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The Weekly Cycle of Work and Rest: A diary study

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The Weekly Cycle of Work and Rest: A diary study. Fred Zijlstra & John Rook ... variable, and biographic data, work related var's, time for various activities, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Weekly Cycle of Work and Rest: A diary study


1
The Weekly Cycle of Work and Rest A diary study
  • Fred Zijlstra John Rook
  • University of Maastricht
  • Department of Psychology
  • QinetiQ, Farnborough, UK

2
Introduction
  • Being active and engaged in activities implies
    investing resources and getting fatigued.
  • People need to regulate their effort investment
    in order to be able to complete their working
    day.
  • Therefore people take breaks during their working
    day. Effort regulation is also required over
    working days (e.g. week).

3
Cycle of work and rest
  • After work recovery is needed, normally achieved
    through rest or change of activity.
  • Fatigue and recovery are related concepts
    fatigue is the state that results from having
    been exposed to demands, and recovery is the
    process that replenishes the resources again.
  • Lack of recovery, or insufficient recovery may
    result in accumulation of fatigue, and eventually
    may lead to ill-health (Meijman Mulder, 1998).

4
Effort Recovery, Meijman Mulder, (1998)
Decision latitude
Actual mobilisation Effort psycho- physiological
State
Work aspects job conditions supplies relations
Actual level task demands and working conditions
Work strategies
Bio-psychological hardware and software
Load reactions reversible effects
product
Recovery
If not
Cumulation to
Irreversible effects
5
Study background
  • Normal pattern is that people are exposed to work
    demands throughout the day, and that after work
    time is meant for recovery.
  • The activities people undertake affect the level
    of fatigue, and thus the process of recovery.
  • Various developments are believed to affect the
    time available for recovery (i.e. changes in work
    arrange-ments, use of ICT, dual career families),
    people taking work home, sharing and
    renegotiating family responsibilities affect the
    time available for recovery (Roe, et.al, 1995
    Zijlstra, et al., 1996).

6
Study background
  • Sleep is believed to be very important for
    recovery. A previous study (Zijlstra et al. 2000)
    compared people with high vs low levels of
    fatigue
  • fatigue low high
  • Hours sleep work day 7.3 6.9
  • weekend 8.4 8.3
  • Effort rating morning 32.6 51.0
  • afternoon 50.4 80.7

7
Study aim
  • This study aimed to look at to what extent the
    various activities people engage in contribute to
    fatigue (and thus recovery).
  • If an activity is increasing fatigue this implies
    that activities are demanding, and if not, they
    apparently are not demanding.
  • Another aim was to look at the work rest cycle in
    a normal week.

8
hypotheses
  • Work related activities are positively associated
    with fatigue, as are household activities.
  • Sleep is believed to be negatively associated
    with fatigue.
  • Fatigue levels are lower during the weekend, thus
    allowing recovery.
  • Low effort, and social activities are negatively
    associated with fatigue.

9
Study method
  • Diary study with N 46 from three different
    organizations (office workers, 40 men, 65
    married).
  • People reported on their activities (pre-coded in
    6 different categories), and time investment,
    time to bed, and time of getting up, during one
    week (Sunday Sunday).
  • Rated their experience of activities,
  • Included some questionnaires to measure fatigue
    (CIS-20 job demands, sleep quality,

10
Results
  • Correlations with Fatigue
  • job demands -.37
  • Total work time -.13
  • time household .05
  • low effort act. .32
  • sports act. -.56
  • social act. .19
  • total weekly sleep -.08
  • Sleep Quality -.62

11
Linear Regression
  • fatigue as dependent variable, and biographic
    data, work related vars, time for various
    activities, and sleep parameters are used as
    predictors.
  • Model 1 with only biographic data not
    significant

12
Multiple Linear Regression (N46)
  • Variables ß t
  • Time work related -.01 -.11
  • Work travel .02 1.09
  • Time household -.10 -.80
  • Time low effort .16 1.35
  • Time sports -.39 -2.88
  • Time social .14 1.13
  • Time sleep .15 1.09
  • Sleep quality -.38 -2.55
  • Sleep efficiency -.19 -1.37
  • R2 .58 Adj R2 .47 plt.05
    plt.01

13
Results fatigue curve
14
Results
  • ANOVA repeated measures
  • both the linear and quadratic trend are
    significant.
  • Lowest levels of fatigue Sunday highest
    Wednesday.
  • People use weekend indeed for recovery.

15
Results sleep curve
16
Results
  • On average people sleep just over 7 hours per
    night
  • Sleep Quality highest on Saturday. People also
    feel most refreshed on Saturday. This is most
    beneficial in terms of recovery.
  • Sleep Quality is lowest on Monday this actually
    reflects the sleep from night Sunday to Monday.
    Anticipation of work demands..?

17
Conclusion
  • Combination of work and private life domains does
    account for higher levels of fatigue (work
    weekend).
  • Low effort are not really helpful in terms of
    recovery.
  • Physical activities are very beneficial for
    recovery.
  • Sleep is important, although not the amount of
    sleep, but rather the quality of the sleep.
  • Time spent on various activities seems not to be
    essential, presumably it is the subjective
    experience of the various activities that counts.

18
Practical recommendations
  • Stimulate active engagement in leisure
    activities.
  • Stimulate physical activities during lunch
    breaks.
  • Install work schedules that help people to
    combine work with family responsibilities (too
    much flexibility can lead to unpredictability and
    may be counterproductive).

19
  • The fatigue of work well accomplished gets you
    ready for sleep, but during the night, you must
    protect yourself against being awakened by
    stress
  • (Selye, 1976, p. 423)
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