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Information Technology Trends

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Software Trends. Large to small system development. Reusable code ... Trends ' ... predicting trends. technology mapping. prototyping / demonstrations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Technology Trends


1
Information Technology Trends
  • Dr. Merle P. Martin
  • MIS Department
  • CSU Sacramento

2
Acknowledgements
  • Dr. Russell Ching (MIS Dept) Source
    Materiel / Graphics
  • Edie Schmidt (UMS) - Graphic Design
  • Prentice Hall Publishing (Permissions)
  • Martin, Analysis and Design of Business
    Information Systems, 1995

3
Agenda
  • Information as Power
  • The IT System
  • IT Trends
  • IT Issues
  • Chief Information Officer (CIO)

4
Information as Power
  • Collapse of Communism
  • Information and
    Totalitarianism
  • Information and
    Organizations
  • Power
  • Just in case
  • Information Overload

5
Relevance
  • IT is a critical resource
  • Requires mgmnt decisions
  • IT people have been making these
    decisions by default
  • lack of management awareness
  • lack of management knowledge
  • inpenetrable jargon (binary curtain)

6
The IT System
Hardware/Soft-ware Interface
  • TECHNOLOGY

MANAGEMENT
COMPUTER
USER
Connectivity
Change Management
IT Operations Management
Decision Support
Database
Application Programming
Systems Development
7
Shneidermans 10
Plagues
  • of the Information Age
  • Who is Ben Shneiderman?
  • Univ Maryland (College Park)
  • Computer Science
  • Human Factors Institute
  • System Philosopher

8
The Ten Plagues
  • Anxiety
  • computer shock
  • terminal terror
  • network neurosis
  • Alienation
  • less connected to other people
  • Whose voice is that, anyway

9
Ten Plagues (cont.)
  • Information-poor minority
  • another way for disadvantaged to
    be more
    disadvantaged
  • Impotence of individual
  • everyone treated the same
  • no special treatment for exceptions

10
Ten Plagues (cont.)
  • Bewildering complexity
    and speed
  • Windows 98?
  • Organizational fragility (SciFi)
  • Invasion of privacy
  • Alaskan jury list

11
Ten Plagues
  • Unemployment
    and displacement
  • clerks / typesetters
  • VP - mortgage loan decision replaced by
    Expert System (ES)
  • Lack of professional responsibility
  • Sorry, the computer wont let me
    ________.

12
Ten Plagues
  • Deteriorating image
    of people
  • smart machines
  • intelligent terminals
  • expert systems
  • Maybe theyll keep us as pets.
  • Shneidermans computer with arms and legs.

13
Ten Plagues (cont.)
  • What are some of
    your experiences?

14
IT Trends
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Data
  • Telecommunications
  • Systems Development
  • End-users

15
Hardware Trends
  • Batch to on-line
  • Batch is delayed processing
  • Airport limousine
  • Monthly billing application
  • On-line is instantaneous processing
  • Airport taxi
  • Airline Reservation System

16
On-line with Delayed Processing
On-line
Batch
Ticket
Credit Card Monthly Statement
17
Hardware Trends
  • Central to distributed
    processing
  • Mainframe to PC
  • Individual productivity
  • Centralized to decentralized resource
    control
  • Departmental purchases

18
Software Trends
  • Large to small system development
  • Reusable code (packages)
  • Outsourcing
  • Prototyping
  • 3GL to 4GL
  • concept of the Macro

19
Concept of the Macro
  • Computer processes
    one instruction at a time
  • CAD PAY
  • ADD BONUS
  • STO NEWPAY
  • Macro is one-to-many
  • ADD PAY, BONUS, NEWPAY

20
Third Vs. Fourth GLs
  • COBOL
  • OPEN INPUT EMPLOYEE-FILE.
  • READ EMPLOYEE-FILE.
  • PERFORM WHILE NOT EOF
  • IF EMP-ID SEARCH-KEY
  • DISPLAY EMP-ID " "
  • EMP-FIRST-NAME " "
  • EMP-LAST-NAME " "
  • EMP-YTD-PAY
  • END-IF
  • READ EMPLOYEE-FILE
  • END-PERFORM.
  • SQL
  • SELECT EMP-ID,
  • EMP-FIRST-NAME,
  • EMP-LAST-NAME,
  • EMP-YTD-PAY
  • FROM EMPLOYEE
  • WHERE EMP-ID1234

21
Data Trends
  • Centralized to
    decentralized
  • mainframe to PC
  • Keystroke to optical scanning
  • voice?
  • Multimedia
  • voice / animation / video, etc.
  • Data to information

22
Telecomm Trends
  • Link organizations to
  • customers
  • Amer Hosp Supply (AHS)
  • suppliers
  • Porter Model
  • LAN to WAN
  • Internet

23
Development Trends
  • Information systems are becoming too
    complex to develop by conventional
    means.
  • John Podlipnik
  • Vice President,
  • American Management Systems

24
Increasing Complexity
  • Program Lines of Code
  • 1970s - 10,000
  • 1980s - 100,00
  • 1990s - 1,000,000
  • Type Hardware
  • 1970s - Standalone
  • 1980s - Networked
  • 1990s - Distributed

25
Increasing Complexity
  • Type of Data
  • 1970s - Text
  • 1980s - Graph User Intrface (GUI)
  • 1990s - Object-oriented User Interface (OOUI)
  • Data Organization
  • 1970s - Files
  • 1980s - Databases
  • 1990s - Relational Databases

26
Increasing Complexity
  • Software Languages
  • 1970s - 3GL
  • 1980s - 3GL / 4GL
  • 1990s - 3GL / 4GL / Objects
  • Application of Blaabs Law

27
Blaabs Law
  • Old technologies persist
    in the face of new technologies.
  • Magnetic tape
  • Windmill east of Livermore

28
Issue
  • Our company is committed to providing each
    employee with the latest technology.
  • Anonymous
    CEO
  • WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS
    POLICY ?

29
Increasing Complexity
  • Standards
  • 1970s - None
  • 1980s - Some
  • 1990s - Open

30
Podlipniks Question
  • How do we deal with changing
  • business environment ,
  • technology landscape AND
  • increasingly complex systems?

31
Podlipniks Answer
  • Advanced user interfaces
  • user-centered methodologies
  • Client / server solutions
  • integration to legacy systems
  • Object-oriented techniques
  • Open systems
  • to address technology evolution

32
Legacy Systems
  • Client/Server

Object Technology
33
End-user Trends
  • More knowledgeable users
  • More demanding of IT
  • More opportunities for
  • misuse of IT resources
  • mischief
  • computer crime
  • IT people as communicators

34
IT Issues Model
Society

Company
IT Dept
End-user
35
End-user IT Issues
  • Computer Literacy
  • What is it?
  • Costs
  • How do we deliver?
  • Changing content
  • Shneiderman plagues
  • anxiety and alienation
  • information poor minority

36
End-user Issues
  • User development
  • how much?
  • power / control / misuse
  • Safe IT work environment (Ergonomics)
  • IT humanization
  • Human Factors
  • deteriorating image of people

37
IT Department Issues
  • Centralize or decentralize
    IT resources
  • Interconnectivity
  • islands of technology
  • Alignment of IT dept. goals
    with organization
  • Organizational level
  • VP? Report to whom?

38
Department Issues
  • Technology transfer
  • bewildering complexity and
    speed
  • scouting the future
  • predicting trends
  • technology mapping
  • prototyping / demonstrations
  • technology implementation

39
Company IT Issues
  • Strategic role of IT
  • Computer crime / security
  • Reengineering with IT
  • Business value of IT (e.g, waste)
  • IT Top-down planning

40
Company Issues
  • Organizational fragility
  • Worst case scenarios
  • Contingency Management
  • Electronic Data Systems (EDS)
    example
  • Change Management

41
Societal Issues
  • Ethics
  • professional responsibility
  • Individual privacy
  • Unemployment / displacement
  • Social responsibility

42
Chief Information Officer (CIO)
  • VP for IT Services
  • Understands business
  • Technology transfer
  • Create IT vision
  • sell it !
  • Implement IT infrastructure
  • chassis for building on

43
Issue
  • Does your firm have a CIO?
  • To whom does the CIO report?
  • Has the CIO created an IT vision?
  • Does the CIO have a technical or management
    background?
  • TELL US YOUR EXPERIENCES!

44
Points to Remember
  • IT Trends
  • IT Issues
  • CIO
  • Apply to a business organization
  • Exercises
  • Research paper
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