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International Space Station: Transitional Platform for Moon and Mars


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Title: International Space Station: Transitional Platform for Moon and Mars

International Space Station Transitional
Platform for Moon and Mars
  • Mike Greenisen
  • (NASA Johnson Space Center)
  • 23 September 2004
  • Northern Illinois University

NASAsHuman Life Sciences Critical Path Roadmap
Critical Path Objectives
  • Identify and assess risks for human space
  • Prioritize research and technology and
    communicate those priorities
  • Guide solicitation, selection, and development of
    NASA research (ground and flight) and allocation
    of resources
  • Assess progress toward reduction and management
    of risks
  • Define operating bands (acceptable levels of risk)

Disciplines Cross-Cutting Areas
  • Bone loss
  • Muscle alterations atrophy
  • Neurovestibular adaptation
  • Cardiovascular alterations
  • Immunology, infection hematology
  • Environmental effects
  • Clinical capabilities
  • Psychosocial adaptation
  • Sleep circadian rhythms
  • Neuropsychological
  • Space human factors cognitive capabilities
  • Radiation effects
  • Advanced life support
  • Advanced environmental monitoring
  • Advanced food technology

Human Health Countermeasures
Autonomous Medical Care
Behavioral Health Performance
Radiation Health
Advanced Human Support Technologies
Reference Missions
DRM 1 Year ISS Lunar Mars
Crew Size 2 4 6 6
Launch Date 2005? NET 2015, NLT 2020 NET 2025 2030
Mission Duration 12 months 10 44 days 30 months
Outbound Transit 2 days 3 7 days 4 6 months
On-Site Duration 12 months 4 30 days 18 months
Return Transit 2 days 3 7 days 4 6 months
Communication lag time 0 1.3 seconds 3 20 minutes
Hypogravity 0 g 1/6g (.1666g/5.33 ft./sec.2) 1/3g (.389g/12.448 ft./sec.2)
Internal Environment 14.7 psi TBD TBD
EVA 0 4 per mission 2 3/week 4 15/person 2 3/week 180/person
  • 2004 Announcement of new vision for space
  • 2005 Countermeasure hardware requirements (Phase
  • 2006 Initial flight experiments countermeasure
    hardware design prototype development (Phase B)
  • 2007-8 First unmanned test flight of CEV
  • 2010 STS to be retired end heavy lift/return
  • 2010-13 Final ground demo of countermeasures
  • 2013-16 In-flight demo/validation of integrated
    countermeasure suite(s)
  • 2015-20 Moon human landing/exploration testbed
  • 2016 End ISS validation of countermeasures
  • 2025 First piloted Mars mission

Risk Mitigation StatusTechnology Readiness Level
(TRL) Countermeasures Readiness Level (CRL)
TRL Definition CRL Definition CRL category CRL category
Basic principles observed Phenomenon observed and reported Problem defined Basic research
Technology concept and/or application formulated Hypothesis formed, preliminary studies to define parameters. Demonstrate feasibility Basic research
Analytical and experimental critical function/proof-of-concept Validated hypothesis. Understanding of scientific processes underlying problem Basic research Research to prove feasibility
Component and/or breadboard validation in lab Formulation of countermeasures concept based on understanding of phenomenon Counter-measure develop-ment Research to prove feasibility
Component and/or breadboard in relevant environment Proof of concept testing and initial demonstration of feasibility and efficacy Counter-measure develop-ment Research to prove feasibility
System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in relevant environment Laboratory/clinical testing of potential countermeasure in subjects to demonstrate efficacy of concept Counter-measure develop-ment
Subsystem prototype in a space environment Evaluation with human subjects in controlled laboratory simulating operational space flight environment Counter-measure develop-ment Counter-measure demonstration
System completed and flight qualified through demonstration Validation with human subjects in actual operational space flight to demonstrate efficacy and operational feasibility Counter-measure demonstration
System flight proven through mission operations Countermeasure fully flight-tested and ready for implementation Countermeasure operations Countermeasure operations
Human Health Risk Assessment Criteria (examples)
Severity of Consequences (for example)
Low Moderate High
Crewmember Health In-flight No more than temporary discomfort Short-term incapacitation or impairment Death, significant health issue requiring mission abort or long-term incapacitation or impairment
Crewmember Performance In-flight Delays of mission objectives Loss of some mission objectives Inability to perform critical mission functions, or total loss of mission objectives
Crewmember Health Post-mission Limited increase in post-mission rehabilitation Impairment but no long term reduced quality of life Significant permanent disability or significantly reduced lifespan, or significant long term impairment or reduced quality of life
Types of Consequences (for example)
Rating Analysis
  • Human Health and Countermeasure Risks
  • Most microgravity physiology risks are modest
  • ISS should be used to mitigate those risks
  • Behavioral Health and Performance Risks
  • Critical for exploration
  • ISS only moderately useful to mitigate risks
  • Research should be done in integrated test
  • Radiation Risks
  • Radiation protection is essential for exploration
  • Most research should be done on Earth

Human Health and Countermeasures Risks
Human Health and Countermeasures Risks
Human Health and Countermeasures Risks
Autonomous Medical Care
Behavioral Health and Performance
Radiation Risks
  • John Charles
  • Deputy Chief Scientist Bioastronautics
  • Kent Joosten
  • Exploration Systems Engineering Office

Mars Mission
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • Earth to Mars
  • Average short 48M Miles
  • Average Long 235M Miles
  • With eccentricity short varies between 35M 63M
  • Mars Equator Diameter 4,214 Miles
  • Earth Equator Diameter 7,921 Miles
  • One Astronautical Unit AU 93M Miles (92,960,000
  • Solar System Measurement
  • One Light Year 63M AU (63,241 AUs)
  • Star Distance Measurement

Example Short-Stay Missions
  • Characterized by
  • High-propulsive requirements
  • Large variation in energy requirements across
    mission opportunities
  • Venus swing-by or deep-space Maneuvers
  • Close perihelion passage
  • Short to long total mission durations
  • Majority (90) of crew time spent in deep-space

Example Short-Stay Mission
Example Long-Stay Missions
  • Characterized by
  • Lower-propulsive requirements
  • Small variation in energy requirements across
    mission opportunities
  • All mission gt 1 Au
  • Short transits separated by long-surface mission
  • Long total mission durations
  • Majority (50) of crew time spent on Mars

Example Long-Stay Mission
Mars Mission Propulsion Optionsconstant
  • Plasma rocket variable specific impulse
    magnetoplasma rocket, VASIMIR
  • Continuous acceleration 0.01 g
  • Not biologically protective g-level
  • Benefit short trip time, reduced exposure to
    weightlessness, radiation, other risks
  • Round-trip 8 month
  • 3 month outbound
  • 1 month at Mars
  • 3 month Return
  • Supercritical H2 propellant also serves as
    radiation shield

VASIMIR Trajectory
Note van Allen belts lt 6 Re
Mission Architecture Assumptions
  • Transit from Earth to Mars
  • 4-8 months
  • Possibly entirely in weightlessness
  • Deconditioning similar to that seen in ISS crews
  • Protective effects of Artificial Gravity (AG) now
    under investigation

How Do We Get There?
  • Understand crew capabilities after simulated Mars
  • Post-flight evaluations of ISS crewmembers
  • Increase crew capabilities on arrival at Mars
  • Develop effective crew conditioning in transit
  • Artificial Gravity if possible
  • Crew rehabilitation after landing (if necessary)
  • Decrease operational requirements on crew during
    post-arrival adaptation period
  • Automate entry/landing
  • Minimize crew workload immediately after landing
  • Increase crew extravehicular mobility (pressure
    suit rover, etc.)

Physical Conditioningduring Transit
  • Rehabilitation may also be required before
    on-planet EVAs.

Artificial Gravity (Short-Axis Centrifuge)
Resistive Exercise
Aerobic Exercise
Crew Performance Requirements after Mars Landing
  • Don/doff pressure suit without assistance
  • Physical rehabilitation
  • Walk, balance, stretch, light cardio resistive
  • Descend and climb stairs
  • Function of post-landing time
  • Wearing pressure suit
  • Ambulate
  • Function of post-landing time
  • Wearing pressure suit
  • Across uneven or irregular surface

Text courtesy of Steve Hoffman and NASA JSC
Exploration Office 2003
  • Crewmember adjustment to Mars surface environment
    may require
  • 3-4 days minimum
  • 10 days in extreme cases
  • Any vehicle intended for crew landing on Mars
    should support
  • One week habitation by whole crew
  • Crewmember rehabilitation as required
  • Surface EVA preparations

Spirit L0
Spirit L11D
Previously Recommended
  • First Mars landing crew should not conduct a
    surface EVA before day 7, and then only local
    traverses during a surface stay of about 60 days

One Day After Landing?
Or One Week After Landing?
Point/CounterpointEARLY vs. DELAYED Egress?
  • Minimize ascent vehicle mass (if crew landing
  • Possible operational need for earlier egress.
  • Limited time on-planet.
  • Psychological impacts of delayed egress.
  • Crew vehicle must have margins for off-nominal
    and contingency operational and crew health
  • Operational requirements always supercede
  • Maybe not so limited18 months?
  • Crew more efficient if better adapted.
  • AG in transit to minimize rehabilitation.
  • Crew cognizant of issues.
  • Crew not idle vehicle reconfiguration, EVA
    preparations, landing site reconnaissance.

Mars Design Reference Mission
  • No earlier than 2025-2030
  • Oct.2024 Nov.2026
  • Jan.2029 Feb.2031
  • 30-month round-trip
  • 4-6 months in transit
  • 18 months on Mars
  • 180 EVAs per person
  • Gravity/acceleration
  • Hypogravity
  • 3/8 g on Mars
  • 0 g in transit (unless AG)

Mission Architecture Assumptions
  • Land in either of two distinct vehicles
  • Habitat
  • No abort-to-orbit capability
  • Well-equipped for long habitation
  • No early surface EVA required
  • OR
  • Ascent vehicle
  • Abort to orbit if required (then what?)
  • Limited life support capability
  • Early surface EVA required to reach habitat
  • Separate vehicles required for reasons of landed

Mission Architecture Assumptions
approx 500 m
Ascent vehicle
  • Vehicles no more than 500 meters apart

Case Study ISS Expedition 6
  • Soyuz TMA-2 landing mimicked Mars landing
  • 5½-month simulated transit.
  • Piloted aerobraking entry, descent and landing.
  • Safed lander.
  • Egressed vehicle unassisted.
  • Erected recovery aids.

Case Study Expedition 6 (cont.)
  • Provided strong evidence FOR human functionality
    after Mars-like transit.
  • Qualitatively demonstrated decrements in crew
  • All three crewmembers exhibited reduced
    capability, up to voluntary immobility.
  • Thirty minutes worth of work in about five hours,
    but no need to hurry.
  • Note unencumbered weight on Earth approximates
    Mars weight wearing projected pressure suit.
  • (Mark III zero-prebreathe suit
  • 95 kg on Earth 36 kg on Mars)

Where do we need to be?
  • Anticipated Mission requirements for early
    on-planet operations
  • Dexterity
  • Tool fastener operation
  • Hand-eye coordination
  • Driving rover
  • Teleoperating robotic aides
  • Strength, flexibility, agility
  • Pressure suit doff/don
  • Habitat egress/ingress
  • Complex actions
  • Deploy solar array
  • Erect habitat

BEAT Bowling Green!!