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Building Portfolios with Stocks, Bonds, and Mutual Funds Financial

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Title: Building Portfolios with Stocks, Bonds, and Mutual Funds Financial


1
Building Portfolioswith Stocks, Bonds, and
Mutual Funds Financial Retirement Planning
  • Jay Taparia, CFA
  • Managing Director, Sanskar Investments, Inc.
  • Lecturer of Finance, University of Illinois _at_
    Chicago

2
The Client Is A Human Being Is Capable Of
Having
  • Emotion attached to wealth
  • Goals (if) that are ST, MT or LT
  • A limited life span
  • Uncertainty about the future
  • Irrationality associated with decision-making
  • A gambling attitude toward the markets
    over-confidence
  • Dreams that could be impossible to reach
  • Dreams that are very possible to reach
  • An aversion toward risk whatever that may be
  • Annoying you at times
  • And dont forget that Life Happens

3
Because Of This
  • Building portfolios is not only a science, but it
    is an art
  • Having a nice irrelevant conversation with the
    client is necessary to build a relationship, but
    also to discover new needs and objectives
  • Client needs objectives change over time (years
    even days)
  • Portfolios are managed with continuously changing
    objectives

4
Individual Investor Life Cycle
Spending Phase Gifting Phase Long-term Estate
Planning Short-term Lifestyle Needs, Gifts
Accumulation Long-term Retirement, Childrens
college Short-term House, Car
Consolidation Long-term Retirement Short-term V
acations, Childrens College
Phases are Shifting
Age
5
Portfolio Management Process
  • State the Objective Mission statement of the
    portfolio, who and what it serves and why
    income, and/or capital appreciation.
  • Identify the Constraints there are always going
    to be constraints taxes, legal, emotions, etc.
  • Formulate the Investment Policy develop the
    business plan of the portfolio listing out
    return, risk and all the other issues associated
    with the portfolio
  • Study Market and Economic Conditions to forecast
    future trends This is everything that you
    learned in Economic, Industry, Financial
    Statements, etc.
  • Monitor Performance keep in touch with what is
    going on in the portfolio, and
  • Reevaluate Modify the Portfolio rebalance
    and/or reconfigure according to the policy and
    markets

6
Role of the Portfolio Manager
  • Bottom Line? You need someone to manage the
    whole process of investing
  • Minimizing individual security risk (company,
    industry, or unsystematic risk)
  • Making sure that the portfolio is
    well-diversified among industry, country and
    company
  • Managing the tax consequences of the portfolio
    esp. for expensive people
  • Most importantly, making sure the portfolio
    caters to the client needs via an Investment
    Policy Statement
  • Return capital gain vs.income
  • Risk Tolerance varies typically according to
    age
  • Tax Issues maximizing after-tax returns
  • Time retirement, college payments
  • Liquidity usually driven by time needs
  • Legal Issues trust and pensions have special
    legal issues
  • Other Unique Needs of the client

7
Realistic Investor Goals
  • Current income
  • generate spendable funds
  • Capital preservation
  • minimize risk of real loss
  • strongly risk-averse or cash needs are soon
  • Capital appreciation
  • capital gains for real growth for future needs
  • growth strategy with accepted risk
  • Total Return
  • Capital Gains Income
  • Desire to have medium risk exposure

8
What Is Asset Allocation?
Asset allocation is the process of combining
asset classes such as stocks, bonds, and cash in
a portfolio in order to meet your goals.
Bonds
Stocks
Cash
9
The Need For Asset Allocation
  • An investment strategy is based on four decisions
  • What asset classes to consider for investment
  • What normal or policy weights to assign to each
    eligible class
  • The allowable allocation ranges based on policy
    weights
  • What specific securities to purchase for the
    portfolio to satisfy the strategy
  • 90 of the overall investment return is due to
    the first two decisions, not the selection of
    individual investments (BHB 1991)
  • 70 of the overall investment return is due to
    style (Sharpe 1992)

10
Is Asset Allocation Important?
Contributing Factors of Portfolio Performance
91.5
93.3
97.9
100
80
60
40
20
100
0
Percent
11
Returns Risk Of Different Asset Classes
  • Higher returns should compensate for risk
  • Policy statements must provide risk guidelines
  • Measuring risk by standard deviation of returns
    over time indicates stocks are more risky than
    T-bills
  • Measuring risk by probability of not meeting your
    investment return objective indicates risk of
    equities is small and risk of T-bills is large
    because of different expected returns
  • Focusing only on return variability ignores
    reinvestment risk and many other types of risk

12
HistoricalAsset Performances A Guide
13
Asset Class Returns
Highs and Lows 1926 - 1999
Highest Annual Return
142.9
150
Lowest Annual Return
100
54.0
40.4
50
29.1
14.7
0
0.0
-5.1
-9.2
-50
-43.3
-58.0
-100
Small
Large
Long-Term
Int.-Term
Treasury Bills
Company
Company
Government
Government
Stocks
Stocks
Bonds
Bonds
Each bar shows the range of annual total returns
for each asset class over the period 1926-1999.
14
DiversifyTo Reduce Risk Or Increase Return
Fixed Income Portfolio
Cash 10
1970 - 1999
Higher Return Portfolio
Lower Risk Portfolio
Bonds 90
Stocks 12
Cash 20
Stocks 39
Cash 35
Bonds 41
Bonds 53
Return Risk
9.0 6.1
Risk is measured by standard deviation. Risk and
return are based on annual data over the period
1970-1999. Portfolios presented are based on
Modern Portfolio Theory.
15
Return Before After Inflation
15
1926 - 1999
11.3
10
Compound Annual Return
5.1
5
3.8
0
Stocks
Bonds
Cash
Assumes reinvestment of income and no transaction
costs or taxes.
16
Monitor Performance
  • Revise IPS as needed
  • Modify investment strategy accordingly
  • Evaluate portfolio performance not only with
    market return or benchmark portfolio
  • Consider that relative performance will mean
    little when relative progress is on track

17
Reevaluate Modify Portfolio
  • Asset Allocation has fixed income/equity
    balance changed from the design
  • Style Under/Over-weights is the portfolio
    tilted in style?
  • Industry Selection based on the economic
    environment what might the best sectors be, or is
    the portfolio weighted too much in any 1 sector
    (i.e. 25)?
  • Security Concentrations usually anything
    greater than 10 of the portfolio must be reduced
    in size
  • Security Selection sell stocks that have poor
    fundamental issues in the future and buy those
    that have positive changes ahead.
  • Key point LT focus not ST turnarounds. Why?
    Tax constraints.  

18
Understanding How Stocks Work
19
What is a Stock?
  • Legal ownership in a company through shares
    purchase of stock implies you own a slice or
    share of the company
  • Stockholders have 1st right to purchase new
    shares issued by the company gives them right
    to maintain share of ownership

20
4 Characteristics of Stocks
  • Voting Power - Ownership implies control having
    the right to appoint Board of Directors, who in
    turn, elect management
  • Residual Claim you are last on the food chain
    to collect your investment if the company goes
    bankrupt
  • Limited Liability can only lose the investment
    you make into the company not more than that
  • Stock Market Listing stocks are traded between
    buyers and sellers in stock exchange

21
Return Risk of Stocks
  • Two Ways to Earn a Return on a Stock
  • Appreciation in Stock Price if the investors
    perceive strong growth in the companys sales
    earnings, then investors will demand to buy more
    of the stock. As demand increases, the price of
    the stock increases.
  • Dividend Payment if the company pays dividends

22
Caveats of Stock Ownership
  • No Guarantee of Return you can lose your
    investment
  • Ownership Can Be Small you are just 1 of many
    owners you have some, but not a whole lot of
    influence
  • Mergers Acquisitions other companies can
    offer to buy your share out and replace your
    shares with theirs
  • Voting Proxy Statements - investors should take
    an active role in voting for directors and
    management they are owners

23
Conceptualizing Financial Statements
  • Financial statements are guided by a set of
    accounting rules, called GAAP (Generally Accepted
    Accounting Principles).
  • Because of flexibility, financial statements can
    be manipulated to give a better-than-expected
    view of earnings.
  • Ratio Analysis Footnotes is one of the key
    tools to understanding a company.

24
Conceptualizing Companies
  • Companies are dynamic, financial statements are
    static
  • One date of release summary of 3, 6, 9 or
    12-month activity
  • Lagged released approximately one month after
    quarter- or year-end
  • Past-tense information possibly already
    incorporated into the stock price (barring any
    major surprises)
  • Dynamic forces on companies are qualitative
  • The economic cycle
  • Industry analysis
  • Management strategy

25
Conceptualizing the 3 Financial Statements
  • Think of analyzing your own finances
  • Financial analysis of companies is similar to
    personal financial planning
  • Your balance sheet a loan application
  • Income statement your tax return
  • Cash cash flow statement Your checking
    account and salary
  • Footnotes to financial statements how you would
    explain what the numbers really mean to an IRS
    auditor or loan agent

26
Statement of Cash Flows
Income Statement
(or ... what do you tell the Government you made?)
(or ... what REALLY happened this year)
Cash flows from operations
Sales
Income from operations
-
Cost of sales (including depreciation expense)
Net income (Profits)
Depreciation

Restructuring charge not spent


Gross profit on sales
Gains or losses
or
-

or
-
Deferred income taxes

-
Selling and administrative expenses
Cash provided by (used for) working capital
-
Restructuring expense
Accounts receivable
or
-

/-
Gains or losses
Inventory
or
-

Accounts Payable
or
-

Net Operating Income


Net cash provided by operating activities (Cash
Flows From Operations)(CFFO or CFO)
Other revenues

-
Other expenses
Earnings before tax

Cash from investing activities
Income tax expense
-
Sale of assets

Net income (Profits)

Purchase of assets
-
Net cash provided by investing

activities
Dividends on preferred stock
-

Net income available to common stock
Cash from financing activities
Issue of debt

Dividends on common stock
-
Retirement of debt
-
Sale of common stock
Net income transferred to surplus or retained
earnings


Dividends paid
-
Net cash provided by financing

activities
The sum of the last line in each box
above the change in cash balances
27
Public Filings You Need to Know
  • Form 10-K (due 90 days after fiscal year close)
  • Income statement (aka Statement of Operations)
  • Balance Sheet
  • Cash Flow Statement
  • Footnotes to the Financial Statements
  • Management Discussion and Analysis
  • Auditors Report
  • Liquidity Position and Capital Expenditures

28
Stock Market Indices (i.e., Indexes)
  • Price-Weighted Index - each company represented
    by 1 share in index. Gives higher-priced shares
    more weight in determining performance of the
    index (e.g., Dow Jones Industrial Average)
  • Market Value-Weighted Index - weight of companies
    in index based on its market capitalization
    (stock price x shares outstanding) the higher
    the market value, the higher the weight in the
    index (e.g., SP 500, NASDAQ)
  • Comparing your portfolios performance to the
    market depends on which index you are using and
    whether you are really comparing apples to
    apples or apples to oranges

29
Costs of Investing
  • Commissions Costs from the broker to implement
    trades one-way must remember that you incur the
    cost when selling also
  • Bid-Ask Spread brokers who make a market in
    the stock make the spread as their profit (or
    your cost)
  • Market Impact Costs - if you are institutional
    (mutual or pension fund), your purchases/sales
    are large enough to move the stock price against
    you while buying or selling

30
Buying Stock on Margin
  • Definition - Borrowing Funds to Buy Stock -
    initially up to 50 of the equity purchase
    called the Initial Margin Requirement
  • After the Purchase - must maintain at least 30
    equity of the total account value called the
    Maintenance Margin Requirement to guard against
    default
  • Primary Objective - Usually done to make higher
    returns on your equity via using someone elses
    funds but can also lose more than if you did
    not borrow the funds
  • High Risk Strategy only meant in cases where
    client has high amounts of liquidity (cash
    reserves) or has the risk tolerance (i.e., loves
    risk and has nerves of steel)

31
Buying Stock on Margin
  • Example of Margin Trading
  • 10,000 of GE desired to be purchased with 5,000
    personal funds and a 5,000 Margin Loan from
    broker
  • GEs stock price is 50 per share of shares
    200
  • Interest Rate on Loan is 10

Bottom Line? Margin increases gain and loss
returns substantially!
32
Short Selling
  • Definition Instead of Buying Low 1st, And
    Selling High 2nd, you are doing this in reverse
    (Selling High, Buying Low) - You do this, when
    you think the stock price is overvalued and you
    decided to short or sell first, in expectation
    that the stock is going to fall
  • High Risk Strategy only meant in cases where
    client has high amounts of liquidity (cash
    reserves) or has the risk tolerance (i.e., loves
    risk and has nerves of steel)

33
Procedure to Short Selling
  • Borrow the Stock from Broker as if you were
    taking a loan
  • Sell the Stock in the Market collecting the
    proceeds
  • When Stock Price Declines buy the stock back at
    lower price
  • Return the Stock to the Broker keep leftover
    funds as profit
  • Similar Margin Requirements as in Margin
    Trading

34
Basics on Portfolio Management
  • Always make sure that your portfolio is
    diversified not just 8-10 securities, but 20-30
    minimum across industries and countries
  • Caveat emptor there are 7,000 stocks and 10,000
    mutual funds at a minimum to choose from in the
    USA should you be picky about what you buy?
    YES!!
  • Be street smart make sure that what you are
    buying makes sense and you know the reasons why
    you are buying it not just a hot stock tip
    in other words, squeeze the tomatoes

35
Basics on Portfolio Management
  • Make sure your portfolio does not become too
    concentrated in 1 name or 1 sector. Be receptive
    to sell if any 1 stock becomes greater than 10
    of the portfolio it may drive future
    performance, including downward
  • Just because you made good money on 1 stock or
    sector, please be aware that you might get
    emotionally attached to it but keep in mind,
    stocks and money never were born with a heart

36
Understanding How Bonds Work
37
Definition of a Bond
  • Contractual loan that pays interest over a fixed
    term
  • Upon its maturity, the principal or the
    investment amount is returned to the lender of
    the bond
  • Interest rate (called Coupon Rate) is typically
    fixed hence, the alternative name for bonds as
    fixed income securities
  • An Income-Based Investment focus on generating
    income and less so on capital appreciation ltgt
    stocks
  • Bond Contract is called an Indenture Agreement
    which has all of the structure details about the
    bond and disclosures about the company issuing
    the bonds
  • Usually denominated in 1,000 units 50,000 in
    Bonds 50 Bonds

38
Bond Classifications
  • Registered vs. Bearer Forms
  • Security
  • Collateral secured by financial securities
  • Mortgage secured by real property, normally
    land or buildings
  • Debentures unsecured
  • Notes unsecured debt with original maturity
    less than 10 years
  • Seniority

39
Major Classes of Bonds
  • U.S. Treasury Bonds issued by the U.S.
    Government and considered the safest type of bond
  • Corporate Bonds issued by corporations to fund
    their projects and assets carry higher risk
    than the U.S. Treasury bonds due to high risk of
    default (or non-payment of interest and/or
    principal)
  • Municipal Bonds issued by cities, counties,
    quasi-government agencies (like the Illinois
    State Tollway) and states to fund projects and
    general municipal funding.

40
Major Classes of Bonds
  • Foreign Bonds issued by foreign governments as
    well as foreign corporations can be denominated
    either in US Dollars or in foreign currency
    considered to have multiple layers of risk, both
    in terms of the foreign entities willingness to
    pay as well as in currency risk terms
  • Securitized Certificates issued by taking a
    group of assets such as mortgages, auto loans or
    credit cards and packaging them for issuance as a
    security. Considered to have higher quality than
    a single asset due to diversification. Cash flow
    is usually less predictable and dependent on
    changing levels of interest rates

41
Key Characteristics of Bonds
  • Par Value stated value of a bond usually
    1000 par value per bond. 50,000 par is to 50
    bonds to buy.
  • Coupon Interest Rate the amount that is paid
    each period to a bondholder by the issuer. Rate
    is usually quoted as an annual rate, but payments
    are made usually semi-annually.
  • Coupon Payment Coupon Interest Rate x Par Value
  • Maturity Date when the bond matures principal
    and last coupon payment paid on this day.
  • Price (Market Value) what the value of the bond
    is worth. Better yet, what the market is valuing
    this Annuity Stream.

42
Bond Value ()
kd 7.
1,372
1,211
kd 10.
M
1,000
837
kd 13.
775
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Years remaining to Maturity
43
Bond Risks
  • Default Risk Risk that you are not going to get
    your original principal back due to the company
    going bankrupt.
  • Interest Rate Risk as interest rates rise, the
    price (and value) of the bond falls. Capital
    Loss!!
  • Reinvestment Rate Risk has to do with the
    reinvestment of interest and principal payments.
  • Interest Payments what do you do with the
    interest payments (beside spend it) if rates
    decline, your return is lower as you reinvest
    these at a lower rate.
  • Principal Payments what do you do when you get
    your money (principal) back if rates decline,
    your principal gets reinvested at a lower rate.
  • Keep in mind that Callable Bonds also have
    reinvestment rate risk. The company will only
    call the bonds when rates decline. You have both
    interest and principal payment reinvestment rate
    risk.

44
What is Interest Rate Risk? Also, called Price
Risk
Interest rate risk Rising kd causes bonds
price to fall. Which bond has more risk? 1-year
or 10-year?
1-year
10-year
kd
Change
Change
5
1,048
1,386
4.8 -4.4
38.6 -25.1
1,000
1,000
10
956
749
15
45
Prices and Yield / Interest Rates
Price
Yield
46
Default Risk Premium (Credit Risk)
Investment Grade Junk Bonds Moodys Aaa Aa A B
aa Ba B Caa C SP AAA AA A BBB BB B CCC D
47
Corporate Bond Spreads AA BB
48
Benefits of Bonds in Portfolios
  • Historically Lower Risk
  • Diversification Benefits
  • Income Generation
  • Expand Efficient Opportunities
  • Potential Growth

49
Fixed Income Maturity (Interest Rate) Risk
1970 - 1999
Long-TermGovt Bond
15
Intermediate-TermGovt Bond
9.8
10
5.9
Short-TermGovt Bond
5
1.5
0
-1.3
-5
-4.5
-10
-8.7
50
Using Bonds to Diversify
1970 - 1999
Original Portfolio
Lower Risk Portfolio
Cash 19
Stocks 50
Stocks 38
Cash 50
Bonds 43
Risk is measured by standard deviation. Risk and
return are based on annual data over the period
1970-1999. Portfolios presented are based on
Modern Portfolio Theory.
51
Bonds Produce Greater Income
1970 - 1999
2
6
9
25
73
85
Stocks
Bonds
Based on annual data over the period 1970-1999.
52
Bond Prices Yields Over Time
When Yields Increase, Bond Prices Decrease
1.60
16
Bond Prices ()
Bond Yields ()
1.40
14
1.20
12
1.00
10
.80
8
.60
6
4
.40
2
.20
0
0
1925
1935
1945
1955
1965
1975
1985
1999
53
UnderstandingHow Mutual Funds Work
54
Definition of an Investment Company
  • Financial intermediaries (i.e., middlemen) that
    collect funds from individual investors and
    invest those funds in a diversified pool of
    stocks, bonds, or other assets based on the
    companys focus or specialty. (i.e., a bond
    fund, an international fund)
  • Benefits to the Individual Investor
  • Recordkeeping Administration for all holdings
    in the fund
  • Diversification Divisibility if the investor
    has a small amount of money they can have instant
    ownership of many stocks, not just one. They can
    also easily buy more (in increments of , not
    100 share blocks)
  • Professional Management this is of course
    relative you must do you homework on management
    but it does beat doing the research yourself
  • Lower Transaction Costs due to pooling of
    funds, commissions, fees, and market impact costs
    are lower

55
Types of Investment Companies
  • Managed Investment Companies (mutual funds)
  • Open-End issues shares every time a buyer adds
    money to the mutual fund investor buys shares
    at NAV.
  • Closed-End trade like stocks on the exchange.
    Investor buys at the current stock prices (which
    could be higher or lower than the NAV).
  • Unit Investment Trust pool of money invested in
    a portfolio whose investments are fixed for the
    life of the fund. Usually Bonds given that they
    have a maturity, but also seen used with stocks
    for a 1 year term.
  • Commingled Funds (i.e., limited partnerships)
    similar to Open-Ended Funds, but instead of
    buying shares, you are buying units at NAV.
    Usually offered by banks insurance companies.
  • Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) a
    closed-ended fund that invests in real estate

56
Net Asset Value and Price
  • Used as a basis for valuation of investment
    company shares.
  • Selling new shares
  • Redeeming existing shares
  • Market Value of Assets - Liabilities
  • Shares Outstanding
  • Open Ended Funds NAV is Price
  • Closed Ended Funds - NAV is compared to Stock
    Price of Fund

57
Open-End and Closed-End Funds Key Differences
  • Shares Outstanding
  • Closed-end no change unless new stock is
    offered.
  • Open-end changes when new shares are sold or old
    shares are redeemed.
  • Pricing
  • Open-end Net Asset Value (NAV)
  • Closed-end Premium or discount to NAV

58
Investment Policies
  • Money Market
  • Fixed Income
  • Equity
  • Balance Income
  • Asset Allocation
  • Indexed
  • Specialized Sector

59
Costs of Investing in Mutual Funds
  • Fee Structure
  • Front-end load
  • Back-end load
  • Operating expenses
  • 12 b-1 charges
  • distribution costs paid by the fund
  • Alternative to a load
  • Fees and performance

60
Exchange Traded Funds
  • Allow investors to trade funds based on indexes
    like stock.
  • Examples
  • SPDRS
  • WEBS
  • HOLDERS
  • Allow sector specialization

61
A First Look at Fund Performance
  • Benchmark Wilshire 5000
  • Results
  • Most funds underperform
  • Not fair comparison because of costs
  • Adjusted Benchmark Wilshire 5000 with passive
    management costs considered.
  • The majority of funds still under-perform.

62
Consistency of Fund Performance
  • Do some mutual funds consistently outperform?
  • Evidence suggests that some funds show consistent
    stronger performance.
  • Depends on measurement interval
  • Depends on time period
  • Evidence shows consistent poor performance.

63
Rate of Return Calculations for Funds
  • Performance History has shown that 80 of
    mutual fund managers do not beat the market
    so why bother? Main difference is that they are
    comparing apples and oranges.
  • Mutual fund managers charge fees and hence their
    performance will be lower. In other words, you
    cannot get around the fees period even if you
    bought the index yourself you would still have
    commission charges.
  • Past Performance does not completely indicate
    future performance, but do remember you are
    investing in the mutual fund manager. If his/her
    performance is poor, then it is likely that it
    might remain poor (if he is not fired, that is)
    Money Magazine flaws as an example of this.

64
Information Sources on Mutual Funds
  • Wiesenbergers Investment Companies
  • Morningstar
  • Investment Company Institute
  • Popular press
  • Investment services

65
Measuring Fund Performance Category Ranks and
Ratings
  • You can view all mutual funds as 1 peer group
    but everyone is investing with a different
    style
  • Category ratings are used to see who did better
    within a category of style.
  • Certain investment styles perform better than
    others at any point in time if that is the
    case, then managers must be compared to their
    peers
  • Category Style Investment Objective of the Fund
  • Helps to determine what funds do well even when
    style is out of favor
  • Points out funds that are just riding on the coat
    tails of their group

66
Categories Identify the Real Competition
  • For example International Equity
  • Foreign
  • World
  • Diversified Emerging Markets
  • Regional
  • International Hybrid
  • This reaffirms that returns do not tell the whole
    story
  • 10 YR Trailing Return (1/2001)
  • Janus Twenty 21.63
  • Weitz Partners Value 21.57

67
Morningstar Equity Style Box
Value Blend Growth

Large
Medium
Small
  • Classifies a fund based on
  • Style Value, Blend, Growth
  • Size Small, Medium, Large

68
Style Box Breakpoints
  • Market Capitalization
  • Large gt 10 billion
  • Medium lt 10.0 billion, gt 1.6 billion
  • Small lt 1.6 billion
  • Style Types Relative Valuation Ratios vs.
    Market
  • Value rel. P/E rel. P/B lt1.75
  • Blend rel. P/E rel. P/B 1.75-2.25
  • Growth rel. P/E rel. P/B gt2.25

69
Styles ltgt Objectives
  • Fund Objective Actual Style
  • Oakmark Select Growth Mid Value
  • Pioneer Cap Growth Small Co. Mid Value
  • Prudential Equity Inc Equity Inc. Mid Value

70
Styles ltgt Objectives
  • Fund Objective Actual Style
  • Vanguard Growth Index Growth Large Growth
  • Sequoia Growth Large Value
  • Delafield Growth Small Value

71
Current Equity Style Box
Twenty
Weitz
Value Blend Growth
Value Blend Growth
Large
Medium
Small
Large Cap Growth
Mid Cap Value
72
Janus Twenty Top Holdings
73
Weitz Top Holdings
74
Janus Twenty Portfolio Breakdown
75
Weitz Partners Value Portfolio Breakdown
76
Janus Twenty Sector Exposure
77
Weitz Partners Value Sector Exposure
78
Risk Measures
  • Twenty Weitz
  • Morningstar Risk (10 YR) 1.32 0.59
  • Standard Deviation 24.72 14.18
  • Morningstar Risk Ratio Fund SD / Market SD
  • It is a Relative Measure of Risk

79
Five Key Points in Picking Funds
  • How has the fund performed?
  • Compare with appropriate index
  • Compare with peer group
  • Examine after-tax returns, if relevant
  • How risky has the fund been?
  • Big returns spell risk
  • Are you comfortable with the level of volatility?
  • Morningstar risk standard deviation
  • What does the fund own?
  • Value vs. Growth
  • Sectors
  • U.S. and Foreign
  • Who runs the fund?
  • Who earned the funds record?
  • Where does this manager come from?
  • Whats the fund family like?
  • What does the fund cost?
  • Low expenses are best
  • Load funds arent bad if performance is
    justified, but rare

80
Understanding Global Investing
81
Why Invest Globally?
  • Investment Opportunities roughly 50 of the
    global stock market currently Foreign
  • Market History
  • Growth Potential faster growing economies
  • Diversification Benefits Expand Efficient Range

82
Global Stock Market Returns
Highest and Lowest Historical Annual Returns for
Each Region 1970 - 1999
Pacific
120
107.5
Europe
100
International
79.8
80
69.9
United States
60
37.4
40
20
13.2
13.8
13.4
13.7
0
-20
-23.2
-22.8
-26.5
-40
-34.3
Average Return
Each bar shows the range of annual total returns
for each region over the period 1970-1999.
83
Domestic Versus Global
1970 - 1999
Domestic Portfolio
Global Portfolio
Risk is measured by standard deviation. Risk
and return are based on annual data over the
period 1970-1999.
84
Risks Of Foreign Investing
  • Currency Risk
  • Economic/Political Risk
  • Market Liquidity Risk
  • Differences in Accounting Standards
  • Costs of Investing Internationally

85
The End!
  • Thank You!
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