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Ch' 9 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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Each Element has its own Characteristic Properties: ... Used to separate nails that are made from Iron and Aluminum. Common Ways to Separate Mixtures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch' 9 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


1
Ch. 9 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
2
Elements
  • Pure Substance that cannot be separated into
    simpler substances by physical or chemical means

3
  • Pure Substance ? substance in which there is
    only one type of particle
  • Example Every Atom in a 5g nugget of the
    Element Gold is identical to every other Atom of
    Gold

4
  • Each Element has its own Characteristic
    Properties
  • -- these properties does not depend on amount of
    the Element present
  • Physical Properties Boiling Point, Melting
    Point, Density, Color, Hardness,
  • Chemical Properties Reactivity with Acid,
    Reactivity with Oxygen, Flammability

5
3 Kinds of Elements
  • Metal
  • Has Luster
  • Is Malleable
  • Is Ductile
  • Good Conductor of Heat and Electricity

6
3 Kinds of Elements
  • Non-Metals
  • Has No Luster
  • Not Malleable
  • Not Ductile
  • Not Good Conductor of Heat and Electricity

7
3 Kinds of Elements
  • Metalloid
  • Also called Semi-Conductor
  • Has Properties of Both Metals and Non-Metals

8
98.5 Earths Crust comes from 8 Elements
  • Oxygen 46.6
  • Silicon 27.7
  • Aluminum 8.1
  • Iron 5.0
  • Calcium 3.6
  • Sodium 2.8
  • Potassium 2.6
  • Magnesium 2.1

9
  • Other 1.8 Titanium, Hydrogen, Carbon,
    Nitrogen, Copper, Zinc, Lithium, Nitrogen, Boron

10
Earths Atmosphere
  • Nitrogen 78
  • Oxygen 21
  • Other 1 is mixture of Argon, Water Vapor,
    Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, and other Gases
  • --Has Changed Over Time

11
Compounds
  • Made of Elements
  • Pure Substance composed of two or more Elements
    that are Chemically combined
  • Majority of substances you see everyday

12
Compounds
  • Not All Elements will form Compounds
  • Must have certain Ratio of each Element
  • Example Water ( H20 )
  • -- Two molecules of Hydrogen bond to One molecule
    of Oxygen

13
  • Compound Element
  • Table Salt Sodium Chlorine
  • Water Hydrogen Oxygen
  • Vinegar Hydrogen Carbon
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon Carbon Oxygen
  • Dioxide
  • Baking Sodium Hydrogen
  • Soda Carbon Oxygen

14
Properties of Compounds
  • Compound has properties that differ from those
    of the Elements that form it
  • Sodium Chlorine ---? Sodium
  • (reacts with (poisonous gas) Chloride
  • water)
    (Table Salt)

15
Breaking Down Compounds
  • -- Compounds cannot be broken down by physical
    change
  • -- The only way to break down a compound is
    through a chemical change
  • Example Carbonic Acid breaks down into Carbon
    Dioxide and Water

16
Breaking Down Compounds
  • Will be broken down into Elements and Simpler
    Compounds
  • Adding Energy (Break Apart Compound)
  • Applying Heat
  • Applying Electric Current

17
Why Do We Need Break Down Compounds?
  • Aluminum is Not found in
  • Nature
  • Comes from a Compound
  • Aluminum Oxide

18
Compounds in Nature
  • All living organisms contain compound known as
    Protein
  • Carbon Dioxide is another compound found in life

19
Mixtures
  • Combination of two or more substances that are
    not chemically combined
  • Form as a result in a failure of forming a
    compound
  • No Chemical Change (so each substance in a
    mixture has same chemical properties it had
    before the mixture formed)

20
Examples
  • Pizza easy to separate
  • -- (cheese and tomato sauce do not combine)
  • -- (easy to pick off mushrooms)
  • Salt Water hard to separate
  • -- Heat Mixture until water evaporates (Only Salt
    Left)

21
Common Ways to Separate Mixtures
  • Distillation ? process that separates a mixture
    based on Boiling Points of the component
  • Examples
  • Pure Water out of Salt Water
  • Moonshine
  • Gasoline and Kerosene out of Crude Oil

22
Common Ways to Separate Mixtures
  • Magnet ? attracted to Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt
  • -- Used to separate nails that are made from Iron
    and Aluminum

23
Common Ways to Separate Mixtures
  • Centrifuge ? separates mixtures by the Densities
    of components
  • Examples
  • -- Mud Water Dirt
  • -- Blood Plasma Red Blood
  • Cells

24
Mixtures
  • Do not have a specific mass ratio like compounds
  • Example
  • -- Granite is mixture of 3 Minerals
  • 1. Feldspar ? Pink
  • 2. Mica ? Black
  • 3. Quartz ? Colorless

25
Solutions
  • Homogenous mixture that appears to be a single
    substance
  • Same appearance and properties throughout mixture

26
  • Dissolvinggt the process in which particles of
    substances separate and spread evenly throughout
    a mixture.
  • Solutegtsubstance dissolved (salt)
  • Solventgt substance in which the solute is
    dissolved. (water)

27
  • Solublegt able to dissolve
  • Insolublegt unable to dissolve
  • When two liquids or gases form a solution, the
    substance with the greater volume is the solvent.
  • Water Salt in the winter. Salt is used to melt
    the snow and ice.
  • Salt is used in a greater volume.

28
  • Alloys -- are solid solutions of metals or
    nonmetals dissolved in metals.
  • Examples of alloys
  • -Brass gt alloy of metal zinc dissolved in
    copper
  • -Steel gt alloy of non-metal carbon and other
    elements dissolved in iron.

29
  • Particles in Solutions Are Extremely Small!!! 
  • So small that they never settle out, nor can
    they be filtered out of these mixtures.
  • So small they cannot scatter light.

30
Concentration of Solutions
  • a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a
    Solvent
  • Expressed in (g/ml)
  • Solutions can be described as concentrated or
    diluted

31
  • What is the concentration of a solution that has
    35g of salt dissolved in 175 mL of water?
  • What is the concentration of Solution A if it has
    55g of sugar dissolved in 500 mL of water?
  • What is the concentration of Solution B if it has
    36g of sugar dissolved in 144 mL of water?

32
Solubility
  • Solubility ? the ability of one substance to
    dissolve in another at a given temperature and
    pressure

33
  • What Affects How Quickly Solids Dissolve in
    Liquids?
  • Mixing
  • Heating
  • Crushing
  • Unlike the solubility of most solids in
    liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids
    decreases as the temperature is raised.

34
Suspensions
  • A mixture in which particles of a material are
    more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid
    or gas
  • Particles are insoluble-do not dissolve in liquid
    or gas
  • Often describe as heterogeneous mixtures because
    the components can be seen

35
  • Particles are fairly large
  • Scatter and/or block light
  • Makes suspension difficult to see through
  • Particles are too heavy to remain mixed without
    being stirred or shaken
  • Left alone, particles will settle out

36
  • Can be separated by a filter
  • The liquid or gas will filter through but the
    particles cannot
  • Other Examples of Suspensions
  • Blood
  • Muddy Water
  • Lysol

37
Colloids
  • Mixture in which the particles are dispersed
    throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out
  • Have properties of both solutions and suspensions

38
Examples of Colloids
  • Jello, Deodorant, Milk, Mayonnaise, Whipped
    Cream, Clouds, Marshmellows, Shaving Cream, Your
    Cells (particles suspended in water)

39
  • Products do not settle out.
  • Particles are smaller than those in a suspension.
  • They still scatter light.
  • Cannot be separated by filtration-particles pass
    through
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