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World Turned Inside Out, 1000350 BCE

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World Turned Inside Out, 1000-350 BCE ... How did teachers and prophets shape this world? ... Around the world, more and more distinct cultures emerging ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Turned Inside Out, 1000350 BCE


1
World Turned Inside Out, 1000-350 BCE
  • Focus in on regions on the periphery or the
    fringes of the Great Empires of Southwest Asia
    (Neo-Assyrian), regions very loosely connected to
    them, or worlds apart
  • Focus on ideas, philosophers, and new concepts of
    being human and a part of a larger community.
  • Second Generation Societies
  • Focus on East and South Asian, Mediterranean,
    American, and Sub-Saharan African cultures
  • - all developed a different kind of society, and
    alternative to patterns that had emerged in
    Southwest Asia in the last millennium

2
New patterns of regional integration, new
patterns of regional self consciousness
  • Study Map 5.1, p. 186
  • How did teachers and prophets shape this world?

3
Alternative pathways and ideas emerge in Zhou
China, 770-221 BCE
  • Political Decentralization as Zhou authority
    declined
  • (Steppe invaders from the Northwest)
  • Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 BCE)
  • Constant Warfare and Political Anarchy
  • Local rulers consolidated their own power
  • Regional states became more dominant than the
    Zhou
  • Increased use of Iron improved warfare and
    allowed for larger public works projects (canals,
    irrigation)

4
The Warring States Period, 403-221 BCE
  • China dominated by seven large States (Map 5.2,
    p. 189)
  • Each mobilized huge armies (largest in world
  • history to this point)
  • Innovation in statecraft
  • Professional bureaucracy (not just kin)
  • Free peasantry (but must pay taxes and provide
    military service)
  • Innovations in Warfare
  • Mass infantry, iron armor and weapons, crossbow
  • Fighting on multiple fronts

Keep an eye on the Qin
5
Scholar as Bureaucrat
6
New South Asian Worlds
  • Vedic Society underwent profound transformation
    between 1000-300 BCE
  • - more commercial, more urban, more stratified
  • Vedic people forged new economic and political
    institutions, and new world views
  • 16 states emerge across northern part of South
    Asia (map 5.3, p. 193)
  • - hereditary monarchs, oligarchies
  • - rajas (usually from lower castes or clans)
  • Expansion of caste system
  • - Shudras broken into jatis (subcastes of
    laborers, merchants, artisans)
  • New cities appear, more complex economies (use of
    coins, transregional connections)
  • - more professions, more social mobility

7
Challenges to Vedic beliefs, hierarchies
  • Writing emerges after 600 BCE
  • Jainism (focus on non violence, purifying the
    soul through individual actions)
  • Buddha and early Buddhism
  • - Siddhartha Gautama
  • - Rejection of Brahman authority
  • - Focus on individual salvation

8
Early Buddhist Beliefs
How does this challenge the social order? What
authority does it challenge?
Reincarnation until reach nirvana
9
New American Worlds
  • Emergence of Chavin Culture in Central Andes,
    900-400 BCE
  • - common cosmology, artistic style
  • - not an empire

10
The Olmec world in Mesoamerica after 1500 BCE
  • (Map 5.4, p. 207)
  • Loose confederation of villages connected through
    trade
  • - common religion, language
  • - wide network of exchange for sacred ritual
    objects
  • Largest cities were religious centers
  • - ball courts
  • - human sacrifice
  • - math and calendars
  • Strong regional influence

11
Sub Saharan Africa
  • Distinctive Communities emerged in the first
    millennium BCE (Map 5.5, p. 219)
  • Egyptian, Southwest Asian, and sub-Saharan
    African influences on southern Nile, or Nubia
  • Meroe Kingdom 400 BCE-300 CE
  • - Egyptian gods, pyramids, and
    hieroglyphics
  • - iron smelting, textile production
  • - items circulating among various peoples of
    Sub-Saharan Africa

12
Other common cultures in Sub Saharan Africa
  • Large commercial centers in West Africa
  • Jenne, Gao
  • Nok culture in present day Nigeria around 600 BCE
  • Spread southward
  • All of them smelted iron
  • iron tools used to open up land for cultivation
    and form denser settlements
  • In the rainforest, hunting and gathering continued

13
The Mediterranean World
  • First millennium BCE was a time of economic,
    political, and social change
  • - developed new and challenging methods for
    organizing their societies
  • Seaborne societies spread the use of the alphabet
    and use of money
  • More than just Greeks and Phoenicians (Lydians,
    Etruscans, for example)
  • Independent, self sufficient, self governing city
    states
  • intense competition between them and within them

14
City States and the Revolution in Politics
  • Residents as citizens
  • (but only for free males)
  • Experiments in oligarchy, tyranny, democracy
  • Families as the most important social unit
  • Competition and warfare
  • - Competition between individuals and cities
    for power and influence
  • - Competition between cities for resources
  • - not unlike the Warring States in China on a
    smaller scale
  • - Competition often organized
  • - (Athletic competition the Olympics)

15
Warfare in the Mediterranean, first millennium BCE
  • Hoplites and the Phalanx
  • Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BCE)
  • Athens and Sparta
  • (This warfare will later culminate in the triumph
    of the city of Rome Chapter 7)

16
Economic Innovations in the Mediterranean
  • Free markets and money based economies
  • - open market places (physical locations in the
    city)
  • (Interestingly enough, money also emerged in
  • East and South Asia around 500 BCE)
  • Trade and colonization
  • - expanding the network of city states
    (Mediterranean and Black Seas)
  • - an elite culture emerges founded on alphabetic
    scripts, market-based economies, and private
    property.

17
Mediterranean Worlds and Slavery
  • Chattel Slavery - turning humans into objects of
    commerce
  • Often 1/5 of the cities residents
  • Came from areas peripheral to the cities
  • Celts, Germans, Gauls, Scythians
  • A divide emerges among the civilized and the
    barbarians

18
Mediterranean Worlds
19
New ideas in the Mediterranean World
  • Decentralization led to more experimentation
  • Realistic Art
  • - a naturalistic view of humans and their place
    in the universe
  • - sharp break from moral codes of older SW Asian
    societies

20
New ideas in the Mediterranean World
  • Naturalistic Science
  • Greek Philosophy (Love of Wisdom)
  • - looking to nature itself, not the role of gods
    to explain the world
  • Democritus and the atoma
  • Pythagoras and the Pythagorean Theorem

21
New ideas in the Mediterranean World
  • Searching for Order (cycles of war, economic
    crises)
  • - Socrates (469-399 BCE) stressed honor and
    integrity over wealth and power (like Confucius
    and Buddha)
  • - Plato (427-347 BCE) argued that cities should
    be ruled by philosopher kings (The Republic)
  • - Aristotle (384-322 BCE) believed in collecting
    evidence to achieve a better understanding of
    general patterns (The Politics)
  • - his most famous student was Alexander

22
Conclusion
  • Around the world, more and more distinct cultures
    emerging defined by their own shared faiths,
    texts, teachers, and prophets.
  • These cultural regions and the ideas that emerge
    there will be very enduring
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