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ITU Seminar on Teaching

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and then 'observe' the product and/or process ' ... From content: ...to competence: Intended Learning Outcomes (using verbs from The SOLO Taxonomy) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ITU Seminar on Teaching


1
ITU Seminar on Teaching Learning
ITU Teaching Learning Seminar
Teaching/Learning Activities
Claus Brabrand ((( brabrand_at_itu.dk ))) (((
http//www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ ))) Associate
Professor, IT University of Copenhagen
Denmark
( 0900 1000 )
2
Constructive Alignment and Intended Learning
Outcomes
Introduction to
ITU Teaching Learning Seminar
Teaching/Learning Activities
Claus Brabrand ((( brabrand_at_itu.dk ))) (((
http//www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ ))) Associate
Professor, IT University of Copenhagen
Denmark
( 0900 1000 )
3
Exercise
T
"What is good teaching?"
4
Outline
  • 1) Introduction
  • Constructive Alignment
  • The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 2) From Content to Competence
  • Advocate a shift in perspective
  • Elaborate The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 3) Intended Learning Outcomes
  • How to use Intended Learning Outcomes
  • Relation to new Danish Grading Scale

5
Introduction to
  • Constructive Alignment SOLO Taxonomy

John Biggs popular and heavily cited book
Teaching for Quality Learning at
University - What the student does
Note 3rd Edition now available J.Biggs
C.Tang, 2009
Teaching Teaching
Understanding Understanding
19 min award-winning short-film on Constructive
Alignment (available on DVD in 7 languages,
epilogue by John Biggs)
6
Neighbour Discussion
T
"What are the film's main messages (in your
opinion)"?
7
Outline
  • 1) Introduction
  • Constructive Alignment
  • The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 2) From Content to Competence
  • Advocate a shift in perspective
  • Elaborate The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 3) Intended Learning Outcomes
  • How to use Intended Learning Outcomes
  • Relation to new Danish Grading Scale

8
From Content to Competence
  • My old course descriptions (Concurrency 2004)
  • Given in terms of a 'content description'
  • Essentially
  • Goal is
  • To understand
  • deadlock
  • interference
  • synchronization
  • ...

This is a bad idea for two reasons...!
9
Problem 1 !
  • Problem with 'content' as goals !

analyse ... compare ...
analyze systems explain causes
define deadlock describe solutions
agreement
Stud. C
  • Goal is
  • To understand
  • deadlock
  • interference
  • synchronization
  • ...

tacit knowledge from a research-based tradition
not known by student
Teacher
name solutions recite conditons
analyze systems explain causes
Stud. B
?
Stud. A
Censor
10
Problem 2 !
  • Problem with 'understanding' as goals !
  • Goal is
  • To understand
  • deadlock
  • interference
  • synchronization
  • ...

'concept of deadlock' ?!
?
The answer is simple
It cannot be observed !
11
Competence !
  • 'Competence' as goals !

Competence knowledge capacity to act
upon it
Have the student do something and then "observe"
the product and/or process
  • Objective !
  • To learn how to
  • analyze systems for...
  • explain cause/effects...
  • prove properties of...
  • compare methods of...
  • ...

Note 'understanding' is of course
pre-requisitional !
?
Note' inherently operational ( verbs)
'SOLO' Structure of the Observed Learning
Outcome
12
SOLO Advantages
  • Advantages of The SOLO Taxonomy
  • Linear hierarchical structure
  • Aimed at evaluating student learning
  • Converges on research (at SOLO 5)

Research Production of new knowledge
13
SOLO (elaborated)
Note the list is non-exhaustive
QUANTITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
SOLO 2 uni-structural
SOLO 3 multi-structural
SOLO 4 relational
SOLO 5 extended abstract
  • theorize
  • generalize
  • hypothesize
  • predict
  • judge
  • reflect
  • transfer theory (to new domain)
  • analyze
  • compare
  • contrast
  • integrate
  • relate
  • explain causes
  • apply theory (to its domain)
  • combine
  • structure
  • describe
  • classify
  • enumerate
  • list
  • do algorithm
  • apply method
  • define
  • identify
  • count
  • name
  • recite
  • paraphrase
  • follow (simple) instructions

14
Outline
  • 1) Introduction
  • Constructive Alignment
  • The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 2) From Content to Competence
  • Advocate a shift in perspective
  • Elaborate The SOLO Taxonomy
  • 3) Intended Learning Outcomes
  • How to use Intended Learning Outcomes
  • Relation to new Danish Grading Scale

15
Concrete Recommendations (4x)
1) Use 'standard formulation' a) puts
learning focus on the student b) competence
formulation "to be able to"
  • Intended Learning Outcomes Genetics
    101
  • After the course, the students are expected to be
    able to
  • locate genes on chromosomes
  • do simple calculations (e.g., recombination
    frequencies, in-breeding
    coefficients, Hardy-Weinberg,
    evolutionary equilibria).
  • describe and perform connexion-analysis
  • describe fundamental genetic concepts
    (e.g., mutation variation,
    in-breeding, natural selection).
  • describe and analyze simple inheritancies
  • analyze inheritance of multiple genes
    simultaneously

V
N
4) Avoid 'understanding-goals' "To
understand X", "Be familiar with Y",
"Have a notion of Z", ...!
N
V
N
V
V
N
V
N
V
V
N
V
3) Use 'Verb Noun' formulation What the
student is expected to do with a given
matter .
2) List ILO's as 'bullets' Clearer than
text Student "learning checklist" Use to
design Teaching/Learning Activities (TLA's)
Use to design Assessment Tasks (AT's)
N
V
16
The Danish Grade Scale
For an excellent performance which completely
meets the course objectives, with no or only a
few insignificant weaknesses .
12
A
Excellent
For a very good performance which meets the
course objectives, with only minor weaknesses
10
B
Very good
Grade Degree of realization of
course objectives!
For a good performance which meets the course
objectives but also displays some weaknesses
7
C
Good
For a fair performance which adequately meets the
course objectives but also displays several major
weaknesses
4
D
Fair
02
E
Adequate
For a sufficient performance which barely meets
the course objectives
00
Fx
Inadequate
For an insufficient performance which does not
meet the course objectives
-3
F
For a performance which is unacceptable in all
respects
Unacceptable
17
Activation Exercise
T
What are key ILO's in YOUR course ?
Concurrency analyze systems compare models
18
Questions...
Cognitive processes
Course descriptions
My research and teaching
"understanding" content ? competence
Association new old
The SOLO Taxonomy
'TLA' Teaching / Learning Activities
Teacher models levels 1 - 2 - 3
The Short-Film
The Book
Susan Robert
?
Student activation
Tips'n'Tricks
CS v. NAT v. MAT
recite generalize
15 programming
Students at University
"What is good teaching?"
Constructive Alignment
John Biggs
Top Competences
19
From Intended Learning Outcomes to
Teaching/Learning Activities
ITU Teaching/Learning Seminar Teaching/Learning
Activities
Claus Brabrand ((( brabrand_at_itu.dk ))) (((
http//www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ ))) Associate
Professor, IT University of Copenhagen
Denmark
( 1030 1045 )
20
From ILO's to TLA's
ITU Teaching/Learning Seminar Teaching/Learning
Activities
Claus Brabrand ((( brabrand_at_itu.dk ))) (((
http//www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ ))) Associate
Professor, IT University of Copenhagen
Denmark
( 1030 1045 )
21
Summary from Last Year
  • Constructive Alignment and
  • Intended Learning Outcomes

22
Intended Learning Outcomes
  • From content
  • ...to competence
  • Intended Learning Outcomes (using verbs from The
    SOLO Taxonomy)

?
analyze explain
name recite
  • Goal understand
  • deadlock
  • interference
  • synchronization
  • ...

?
vs.
Teacher
Student
Understanding?!?
  • ILO's
  • analyze ...
  • explain ...
  • compare ...
  • apply ...

Have the student do something and then
"observe" product and/or process
?
23
Constructive Alignment
  • Make explicit ILO's ( )
  • (and tell this to students)

Intended Learning Outcomes
ILO's
Teaching Learning Activities
Assessment
vs.
ROBERT extrinsically motivated
SUSAN intrinsically motivated
24
The Implementation Process
1) Think carefully about overall goal of
course (what are the stud. to learn?)
2) Operationalize these goals and express
them as (SOLO) intended learning outcomes
alignment
learning support
learning incentive
3) Carefully design (TLA's)
teaching/learning actitivites (? intended
learning outcomes)
4) Carefully design (AT's) assessment tasks
(? intended learning outcomes)
More information on implementing alignment
http//www1.itu.dk/sw79909.asp
25
Teaching/Learning Activities
  • General issues

26
Lecture (about Application)
  • Teacher activity
  • Introduce
  • Explain
  • Elaborate
  • Discuss application
  • Give examples
  • Show PPT slides
  • Questions on slides
  • Winding up
  • Student activity
  • Listen
  • Listen (maybe take notes)
  • Understand? (correctly? deeply?)
  • Listen (maybe take notes)
  • Listen (maybe take notes)
  • Watch (maybe note points)
  • Write answers to questions
  • Possibly ask a question

vs.
active teacher
vs.
Biggs Tang 2007, p.137
passive student
27
Lecture
functional knowledge
teacher centric
student centric
Lecture
declarative knowledge
28
Student Activation
"The (in-famous) Learning Pyramid"
Average retention rate
5
Lecture
Listening Learning about
passive student
10
Reading
20
Audiovisual
student activation
30
Demonstration
active student
50
Discussion group
75
Practice by doing
Doing Learning to do
80
Teaching others
NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science,
Bethel, Maine
29
Listening vs. Doing
  • Learning (about)
  • about application
  • about cooking
  • about programming
  • about designing
  • about analysis
  • about construction
  • about relating
  • ...
  • Learning (to do)
  • to apply
  • to cook
  • to program
  • to design
  • to analyse
  • to construct
  • to relate
  • ...

student listening
(to something about something)
vs.
student doing !!
30
Main Point !!!
  • Given (carefully chosen)
  • ILO's
  • analyze ...
  • explain ...
  • compare ...
  • apply ...

student-centric
Design TLA's ILO's
FOCUS TODAY!
Note there is a workshop on this later today
(1735 - 1820)
31
Thank you !
  • Have a great seminar !

32
Aligning your TLA's with your ILO's
WORKSHOP
ITU Teaching/Learning Seminar Teaching/Learning
Activities
Claus Brabrand ((( brabrand_at_itu.dk ))) (((
http//www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ ))) Associate
Professor, IT University of Copenhagen
Denmark
( 1735 1820 )
33
The Implementation Process
http//itucph.onconfluence.com/display/ILU/Study
programmedevelopment
1) Think carefully about overall goal of
course (what are the stud. to learn?)
  • ILO's
  • analyze systems for properties (e.g. deadlock)
  • compare models of systems (wrt. behavior)

2) Operationalize these goals and express
them as (SOLO) intended learning outcomes
alignment
learning support
learning incentive
3) Carefully design (TLA's)
teaching/learning actitivites (? intended
learning outcomes)
4) Carefully design (AT's) assessment tasks
(? intended learning outcomes)
34
Workshop (groups of 3)
5'
  • 1) Pair up (groups of 3) and choose 1-2 key
    ILO's from your courses
  • (e.g., 'to program', 'to design', 'to
    construct', 'to analyse', 'to relate', 'to
    compare', ...)
  • 2) Design a student-centric TLA for those key
    ILO's
  • (relating today's material to your teaching)
  • 3) Pair up with another group and explain your
    TLA
  • (just explain the main points and the
    student-centricity)

30'
2x5'
Exercise on "Teaching/Learning Activities" (From
ILO's to TLA's) ITU, Nov 20, 2009
35
BONUS SLIDES
  • - -

36
Key References
  • Teaching for Quality Learning at
    University John Biggs Catherine Tang Society
    for Research into Higher Education, 2007.
    McGraw-Hill.
  • Evaluating the Quality of Learning The SOLO
    Taxonomy John Biggs Kevin F. Collis London
    Academic Press, 1982
  • Teaching Teaching Understanding
    Understanding Claus Brabrand Jacob Andersen 19
    minute award-winning short-film (DVD) Aarhus
    University Press, Aarhus University, 2006
  • "Constructive Alignment The SOLO Taxonomy a
    Comparative Study of University Competencies in
    Computer Science vs. Mathematics" Claus Brabrand
    Bettina Dahl CRPIT, Vol. 88, ACS 3-17, R.
    Lister Simon, Eds., 2007

37
Common SOLO Competences
From a study of 632x courses at NAT/(AUSDU) ie.
science context
38
The BLOOM Taxonomy (1956)
  • The BLOOM Taxonomy

Analysis
Evaluation
Synthesis
SOLO 45
Qualitative
Application
Comprehension
Quantitative
SOLO 23
Knowledge

really intended to guide the selection of
items for a test rather than to evaluate the
quality of a students response to a particular
item -- (Biggs Collis, 1982)
39
Constructive Alignment
ILO's (Intended Learning Outcomes) Explicitly
defined and communicated
TLA's (Teaching/Learning Activities) Designed
to meet ILO's
AT's (Assessment Tasks) Designed to assess
ILO's
learning incentive
learning support
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