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FOUNDATIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

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Title: FOUNDATIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION


1
FOUNDATIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • Chapter 1
  • Gollnick Chinn
  • EDF 2555
  • G.D. Albear, M.A.

2
A Working Definition of Multicultural Education
  • Multicultural education is
  • A progressive approach for transforming
    education that holistically critiques and
    addresses current shortcomings, failings, and
    discriminatory practices in education.

3
A Working Definition of Multicultural Education
  • It is grounded in ideals of social justice,
    education equity, and a dedication to
    facilitating educational experiences in which all
    students reach their full potential as learners
    and as socially aware and active beings, locally,
    nationally, and globally.

4
A Working Definition of Multicultural Education
  • Multicultural education acknowledges that schools
    are essential to laying the foundation for the
    transformation of society and the elimination of
    oppression and injustice.
  • The underlying goal of multicultural education
  • affect social change.

5
A Working Definition of Multicultural Education
  • The pathway toward this goal incorporates three
    strands of transformation
  • the transformation of self
  • the transformation of schools and schooling
  • the transformation of society.

6
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • A Historical Perspective
  • Since its earliest conceptualizations in the
    1960s, multicultural education has been
    transformed, refocused, reconceptualized, and in
    a constant state of evolution both in theory and
    in practice.

7
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • It is rare that any two classroom teachers or
    education scholars will have the same definition
    for multicultural education.
  • As with any dialogue on education, individuals
    tend to mold concepts to fit their particular
    focus.

8
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Some discuss multicultural education as a shift
    in curriculum, perhaps as simple as adding new
    and diverse materials and perspectives to be more
    inclusive of traditionally underrepresented
    groups.
  • Others talk about classroom climate issues or
    teaching styles that serve certain groups while
    presenting barriers for others.
  • Still others focus on institutional and systemic
    issues such as tracking, standardized testing, or
    funding discrepancies.

9
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Some go farther still, insisting on educational
    change as part of a larger societal
    transformation in which we more closely explore
    and criticize the oppressive foundations of
    society and how education serves to maintain the
    status quo
  • - Foundations such as White Supremacy,
    Capitalism, Global Socioeconomic Situations, and
    Exploitation.

10
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Despite a multitude of differing
    conceptualizations of multicultural education
    (some of which will be laid out more fully
    below), several shared ideals provide a basis for
    its understanding.
  • While some focus on individual students or
    teachers, and others are much more "macro" in
    scope, these ideals are all, at their roots,
    about transformation

11
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Every student must have an equal opportunity to
    achieve to her or his full potential.
  • Every student must be prepared to competently
    participate in an increasingly intercultural
    society.

12
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Teachers must be prepared to effectively
    facilitate learning for every individual student,
    no matter how culturally similar or different
    from her- or himself.

13
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Schools must be active participants in ending
    oppression of all types, first by ending
    oppression within their own walls, then by
    producing socially and critically active and
    aware students.

14
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Education must become more fully student-centered
    and inclusive of the voices and experiences of
    the students.

15
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Educators, activists, and others must take a more
    active role in reexamining all educational
    practices and how they affect the learning of all
    students
  • testing methods, teaching approaches, evaluation
    and assessment, school psychology and counseling,
    educational materials and textbooks, etc

16
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • The underlying goal of multicultural education
  • As educators, we have a dual responsibility to
    engage in a critical and continual process to
    examine how our prejudices, biases, and
    assumptions inform our teaching and thus affect
    the educational experiences of our students.

17
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • We have a responsibility to ourselves to study
    and understand the lenses through which we
    understand the people and happenings around us.

18
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Only when we have a sense for how our own
    perceptions are developed in relation to our life
    experiences can we truly understand the world
    around us and effectively navigate our
    relationships with colleagues.

19
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • We also have a responsibility to our students to
    work toward eliminating our prejudices, examining
    who is (and is not) being reached by our teaching
    styles, and relearning how our own identities
    affect their learning experiences.

20
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • To be an effective multicultural educator, and
    indeed an effective educator, we must be in a
    constant process of self-examination and
    transformation.

21
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Multicultural education calls for a critical
    examination of all aspects of schooling. Aspects
    of multicultural school transformation include
    the following
  • Student-Centered Pedagogy
  • The experiences of students must be brought to
    the fore in the classroom, making learning more
    active, interactive, and engaging.

22
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • Student-Centered Pedagogy (continued)
  • Traditional teaching approaches and pedagogical
    models must be deconstructed to examine how they
    are contributing to and supporting institutional
    systems of oppression.
  • Known oppressive practices like tracking (even if
    informal) must be exposed and critically
    examined.

23
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • All aspects of teaching and learning in schools
    must be refocused on, and rededicated to, the
    students themselves instead of standardized test
    scores and school rankings.
  • Emphasis should be put on critical and creative
    thinking, learning skills, and deep social
    awareness as well as facts and figures.

24
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Pedagogy must provide all students with equal
    potential to reach their potential as learners.
  • Pedagogy must be flexible enough to allow for the
    diversity of learning styles present in every
    classroom.

25
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Multicultural Curriculum
  • All curricula must be studied for accuracy and
    completeness.
  • All subjects must be told from diverse
    perspectives -- this is related to accuracy and
    completeness.
  • "Inclusive curriculum" also means including the
    voices of the students in the classroom.

26
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Concepts such as "the canon" and "classic
    literature" must be reconceptualized, again with
    the idea of accuracy and completeness, to debunk
    the perception that the only great literature
    came from the U.S. and England.
  • Curricula should reflect the diversity of
    learning styles in every classroom.

27
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Inclusive Educational Media and Materials
  • Educational materials should be inclusive of
    diverse voices and perspectives.
  • Students must be encouraged to think critically
    about materials and media
  • Whose voice are they hearing?
  • Whose voice are they not hearing?
  • Why did that company produce that film?
  • What is the bias this author may bring to her or
    his writing?

28
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Supportive School and Classroom Climate
  • Teachers must be better prepared to foster a
    positive classroom climate for ALL students.
  • Overall school cultures must be closely examined
    to determine how they might be cycling and
    supporting oppressive societal conditions.

29
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Administrative hierarchies in schools must be
    examined to assess whether they produce positive
    teaching environments for all teachers.
  • Teachers and administrators must be held
    accountable for practices deemed to be racist,
    sexist, heterosexist, class centered, or in any
    other way discriminatory.

30
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Continual Evaluation and Assessment
  • Educators and education researchers must continue
    to examine the emphasis on standardized test
    scores and develop more just alternatives for
    measuring student
  • "achievement,"
  • "ability," or
  • "potential."

31
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • Continuing evaluation measures must be taken to
    measure the success of new and existing programs
    meant to provide more opportunities to groups
    traditionally and presently underrepresented in
    colleges and universities.

32
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • The Transformation of Society
  • Ultimately, the goal of multicultural education
    is to contribute progressively and proactively to
    the transformation of society and to the
    application and maintenance of social justice and
    equity.
  • This stands to reason, as the transformation of
    schools necessarily transforms a society that
    puts so much stock in educational attainment,
    degrees, and test scores.

33
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education"
  • In fact, it is particularly this competitive,
    capitalistic framing of the dominant mentality of
    the United States (and increasingly, with the
    "help" of the United States, the world) that
    multicultural education aims to challenge, shake,
    expose, and critique. (author opinion)

34
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • This is precisely the reason that it is not
    enough to continue working within an ailing,
    oppressive, and outdated system to make changes,
    when the problems in education are themselves
    symptoms of a system that continues to be
    controlled by the economic elite.

35
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • One does not need to study education too closely
    to recognize that schools consistently provide
    continuing privilege to the privileged and
    continuing struggle for the struggling with very
    little hope of upward mobility.

36
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • "Informal" tracking, standardized testing,
    discrepancies in the quality of schools within
    and across regions, and other practices remain
    from the industrial-age model of schools. Only
    the terminology has changed -- and the practices
    are not quite as overt.

37
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • Educators, educational theorists, researchers,
    activists, and everyone else must continue to
    practice and apply multicultural teaching and
    learning principles both inside and out of the
    classroom.

38
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • We must not allow the knowledge that most people
    working in schools are well-intentioned to lead
    us to assume that our schools are immune to the
    oppression and inequity of society.
  • We must ask the un-askable questions. We must
    explore and deconstruct structures of power and
    privilege that serve to maintain the status quo.

39
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • In a sense, multicultural education uses the
    transformation of self and school as a metaphor
    and starting place for the transformation of
    society.
  • Ultimately, social justice and equity in schools
    can, and should, mean social justice and equity
    in society.
  • Only then will the purpose of multicultural
    education be fully achieved.

40
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • Therefore, the central concept relative to
    Multicultural Education is
  • Social Justice

41
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • Assignment
  • Break off into groups and define Social Justice
  • Define The Socially Just School
  • Define The Socially Just Curriculum
  • Define The Socially Just Teacher
  • Define The Socially Just Student

42
The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural
Education
  • Discussion
  • What is Social Justice?
  • Design a Group list of terms relative to this
    concept from the presentation
  • Review of Terms
  • Questions
  • Quiz

43
Reference
  • http//www.edchange.org/multicultural/initial.html
  • Paul Gorski and Bob Covert (1996 2000)
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