
35
Guidelines Skills, tasks and issues for
designers when Using elaboration theory to design
using the SCM method
Conceptual Map
Complexity of SUB SKILLS
Complexity of TASK
Diversity of TASK
Diversity of SUB SKILLS
Underlying Logic
For Designer
For Learner
36
A guide for blueprinting or sketching how you
Scope and Sequence your Content in an
Instructional Design Epitomizing and Elaborating
  • The SCM (for both procedural and holistic tasks)
    has of two parts
  • 1. Epitomizing the process of identifying the
    simplest version of a task (learning or doing)
    that is fairly representative of the task.
  • Example If we are to learn about finance, we can
    first learn about simple sales, expenses and
    revenue transactions.
  • 2. Elaborating the process of identifying
    progressively more complex versions of the task.
  • Hint This process is a good guide for your
    design work, and you can use it to help with the
    next assignment. For example, when you are
    presenting the instructional flow of for your
    next assignment, you can use these concepts as
    supporting rationale for why you made the
    instructional decisions you made about the
    content (scope) and order of instruction
    (sequence) in your lesson. Be sure to reference
    the Reigeluth text.

37
Epitomizing, then Elaborating
  • The principles of epitomizing are based on
    holistic learning schema building (Reigeluth),
    using
  • A whole version of the task rather than a simpler
    component skill
  • A simple version of the task
  • A real-world version of the task (if possible)
    and
  • A typical or version of the task
  • The epitome version of the task is performed by
    experts under restricted (but real-world)
    conditions, called simplifying conditions. (This
    is the learners view of the Zoomed-Out or Wide
    Angle picture let me get a feel for this,
    thinks the learner)
  • The principles of elaborating are similarly based
    on the notions of holistic learning and
    assimilation-to-schema. So each subsequent
    elaboration should be
  • 1. Another whole version of the task
  • 2. A slightly more complex version of the task
  • 3. Equally authentic, or more so and
  • 4. A little less typical of the the whole task.
  • (This is the learners view of the Zoomed-in or
    narrow Angle picture Let me try this, and get
    better at its, thinks the listener)

38
C. 2 The General-to-Detailed Continuum- if
Animal knowledge is the learning goal and
Epitome of this content can be presented by an
expert. Then, the elaborated parts or details
that make up the epitome can be diagrammed. From
(Reigeluth).
A N I M A L
GENERAL concept
Reptile
Mammal
Insects
DETAILED concepts
39
Elaboration Model Steps
  • Present an Epitome (a single type of content that
    is a shining example of the content to be
    learned) We will know more about animals
  • Present a motivational strategy to get people
    learning
  • Present an analogy to situate the learner with
    the task at hand
  • Present the organizing content ideas, preceded by
    the learning prerequisites
  • Offer in-lesson summarizer and synthesizer
    (review and examples of the excellent content)
  • Begin Level 1 Elaboration
  • This is zooming in the first time. These lessons
    present all the features of instruction (1-4) we
    did in the epitome, but for a smaller part
    (chunk) of the content We will know that
    reptiles, mammals and birds make up the animal
    world.
  • Begin Level 2 Elaboration
  • Once level 1 mastery occurs, make level 2 lessons
    available to the learner. Each level 2 lesson is
    identical to level one lessons, but Level 2
    lessons elaborate on an aspect of the organizing
    content in Level 1. These lessons present all the
    features of instruction (1-4) we did in the
    epitome, but for a smaller part (chunk) of the
    content We will learn that dogs, bears and
    whales make up the mammal group, lizards, turtles
    and iggzes make up the reptile group -) and
    eagles, falcons and swallows make up the bird
    group.
  • And so it goes

40
Conclusions
  • The Elaboration Theory of Instruction deals with
    the macro level of instruction, meaning that when
    we use it to model our instructional design, we
    are primarily concerned with the sequencing of
    ideas as opposed to the individual ideas
    themselves and - with providing examples relating
    to those ideas.
  • Specifically, sequencing relates to time ordered
    provision of fundamental and representational
    ideas or core principles, which are presented
    first to the learner -- and then they lead to
    instruction and content specifics.
  • The epitome or represents a single bit of content
    that represents the larger learning content set.
    It serves as a foundation from which more
    specific information may be developed by
    elaborating on finer and finer detail from within
    the epitome.
  • See the Class Plan on the Home Page for readings
    / assignment information
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