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Gender and Development


Gender is a social construction depending upon time and culture. ... Within the household there is a clear division of labour based upon gender. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender and Development

Gender and Development Practical approaches
  • - a presentation by Mona Dahms
  • Department of Development and Planning
  • Aalborg University

  • What goes wrong?
  • Frameworks for Gender Analysis
  • Harvard
  • Moser
  • Social relations

Learning Objectives
  • After this lecture you should be able to
  • recognise the importance of gender analysis for
    project planning, implementation and evaluation,
  • list tools for gender analysis as part of
    development interventions.

Summary of lesson 1
  • Gender is a social construction depending upon
    time and culture.
  • Therefore, gender roles are neither universal nor
  • There is a global gender imbalance in favour of
  • It is necessary to include gender planning in
    development interventions

1. What goes wrong?
Gender and project planning
  • Three levels of gender integration
  • Gender blindness gender is not considered,
  • Gender neutrality gender is considered and
    equal opportunities are secured,
  • Gender planning gender is considered and equity
    impacts are secured.

Equal Opportunities??
To secure a fair selection you all get the same
exercise You must climb the tree.
  • (Implicit) assumptions about the household
  • The household consists of a nuclear family of
    husband, wife and 2 3 biological children.
  • Within the household there is a clear division of
    labour based upon gender. The man is the
    breadwinner and the woman is the mother and
  • Womens work is unpaid housework, not crucial to
    the survival of the family

Further assumptions??
  • (Implicit) assumptions about data collection
  • All techniques for data collection are equally
    valid for women and for men
  • Conventional conceptual categories (ex. work)
    hold the same meaning for all people.
  • Also other factors, such as Timing of
    interviews, length of the reference period and
    language, influence data collected.

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Exercise 1 Assumptions??
  • How can we as researchers ensure that assumptions
    made are in accordance with the reality
  • Buzz with your nearest neighbours for a few
    minutes and present your thoughts to the plenary.

2. Gender Analysis Frameworks
  • Source UNDP Gender in Development Programme,
    Learning and Information Pack Gender Analysis

Gender Analysis Frameworks
  • Gender roles framework (Harvard)
  • Triple roles framework (Carolyn Moser)
  • Web of institutionalisation framework (Caren
  • Gender analysis matrix (GAM)
  • Equality and empowerment framework (Sara Longwe)
  • Capacities and vulnerabilities framework (CVA)
  • People oriented planning framework (POP)
  • Social relations framework (SRF)
  • The multiplicity of frameworks indicates the
    activities but also the frustrations!

Information provided by GA
  • Specific gender disaggregated statistics
  • Understanding of gender relations
  • Analysis of the gendered impact of sexual
    division of labour
  • Needs and interests of both women and men

Harvard framework - 1
  • Three main tools
  • 1. The socio-economic activity profile
  • who does what, when, where and for how long?

Tool 1 Activity profile
Activities Women/girls Men/boys
Productive activities Agriculture Income generation Employment Others
Reproductive activities Water Fuel Food Childcare Health Cleaning and repair Market Other
Harvard framework - 1
  • Three main tools
  • 1. The socio-economic activity profile
  • who does what, when, where and for how long?
  • 2. The access and control profile
  • who has access to resources (ex. land, equipment,
    capital etc.)?
  • who has access to benefits (ex. education, health
    services, political power etc.)?
  • who has control over resources and benefits?

Tool 2 Access and control profile
Access Access Control Control
Women Men Women Men
Resources Land Equipment Labour Cash Education Training Other
Benefits Income Ownership Basic needs Education Political power prestige Other
Tool 3 Influencing factors
  • 3. A list of factors which determine the gender
    differences identified
  • Charts the factors (political, economic, cultural
    etc.) which affect the gender differentiations
    identified in the profiles
  • Past and present influences
  • Opportunities and constraints

Harvard framework - 2
  • Strengths
  • Collecting and organising information about
    gender division of labour,
  • Making womens work visible
  • Distinguishes between access and control
  • Useful for projects at micro-level
  • A gender-neutral entry point for discussions on
    gender issues

Harvard framework - 3
  • Weaknesses
  • Focus on efficiency rather than equity
  • Focus on material resources rather than on social
  • Can be carried out in a non-participatory way

Exercise 2 Bumpy roads
  • Use the Harvard framework to analyse the case
    study (Exercise 3 Bumpy roads) handed out.
  • Discuss why and how the mixed results were
  • Please present your answers to the plenary.

Moser framework - 1
  • Two main tools used
  • Gender roles identification - womens triple
    role productive, reproductive, community.
  • Gender needs assessment Practical gender needs,
    strategic gender needs.

Productive work
  • Production of goods and services for consumption
    and trade (farming, fishing, employment,
  • Often carried out alongside the reproductive
    work. Womens productive work is often less
    visible and less valued than mens.

Reproductive work
  • Care and maintenance of the household and its
    members (bearing and caring for children, food
    preparation, water and fuel collection, shopping,
    housekeping, family health care)
  • Seldom considered real work. Usually unpaid.
  • Almost always the responsibility of girls and

Community work
  • Collective organisation of social events and
    services (ceremonies, celebrations, community
    improvement activities, participation in groups
    and organisations, local political activities
  • Involves volunteer time. Normally unpaid.
  • Men undertake community work, too but often at
    political level, giving prestige.

Womens Work
Practical gender needs
  • A response to short-term, immediately perceived
    needs arising from concrete conditions
  • Mainly arising from and reinforcing particular
    womens reproductive and productive role
  • Do not challenge the subordinate position of
  • (Ex. Clean water, health care, housing, food
  • Womens needs differ from mens needs because of
    their different tasks and responsibilities.

Strategic gender needs
  • Response to long-term needs arising from womens
    subordinate position
  • Challenge the nature of the gendered relationship
    between women and men
  • Women involved as agents of change
  • Lead to a transformation of gender division of
    labour for all women
  • (Ex. access to resources (land, credit, etc.),
    measures against male violence, control over own
  • Womens needs differ from mens needs because of
    their different positions in society.

Moser framework - 2
  • Strengths
  • Can be used for planning in a variety of settings
  • Challenges unequal gender relations
  • Supports the empowerment of women
  • Recognises institutional and political resistance
    to transforming gender relations
  • Needs concept useful for evaluating impact of
    development interventions
  • Triple roles concept useful for revealing womens
  • Alerts planners to the interrelationship between
    productive, reproductive and community work

Moser framework - 3
  • Weaknesses
  • Looks at separate activities rather than
    interrelated activities of women and men
  • Other forms of inequality (race, class etc.) not
  • Strict division between practical and strategic
    needs often unhelpful in practise
  • Moser does not include strategic needs of men
    have been included in the Levy framework

Exercise 3 Moser framework
  • Read the case study provided (case study one) and
    discuss it with your nearest neighbours.
  • Using the Moser framework identify
  • Roles emphasised (intended and in practise),
  • Gender needs met (intended and in practise),
  • Fill in the accompanying chart
  • Please be prepared to present your group results
    to the plenary.

Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 1
  • Five essential concepts
  • Development as increasing human well-being
  • Social relations
  • Institutional analysis
  • Institutional gender policies
  • Underlying and structural causes

Concept 1 Development
  • Development as increasing human well-being not
    just economic growth.
  • Core elements
  • Survival
  • Security
  • Autonomy

Concept 2 Social relations
  • Social relations are understood as the way in
    which different groups of people are positioned
    in relation to material and intangible resources.
  • SR determine peoples roles, responsibilities,
    claims, rights and control
  • SR include gender, class, ethnicity, race etc.
  • SR change overtime, influenced by changes at

Concept 3 Institutional analysis
Key institution Organisational form
State Legal, military, administrative organisations
Market Firms, financial corporations, farming enterprises, multinationals etc.
Community Village tribunals, voluntary associations, informal networks, patron-client relationship, NGOs
Family/kinship Household, extended family, lineage groups etc.
Concept 3 Institutional analysis
  • Five aspects of an institution
  • Rules How are things done?
  • Activities What is done?
  • Resources What is used, what is produced?
  • People Who is in, who is out, who does what?
  • Power Who decides, whose interests are served?

Concept 4 Institutional gender policies
  • Three categories of gender policies
  • Gender- blind
  • Gender-aware
  • Gender-neutral
  • Gender-specific
  • Gender-redistributive

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Concept 5 Underlying and structural causes
  • Examines
  • Immediate, underlying and structural factors
    responsible for problems
  • Effects on those involved

Causes and effects
Long-term effects
Intermediate effects
Immediate effects
Immediate causes - 4 levels
Intermediate causes 4 levels
Structural causes 4 levels
Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 2
  • Strengths
  • Used at different levels for planning and policy
  • Presents a broader picture of poverty
  • Focus on structural analysis and processes of
    powerlessness and marginalisation
  • Links micro- and macro-level analysis
  • Emphasises gender relations and puts gender at
    the core of the analysis

Social Relations Framework (SRF) - 3
  • Weaknesses
  • May give an overwhelming impression of large
  • Overlooks the potential for people to effect
  • Women may get subsumed into other social
  • Appear to be complicated

A word of caution!!
  • Gender analysis should not be used as a rigid
    neutral technical tool imposed by outside
    experts !
  • Women and men must be accorded an active
    decision-making role in their own development !
  • Gender analysis can never replace empathy and
    sensitivity in development work!

Exercise 3 Mini-case studies
  • Read the 4 mini-case studies and discuss the
    following questions
  • How does this project affect the workload and/or
    status of women?
  • How, if at all, could this project be sustained?
  • How, if at all, does this project contribute to
    the equality of women?
  • Please feed back your answers to the plenary.

This was all for today thank you for your
attention it has been a pleasure!